Current issue: 53(4)
The aim of the investigation was to study natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in drained peatlands and frost injuries in seedlings, and to compare microclimates of the regeneration areas. The experiments included peatlands in Satakunta in Western Finland. Restocking of the areas with seedlings and their survival was followed in 1935-40 at sample plots that were mainly 1 are large.
Susceptibility to freezing was shown to be dependent on the stage of development of the shoots. Shoots that have just begun to grow contain little water, and withstand better freezing temperatures than shoots in later stages of growth. Damages to the seedlings were observed when the temperatures decreased to -2.8–-4.3 °C. The most severe damage to a seedling was caused by the death of the leading shoot by spring frost.
Norway spruce regenerates easily on moist peatlands, but peatlands with dry surface tend to have little or no seedlings. The species regenerated better in marshy sites than correspondingly fertile mineral soil sites. However, it needs shelter to avoid frost damage. On clear cut spruce swamp the undergrowth spruce seedlings that were left in the site got severe frost damage. If the site had birch (Betula sp.) coppice or undergrowth, spruce seedlings survived in their shelter depending on the height and density of the birch trees. To be effective, the protective forest should have relatively even crown cover. Young spruce seedlings could grow well even under relatively dense birch stand.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
The article aims to give a proposal on how to organize a protection forest system to protect the pine timber line in the northernmost Finland. In this first part of the six-article series is described the range and biology of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the timber line area, and human actions influencing the species in the area. The southward shift of Scots pine timber line cannot be explained by change of climate. The main factors are too intensive fellings, reindeer husbandry and forest fires. The poor reproduction of pine in Lapland makes it vulnerable to disturbances. The trees produce viable seeds in average only every 100 years. Thus, effective measures are needed to protect the existing pine forests in the area.
The article is divided in six parts. A German summary is in a separate PDF.
It is possible to show that many of the after-effects resulting from the disappearance of forest cover were well known already in ancient times. The invigorating effect of moving around freely in the forest and its artistic creative ability were also recognized as well as the healing effect of coniferous forest on people suffering from consumption. Hunting and the use of forests for cattle grazing is also an extremely old practice. The so-called by-products of the forest such as tree bark and leaves, as well as berries and fruits, have played an important role in the history of mankind from the very earliest beginnings.
The PDF includes a summary in English.