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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'survival'.

Category: Research article

article id 5656, category Research article
Lars-Göran Stener, Johan Westin. (2017). Early growth and phenology of hybrid aspen and poplar in clonal field tests in Scandinavia. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 5656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.5656
Highlights: Growth and survival was in general higher for hybrid aspen than for poplar; The poor performance of poplar was likely due to poor climatic adaptation or to high soil acidity; The genetic results indicate good possibilities for effective clonal selection; The results support current recommendations for utilization of selected hybrid aspen and poplar regeneration material in Sweden.

Results on early survival, growth and shoot phenology of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) and poplar clones (P. trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray, P. balsamifera L., P. maximowiczii A. Henry and their hybrids) in 13 Scandinavian field trials are presented. The trials were established on forest land (7 sites) or former agricultural land (6 sites) within the latitude range of 56° to 65° N and were assessed 3–4 years after establishment. The main aim was to evaluate phenotypic and genetic differences related to early survival, growth and phenology for hybrid aspen and poplar for different site types and latitudes. Growth and survival was generally higher for hybrid aspen than poplar at all sites. The poor performance of poplar compared to hybrid aspen is likely due to climatic maladaptation or high soil acidity. The early growth performance of the species need to be confirmed at a higher age. The genetic variation and genetic control for growth, phenology and survival was in general intermediate to large indicating good possibilities for effective clonal selection. The genetic site x site correlations (rGE) for growth were for hybrid aspen mostly strong, indicating a weak genotype by environment interaction, while rGE were inconsistent for poplars.The result suggests that southern Sweden can be treated as a single test and utilization zone and in northern Sweden the region along the coast may be another zone. It is too early to make any corresponding conclusions for poplar. In addition, the result backs up the current recommendations for utilization of selected hybrid aspen and poplar regeneration material in Sweden.

  • Stener, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Ekebo 2250, 268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars-goran.stener@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Westin, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Box 3, 918 21 Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: johan.westin@skogforsk.se
article id 1300, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen, Risto Rikala. (2015). Post-planting effects of early-season short-day treatment and summer planting on Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 1300. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1300
Highlights: Summer planting and short-day treatment advanced the bud burst and increased the height of Norway spruce seedlings after planting, compared to autumn and spring planted or untreated seedlings.
Effects of short-day (SD) treatment on bud burst, growth and survival of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) container seedlings after summer planting were studied in an experiment established in Suonenjoki, Central Finland. One-year-old seedlings were SD-treated for three weeks starting on 18 June, 24 June and 8 July 2004 and then planted on 22 July, 5 August, 6 September 2004 and, as a normal spring planting, on 10 May, 2005. Untreated control seedlings were also planted on these dates. Second flush on the planting year and bud burst the following spring was monitored in planted seedlings, whereas seedling height and survival were determined at the end of growing seasons 2004–2006. We observed a non-significant risk of a second flush if seedlings were SD-treated on 18 June. Also, SD-treated seedlings planted in July or August showed advanced bud burst and increased height the following growing season without significant effects on survival, compared to autumn and spring planted seedlings. Planting in July or early August was associated with a significant increase in the incidence of multiple leaders in later years. Based on our results, to begin a three-week SD treatment in late June or early July and then plant seedlings in late July or early August could be a good practice.
  • Luoranen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources and bioproduction, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@luke.fi (email)
  • Rikala, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: rikala@dnainternet.fi
article id 107, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen, Risto Rikala, Heikki Smolander. (2011). Machine planting of Norway spruce by Bracke and Ecoplanter: an evaluation of soil preparation, planting method and seedling performance. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 107. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.107
We evaluated the effects of planting date and planting machine (Bracke: three machines, 69 regeneration areas in three years; Ecoplanter: six areas, two years) on the quality and field performance one and three years after planting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in central Finland. Both machine types planted on average 1800 seedlings per hectare, and after three years approximately 1600 (Bracke) and 1200 (Ecoplanter) were still alive. This study suggests that planting with a Bracke machine can achieve better regeneration rates than those observed in privately-owned Finnish forests. We characterized the quality of mounding and planting with the Bracke machine as excellent and that of the Ecoplanter as good. The soil preparation method of the Ecoplanter produced humus-rich mounds where seedlings were susceptible to pine weevils and consequently suffered higher mortality. Different machines were used in different regional areas and each machine was operated by different driver/s which may have influenced the results. No negative effects of planting date were observed. Seedling growth decreased if they were tall in relation to their root plug volume, grown too densely in the nursery, and if stored in the field for several months prior to planting. We conclude that mechanized planting is successful when the soil preparation method produces mounds covered by purely mineral soil. Planting from May to the end of September is suitable for seedlings intended for use during this period.
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi (email)
  • Rikala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 120, category Research article
Antti J. Lukkarinen, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Teijo Nikkanen, Heli Peltola. (2010). Survival, height growth and damages of Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) larch provenances in field trials located in southern and northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 120. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.120
The aim of this study was to analyse differences in the survival and height growth of, as well as damages to Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) larch provenances over four growing seasons in field trials established in 2006 in southern (Punkaharju) and northern Finland (Kivalo). In this context, the study also investigated if the geographical and climatic conditions of the origin of the provenance could explain the differences between the provenances. The study material consisted of 20 Russian Siberian and Dahurian larch provenances and five seed sources from Finland (4) and Russia (1) as comparison lots. It was found that the Finnish seed sources of Siberian larch survived well in both the Kivalo and Punkaharju trials. Five northern latitude Russian provenances, of which one was Dahurian and the remainder were Siberian larches, had the highest survival in Kivalo. However, the differences observed in survival between provenances were only significant (p < 0.05) in Kivalo. Regardless of the trial, the differences, however, in height growth were significant and large between provenances. The southern Dahurian larches had a superior height growth in Punkaharju. The northern Dahurian larch provenance from Magadan (59°50′N, 150°40′E) had the largest height growth in Kivalo, among some northern Siberian larches. Damages were diverse, though Dahurian larches had less mammal damage than the Siberian larches. In general, the differences between provenances were not significant. Latitude and altitude best explained the differences between provenances, but also mean temperature, temperature sum and continentality index affected them (p < 0.05).
  • Lukkarinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.lukkarinen@pp.inet.fi (email)
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nikkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 342, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen, Juha Lappi, Gang Zhang, Heikki Smolander. (2006). Field performance of hybrid aspen clones planted in summer. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 342. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.342
We investigated the possibility to plant clonal hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) during the summer of propagation when the plants are 20–25 cm tall and only a few months old. In four experiments carried out in years 1998–2001, survival of summer-planted hybrid aspens was at least as high as that of hybrid aspen planted in autumn and spring. In all experiments, compared to planting in September or the following May, height growth was greater with planting in July and early August. Root egress of hybrid aspens planted in July and August was also greater than that of aspens planted in autumn or the following spring. Summer planting was thus possible both with plants produced by micropropagation and with those produced from root cuttings.
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi (email)
  • Lappi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zhang, College of Horticulture, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, Hebei, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 342, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen, Juha Lappi, Gang Zhang, Heikki Smolander. (2006). Field performance of hybrid aspen clones planted in summer. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 342. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.342
We investigated the possibility to plant clonal hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) during the summer of propagation when the plants are 20–25 cm tall and only a few months old. In four experiments carried out in years 1998–2001, survival of summer-planted hybrid aspens was at least as high as that of hybrid aspen planted in autumn and spring. In all experiments, compared to planting in September or the following May, height growth was greater with planting in July and early August. Root egress of hybrid aspens planted in July and August was also greater than that of aspens planted in autumn or the following spring. Summer planting was thus possible both with plants produced by micropropagation and with those produced from root cuttings.
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi (email)
  • Lappi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zhang, College of Horticulture, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, Hebei, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 361, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen, Risto Rikala, Kyösti Konttinen, Heikki Smolander. (2005). Extending the planting period of dormant and growing Norway spruce container seedlings to early summer. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 361. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.361
In order to make mechanized planting economically viable, the present spring planting period for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in Scandinavia needs to be extended. To evaluate the possibilities to extend the planting period, six field experiments were established in four years during which frozen-stored, dormant seedlings and actively growing seedlings targeted for spring planting were planted regularly from mid-May to mid-July or the end of August. The survival of actively growing seedlings did not differ between planting dates from mid-May to mid-July. For dormant seedlings, however, the later in summer they were planted the lower was the survival. Oversized seedlings grown in the nursery in containers of too small volume, which were usually planted after mid-June, resulted in reduced growth of seedlings after planting. Root egress (growth of roots from root plugs into the surrounding soil) was most rapid in July and early August and slowest in May and September. Results showed that with dormant seedlings the planting period can be extended from May to mid-June without increasing mortality or reducing growth. The planting period for seedlings stored outdoors and those seedlings that were already growing in June for the purpose of spring plantings can be extended even longer, but it must be kept in mind that the risk of mechanical damage and reduced growth increase due to brittleness of the shoot and increased height. Further research is needed to evaluate the risks in practical scale plantings and with seedlings that are specially targeted for planting after mid-June.
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi (email)
  • Rikala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Konttinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 690, category Research article
Bengt Persson. (1998). Will climate change affect the optimal choice of Pinus sylvestris provenances? Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 2 article id 690. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.690
Provenance experiments with Pinus sylvestris (L.) were evaluated in Sweden north of latitude 60°N. Survival and yield were determined as functions of temperature sum of the site and latitudinal origin of the provenance. Altitudinal origin was of negligible importance. The effects of latitudinal transfer were influenced by temperature sum at the growing site. At the harshest situated sites southward transfer longer than 3° was optimal for survival and yield, whereas transfer effects in a mild climate were weak. Climatic warming would reduce demands of hardiness. However, moderate differences in productivity are expected between formerly optimal seed sources and the ones adapted to changed climatic conditions. Since mortality usually was low in plantations older than 20 years or higher than 2 m, established stands are expected to be robust against adverse effects of climate change.
  • Persson, Högskolan Dalarna, S-781 88 Borlänge, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: bpn@du.se (email)

Category: Research note

article id 1716, category Research note
Nelson Thiffault, Alain Paquette, Christian Messier. (2017). Early silvicultural guidelines for intensive management of hybrid larch plantations on fertile sub-boreal sites. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 1716. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1716
Highlights: Satisfactory growth can be obtained using a wide range of site preparation intensities; There is a net advantage of performing two motor-manual release treatments over a single release; A second release treatment cannot be replaced by more intensive site preparation; Planting depth had no influence on planted seedling growth after 6 years.

Use of fast-growing tree plantations on dedicated areas is proposed as a means of reconciling fibre production with conservation objectives. Success of this approach however requires fine-tuning silvicultural scenarios so that survival and growth are optimized while management and environmental costs are minimized. This is particularly challenging for hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz), a shade-intolerant species planted on fertile sites in Quebec (Canada) where legislation prevents the use of chemical herbicides. In this context, multiple motor-manual release treatments are often required, with high impacts on costs and social issues related to the scarcity of a qualified workforce. We established a split-split-plot design on a recently harvested site to assess the main and interaction effects of mechanical site preparation (MSP) intensity (five modalities of trenching or mounding), motor-manual release scenario (one or two treatments) and planting depth (0–3 cm or 3–10 cm) on hybrid larch seedling growth and survival six years after planting. Mechanical site preparation intensity and planting depth did not influence seedling growth after 6 years. The lack of significant interaction between MSP and release scenarios indicates that these operations should be planned independently. A more intensive MSP treatment cannot replace a second motor-manual release on fertile sites, as proposed to reduce costs. Our results also show the significant advantage of performing two motor-manual release treatments two years apart (the first one early in the scenario), over performing a single treatment. Our study provides silvicultural guidelines for the establishment of high-yield exotic larch plantations.

  • Thiffault, Direction de la recherche forestière, Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec, 2700 rue Einstein, Québec, QC, Canada G1P 3W8; Centre d’étude de la forêt, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2017-6890 E-mail: nelson.thiffault@mffp.gouv.qc.ca (email)
  • Paquette, Centre d’étude de la forêt, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8; Université du Québec à Montréal, Département des sciences biologiques, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1048-9674 E-mail: alain.paquette@gmail.com
  • Messier, Centre d’étude de la forêt, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8; Université du Québec à Montréal, Département des sciences biologiques, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8; Institut des Sciences de la Forêt tempérée (ISFORT), 58 rue Principale, Ripon, QC, Canada JOV 1V0 E-mail nelson.thiff ORCID ID:E-mail: christian.messier@uqo.ca
article id 421, category Research note
Pekka Helenius, Jaana Luoranen, Risto Rikala. (2004). Effect of thawing duration and temperature on field performance of frozen-stored Norway spruce container seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 3 article id 421. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.421
Increasing use of frozen storage in nurseries at northern latitudes calls for thawing methods that are safe, economical and easy to apply on a large scale. The easiest and most economical method would be to thaw seedlings in the same boxes they were stored in. However, doing this safely requires more knowledge about how long and at what temperatures seedlings should or can be kept in the boxes without reducing field performance. In this study, 1-yr-old frozen-stored Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) container seedlings were thawed for 4, 8 or 16 days at 4 or 12 °C in cardboard boxes before planting on a reforestation site and on experimental field in mid-June. Some seedlings were also planted on these locations after thawing for only 7 hours at 12 °C in order to separate frozen root plugs. We found some evidence that planting seedlings after short thawing periods (7 hours at 12 °C and 4 days at 4 °C), under which conditions the root plugs remain completely or partly frozen, has a negative effect on field performance of Norway spruce seedlings. Thawing over a 4-8 day period in cardboard boxes at ca. 12 °C appears to ensure complete thawing of the root plugs and unaffected field performance, but is short enough to prevent the growth of mould.
  • Helenius, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.helenius@metla.fi (email)
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Discussion article

article id 536, category Discussion article
Ian Cowan. (2002). Fit, fitter, fittest; where does optimisation fit in? Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 536. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.536
  • Cowan, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail: iancowan@bigpond.com.au (email)

Category: Article

article id 5552, category Article
Liisa Saarenmaa, Timo Leppälä. (1995). Fill-in seedlings in constituting the stocking of Scots pine stands in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 5552. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9203

Fill planting is a common procedure following reforestation in Finland. In 1990, 13% of the total of seedlings planted was used for fill planting. The objective of this study is (i) to survey the survival of fill-in seedlings and (ii) to estimate the spatial pattern of stands to evaluate the importance of fill-in seedlings in constituting the stocking of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Central and Northern Finland.

A survey of 63 artificially regenerated Scots pine stands was conducted in 1990. Stand densities varied from 950 to 3,925 seedlings/ha. The mean densities of originally planted, fill planted and naturally regenerated seedlings were 863, 639 and 791/ha, respectively. The survival of originally planted seedlings was 36% and that of fill-in seedlings 48%. Death rate of fill-in seedlings of Scots pine increased with longer times between original and fill planting. The survival rate of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings was correlated with temperature sum. Height of the fill-in seedlings was less than that of the originally planted ones. Most stands had an even spatial distribution with the exception of sparsely populated stands, which were somewhat clustered. This indicates that dying of seedlings is not randomly spread. Because of poor survival, fill planting seems to be a risky business in most cases.

  • Saarenmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5445, category Article
Taneli Kolström. (1991). Kuusen kylvö- ja istutuskoe viljavilla kivennäismailla Pohjois-Karjalassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5445. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15599
English title: Results from the sowing and planting experiment of Norway spruce (Picea abies) on fertile sites in North Karelia, Finland.

Different methods of sowing and planting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were compared on fertile sites in North Karelia (62°20’N, 29°35’E, 85–120 m a.s.l.). The planting material were 4-year-old bare-rooted transplants, 2-year-old bare-rooted seedlings, and 2-year-old containerized seedlings raised in plastic greenhouse. The sowing methods were band sowing and shelter sowing. Ground vegetation was controlled during the first growing season mechanically or chemically, or the control was omitted totally.

Planting of spruce gave better results than sowing. After eight growing seasons there were sowed seedlings left in 30% of the sowing pots. The average height of them was 35 cm. Seedling survival was best with large bare-rooted transplants (91%). Survival of containerized seedlings was 79% and of small bare-rooted transplants 71%. The average height of large bare-rooted transplants was 131 cm, of containerized seedlings 86 cm and small bare-rooted seedlings 68 cm.

Sowing is not an advisable method for regeneration of spruce due to the small survival rate and slow initial development when ground vegetation is controlled only once. Also 2-year-old seedlings gave a satisfactory result in regeneration. Seedlings raised in greenhouse were more sensitive to frost damage than seedlings grown on open ground.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kolström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4813, category Article
Bo Långström. (1970). Pakkaustapojen vaikutuksesta talvivarastoitujen männyn taimien istutukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4813. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14602
English title: The effect of packing methods on the field survival and growth of winter-stored plants of Scots pine.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of four packing methods on the field survival and growth of seedlings and transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stored over the winter in a cold-storage cellar. The following sorts of plants were used: one-year-old seedlings (1+0) grown in a plastic greenhouse, two-year-old (2+0) open grown seedlings and three-year-old open grown transplants. These plants were stored in open wooden boxes, in sealed plastic bags, in boxes with wet peat on the bottom and in plastic-laminated paper bags.

The control plants were of the same types and were kept in a nursery over the winter. The storage was carried out in a mantle-chilled cold-storage from October 1966 to May 1967. The temperature in the cold-storage was kept around -2 °C and the relative humidity of the air over 90%. The water content of a randomly selected sample plants showed no increase in water deficit after the storing. Part of the seedlings were transplanted in the nursery and the rest were planted in a clear-cut area. A number of the latter plants were treated with an insecticide (1% Intaktol, which contains DDT, Lindane and dieldrin) before planting. All the experiments were examined after one growing season and the planting experiments the next fall.

The transplants (2+1) in the nursery, and in the forest had survived and grown better than the seedlings. In the nursery the 1+0 seedlings survived and grew better than the 2+0 seedlings. There was no difference in mortality between the seedlings. After the first growing season occasional significant differences between the packing methods were observed, but they disappeared during the second growing season. Thus, all packing methods proved to be as successful as the control method without winter storage.

Transplants were more often attacked by the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) than the smaller seedlings. The damage, however, was considerably greater on the seedlings because of their lower resistance. No significant differences in the Hylobius-attack between the packing methods could be observed. The Intaktol-treated plants were as often attacked as the untreated ones, but the damage was slighter on the treated ones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Långström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4812, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Aarno Koukkula, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1970). Pakkauksen, varastoimisen ja valeistutuksen vaikutus männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4812. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14601
English title: The effect of packing, storing and heeling-in on the field survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings.

The aim of the present study was to establish, by means of planting experiments, the influence of different packing, heeling-in and watering as well as the length of the storage period on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, in all 2,090 seedlings, that had been lifted from the nursery bed in spring. The plants were packed in bundles and into plastic sacks in 1965 (6 storage methods) and in 1966 (3 storage methods). Control seedlings were planted without storing at the time when storage of the test material begun. The plantations were followed 3–4 years.

Storage for two weeks in the different ways and planting without storage gave similar results when seedling survival was compared. Storage in plastic sack proved to be as good as storage in bundles in a cellar, and healing-in in moist soil or in a drain were both usable methods. Watering the seedlings did not improve the results, which indicates that the storage caused no serious lack of water.

After four growing seasons an average of 19,6% of the seedlings of the 1965 experiment died, the bulk of them by the end of the first growing season. Despite control treatment, Hylobious abietis caused serious damages. In the plantations of the year 1966 mortality of the seedlings was under 5% by the end of third growing season. During the first two growing seasons after planting differences in growth of the seedlings stored in different ways could be observed in the plantations of the year 1965, but the differences levelled out later. In the plantations established in 1966 no differences in growth occurred.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koukkula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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