Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'taimet'.

Category: Article

article id 7160, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1965). Studies on the ectendotrophic mycorrhiza of Scots pine in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 79 no. 2 article id 7160. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7160

The differences between different types of mycorrhiza; endomycorrhiza, ectomycorrhiza and ectendomycorrhiza, and the use of the terms have been variable in the earlier research. Studied of mycorrhiza in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings may suggest that the conditions affect which kind of mycorrhiza develops in the seedlings. This study is aimed mainly at finding out whether the difference of ectotrophic and ectendotrophic mycorrhizae depends on fungal symbionts or envirionmental conditions. Furthermore, the occurrence of ectendotrophic mycorrhiza in Finland under various conditions was studied, and experiments on the physiology and ecology of the mycorrhiza and the fungal partner were conducted.

The ectendotrophic mycorrhiza as described in this paper has proved to be very common on Scots pine in Finnish nurseries, but it was not found in Norway spruce seedlings. The results did not support the hypothesis presented in some earlier studies that ectendotrophic mycorrhiza is more parasitic than the other mycorrhizal fungi. The nursery survey showed that no correlation existed between the size and vigour of the seedlings and the presence of ectendotrophic mycorrhiza. Furthermore, greenhouse-grown seedlings with and without the fungus grew equally well. The type of mycorrhiza was, however, almost exclusively confined to young (1–3-years-old) seedlings and to nursery soils. The experiments indicates also that ectendomycorrhizal fungus has a very wide ecological amplitude in regard to light intensity, soil fertility, acidity, and humus content. It has, however, a weak competitive ability in natural forest soils against the indigenous fungal population. When the seedlings were transplanted from the nursery to forest soil, their mycorrhizal population was largely changed.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7135, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1961). Kokeellisia tutkimuksia taimien syntymisestä ja ensi kehityksestä kuusikoissa ja männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 1 article id 7135. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7135
English title: Experimental studies on the emergence and development of tree seedlings in spruce and pine stands.

This paper aims at studying regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing and natural regeneration of birch (Betula sp.) in Western Finland.

Germination of spruce and pine seeds may be prevented by dryness and temperatures below the optimum for germination. In natural conditions, when temperature and moisture is insufficient for germination, the type of seedbed generally has en effect on germination result. Trenching of the seeding spots showed that root competition during the early stage of regeneration was not of decissive importance. It seemed to, however, improve the preservation of the seedlings later. It is common that it can take long before the seeds germinate, and during that time the number of viable seeds decrease strongly.

Also, the seedling stock quickly began to decrease in number after germination, especially during the first growing season and the following winter. The decrease was larger in intact vegetation than on mineral soil or in the humus layer. The emerging seedlings were destroyed by drought very easily, but their tolerance to drought improved later on.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7472, category Article
Jaakko Lehto. (1956). Tutkimuksia männyn luontaisesta uudistumisesta Etelä-Suomen kangasmailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 2 article id 7472. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7472
English title: Studies on the natural regeneration of Scots pine on the upland soils of Southern Finland.

Natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by leaving a seed tree stand on a cutting area has long been the most popular regeneration method in Finland. Results of the method have, however, been unsatisfactory. The aim of the investigation was to study the basic problems of natural regeneration of Scots pine. Regeneration success was studied in 144 sample plots in pine stands at different stages of regeneration in Southern Finland. In addition, the data included information of 42 previously investigated areas.

According to the results, Scots pine can be successfully regenerated naturally on sandy and gravelly soils in Southern Finland. Preparing the ground surface by breaking or burning considerably facilitates the establishment of a seedling stand. The number of seedlings was considerably lower in the ground vegetation than in the mineral soil. Considering growth of the seedlings, root competition of the mother trees was heavy in dense stands, but insignificant in thin stands. The stand density did not affect germination of the seeds. In regeneration areas proper, where the density of mother trees usually is under 50 per hectare, there was in average 4,700 seedlings per hectare in Calluna type forests and 5,200 in Vaccinium type forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7440, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1954). Mäntysiemenpuiden ja -puustojen juurisuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 28 article id 7440. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7440
English title: Root systems of Scots pine seed trees and stands.

Root systems of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands of seed trees on a Vaccinium sites in Southern Finland were studied by taking soil samples around the seed trees. The results show that root system of an old Scots pine spreads relatively evenly around the tree up to at least 10 meters from the stem. The densest part of the root system is near the stem, which part is often acentric. This is probably due to root competition in the early stages of growth of the tree.

Root systems of the seed trees affect stocking of the site with seedlings and the growth of the seedlings. The root competition can cause, for instance, uneven grouping of the seedlings. It seems that the largest trees of a stand have the most even root system. It is therefore recommended to choose the strongest trees of the stand as seed trees, to ensure even distribution of seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7370, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1942). Männyn taimien juurien suhtautumisesta emäpuun juuriin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 17 article id 7370. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7370
English title: Roots of a seedling in relation to roots of the mother tree.

The study is based on observations in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on a dry upland forest site in Karhumäki, where a 10-15-year old seedling stand grew under a hold-overs of larger trees that had been left in the site in a previous felling. The root systems of 80-120 cm tall seedlings growing around single mother trees were unearthed. Root maps were drawn of the root systems of 120 seedlings.

No seedlings grew around old, large hold-overs. It seems that seedlings could not compete with their root system. If the hold-overs were stunted in their growth, seedlings grew also under the canopy of the mother tree. 90% of the seedlings had a tap root. Rest of the roots grew horisontally in the topsoil. Around a vigorous mother tree, the seedlings grew their roots away from the mother tree. Hold-overs that had belonged originally to the lower canopy layer of the old forest did not have similar effect on the root orientation of the seedlings. Their roots had been previously affected by trees of higher canopy layer, later removed in the felling.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7231, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1929). Huomioita männyn ja kuusen pituuskehityksen "vuotuisesta" ja vuorokautisesta jaksosta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 18 article id 7231. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7231
English title: Observations on annual and daily cycles in the height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce.

The height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were observed in Korkeakoski and Evo in Southern Finland in 1925-1928. The growth was slow in the beginning of the growing season, increased after that to decrease again towards the end of the growing season. The height growth begun in May, reached the fastest growth rates in June, and ended in June-July. According to the earlier studies, the length of the height growth of Scots pine is dependent on the temperature of the previous summer. This study showed that warm temperatures of the same summer promote height growth, and low temperatures slow it down. Also the daily growth fluctuates, being highest during the afternoon and slowest during the early morning. The daily growth is dependent on temperature.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) begin the height growth in average 9 days later than Scots pine. Compared to pine, the speed of growth in spruce decreases slower towards the late summer.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15561
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5406, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1990). Leikattu paakkutaimi. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5406. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15558
English title: The cut-block method for seedling production: birth of an idea.

The author first introduced the cut-block seedling production method to Finland in 1969. The aim is to raise seedlings whose lateral roots do not become deformed as a result of a restricting container or other external pressure. The seedlings are raised in a large, fairly compact substrate block where the roots can freely develop in a normal fashion. The blocks are then cut up into individual cubes, each containing a seedling. The precise positioning of the sowing point permits mechanization of the work.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Huuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5123, category Article
Heljä-Sisko Katainen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Happaman veden vaikutus männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5123. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15064
English title: Effect of foliar application of dilute sulphuric acid on Scots pine seedlings.

Needle damages, transpiration, photosynthesis and needle and stem height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings treated with dilute sulphuric acid were studied. The acidity of the solution was pH 3. Application of a dilute solution of sulphuric acid equivalent to the normal amount of precipitation occurring during the growing season damaged the surface of two-year-old needles but not that of the current-year needles. A reduction in the photosynthetic rate of 10–30% was observed compared with the untreated seedlings. Transpiration of the seedlings was not affected by the treatment. Needle growth and stem height growth of the seedlings growing on a substrate representing poor sandy soil were reduced. Increased needle growth and stem height growth were characteristic for the seedlings growing on substrate representing fertile moraine.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Katainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5022, category Article
Jukka Selander, Paavo Kalo. (1979). Männyn taimen pihkan monoterpeenien vaikutuksista tuhonkestävyyteen tukkimiehentäitä, Hylobius abietis L. ( Coleoptera, Curculionidae) vastaan. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5022. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14876
English title: Evaluation of resistance of Scots pine seedlings against the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. in relation to their monoterpene composition.

The development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and damage caused by Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) were studied during a three-year period. Olfactory responses of H. abietis was studied in laboratory with several volatile oils isolated from different kinds of P. sylvestris seedlings. Resistance of seedlings against H. Abietis was evaluated in terms of their monoterpene composition. Three aspects of resistance (preference, antibiosis and tolerance) were evaluated separately. Seedling chemotype was found to be associated with these aspects of host resistance on only minor scale. Discussion was attached to a further search for host resistance arising from other properties and constituents of oleoresin. Height growth of the seedlings recovering from weevil damage was 86–91% compared to healthy seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4954, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Förrådsgödsling av rotande tallplantor med olika kvävegödselmedel. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4954. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14800
English title: Fertilization of Scots pine seedlings with different nitrogen fertilizer.

The paper describes an attempt to determine whether ammonium, nitrate and urea nitrogen are bound in peat used as a filling material in containerized seedling production, what is the effect of the nutrients on certain chemical properties in the peat, and what is the effect of the nitrogen fertilizers on the primary growth of containerized (paper-pot VH 608) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in connection with planting out. The seedlings were fertilized with ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate and urea.

The results show that none of the fertilizers used were bound in the peat. The nitrogen content in the above ground part of the seedlings increased clearly. Fertilization with ammonium sulphate resulted in the greatest increment and this increase appears to be permanent. The wintering process was somewhat delayed by the fertilization. The seedling mortality rate for all the treatments has been quite appreciable. However, fertilization particularly with ammonium sulphate on the poorer of the two sites studied has had a positive effect on seedling survival. Furthermore, it appears that fertilizer treatments have decreased growth after planting, but in the case of ammonium sulphate this decrease has changed into a clear growth increment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4876, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi, Juhani Sarasto. (1973). Kokemuksia rauduksen istutuksesta ojitetuille soille. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4876. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14706
English title: Betula verrucosa plantations on peat.

The aim of the present study was to assess whether two-year old Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (now Betula pendula Roth.) transplants can be used in afforestation of drained peatlands and what factors affect the development of the young trees. The seedlings were planted in 1967. The site was repair planted next spring due to mortality caused by a undefined fungal disease, and the plantations were fertilized with NPK fertilizer (soil application. The seedlings were measured twice a year until the autumn 1970.

Only 28% of the original transplants, and 73.4% of the repair plantations were alive in 1970. In some cases, fertilization improved the results, while in others it was detrimental to the trees or had no effect on survival. According to peat analysis, the poor survival and development of the plants could be due to the too high ratios of N/Ca and N/P. Stunted or dead trees displayed often necrosis caused by Godronia multispora. According to the experiences, Betula verrucosa plantations are inferior to those obtained with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In addition, the results indicate that in old draining areas calcium and phosphorus are often too low in comparison to nitrogen.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4859, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1972). Istutuskuoppaan annetun kuparihienofosfaatin vaikutus männyn ja kuusen taimien elossapysymiseen ja pituuskasvuun eräällä kulotetulla ja auratulla uudistusalalla Koillis-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4859. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14662
English title: Effect of fine-grounded copper rock phosphate placed in the planting hole on the survival and height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce in a burnt and furrowed reforestation are in northeast Finland.

The paper describes the results of a fertilization experiment, in which transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were fertilized with various doses of fine-ground copper rock phosphate (33% P2O5, 4% Cu) placed direct in the planting hole. The experiment was made in northeast Finland on a clear-cut, burnt-over and furrowed moraine heath. The fertilization increased especially the survival and condition of the Scots pines and increased to some extent also the height growth of the plants. The spruce survived better than the pines.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4853, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen, Pentti K. Räsänen, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1971). Neulasten väri myöhemmän kasvun ja lannoitusvaikutuksen ilmaisijana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4853. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14655
English title: The use of needle colour in predicting growth and response to fertilization.
Original keywords: mänty; kuusi; taimet; lannoitus; neulaset; kasvu

About 4,000 seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were planted in 1965 both on a clear-cut and sheltered area in Central Finland. In the autumn of 1966 needle colour was determined by using Muncell Color Charts which allowed a quantitative measurement of three colour dimensions (hue, value, and chroma). Terminal shoot growth was recorded for two years after colour measurements. In both species, fertilization (NPK in the spring of the year of colour measurement) as well as other site factors caused differences in all three dimensions of needle colour. A regression of shoot growth on needle colour was found in both species. In most cases colour value (darkness) and, in spruce, also chroma, predicted the subsequent growth almost as well as did these two-colour variables together.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4849, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Tapani Hänninen. (1971). Eräiden talvivarastointimenetelmien vaikutuksesta männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4849. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14651
English title: The effect of some over-winter storage methods on different Scots pine nursery stock.

Seedlings of three different Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) nursery stock, 1+0 ,1+1, and 2+0, were kept over the winter, after they had been packed in polythene bags, in three different ways: 1) In a refrigerated storage room, 2) in a wooden crate in the ground, 3) submerged in a lake. The seedling to which they were to be compared with were left over the winter in a nursery bed. The 1,800 seedlings were planted out in the spring 1966 in 15 random blocks. Their development was scrutinized during the three subsequent falls.

The seedlings which had been stored in the lake all died. The seedlings which had been stored along the 1st and 2nd method, managed almost as well as the ones which had been kept over the winter in the nursery bed, except for those of 1+0 stock.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4847, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Matti Hiltunen. (1971). Männyn erilaisten taimierien istutuskelpoisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4847. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14649
English title: The effect of differences in Scots pine nursery stock on the field survival and growth.

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were stored for five days in an ordinary wood shed. One half of the seedlings were planted out directly, and another half after soaking the roots of the seedlings for 3–6 hours in water to compensate the possible water deficit developed. According to the results of the experiment, the effect of watering was extremely small. The difference observed, which was in favour of the trees that had been watered during storage, was discernible only in the needle length and in the number of lateral buds; in mortality or in the growth of the seedlings no difference could be observed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hiltunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4838, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1971). Metsityslannoituksessa käytetyn lannoitemäärän ja levitystavan merkitys istutustaimiston alkukehitykselle ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4838. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14640
English title: The quantity of fertilizer and application methods used in afforestation of open bogs.

The paper describes the results obtained from an experiment of fertilization of drained treeless peatlands in connection of planting in three sites in Central Finland. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings 2+0 was used. The fertilizer (Y-fertilizer for peat soils, 14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) was applied in rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/transplant. The fertilizer was strewn either around the plant within a circular patch of 20 cm in diameter, in a ring with a radius of 10 cm and in a ring with a radius of 20 cm. The seedlings were measured two and five years after planting.

The greater the quantity of fertilizer applied and the closer it was applied to the plant the higher was the mortality of transplants. Fertilization increased the mortality during the first two growing seasons after application. Later, however, the mortality decreased to a similar level irrespective the way the fertilizer was applied. In the beginning of the second growing season the fertilized plants showed considerably better height growth than the control plants. The smallest quantity of fertilizer applied produced almost full increase in growth. The pattern of application of the fertilizer had little effect on the growth.

It was concluded that a use of small amounts of fertilizer can be recommended in connection with planting and that it should not be applied very near the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4832, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Pentti K. Räsänen. (1971). Siementen peittämisen ja kylvökohdan polkaisun vaikutus männyn ruutukylvön tulokseen. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4832. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14621
English title: The influence of covering and tramping the seeds into the soil on the success of spot sowing of Scots pine.

This paper reports spot sowing experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The seeds were either covered with coarse sand, tramped in the substrate or sowed without any covering, 30 seeds in each treatment in 70 replications. The site was of Vaccinium type with sandy soil. The germination percentage was 81 and 91 on the respective years. The development of seedlings was observed for 3–4 years.

The results indicate that both tramping and covering the seeds to some extent increased the number of seedlings and improved the early development. The highest numbers of seedlings were recorded in the first growing season, after which there was 23 seedlings/100 seeds in the uncovered spots, 27 seedlings in the covered spots and 31 seedlings in the tramped spots in the experiment sowed in 1965.

Mortality of the seedlings was highest between the first and second growing season, and empty spots increased with the time. There was no difference in mortality between the sowing methods, but the number of seedlings after first growing season affected the result. Under favourable conditions four seedlings per spot seemed enough to secure the survival of minimum one seedling per spot during the three first growing seasons. In poor conditions seven seedlings was needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4813, category Article
Bo Långström. (1970). Pakkaustapojen vaikutuksesta talvivarastoitujen männyn taimien istutukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4813. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14602
English title: The effect of packing methods on the field survival and growth of winter-stored plants of Scots pine.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of four packing methods on the field survival and growth of seedlings and transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stored over the winter in a cold-storage cellar. The following sorts of plants were used: one-year-old seedlings (1+0) grown in a plastic greenhouse, two-year-old (2+0) open grown seedlings and three-year-old open grown transplants. These plants were stored in open wooden boxes, in sealed plastic bags, in boxes with wet peat on the bottom and in plastic-laminated paper bags.

The control plants were of the same types and were kept in a nursery over the winter. The storage was carried out in a mantle-chilled cold-storage from October 1966 to May 1967. The temperature in the cold-storage was kept around -2 °C and the relative humidity of the air over 90%. The water content of a randomly selected sample plants showed no increase in water deficit after the storing. Part of the seedlings were transplanted in the nursery and the rest were planted in a clear-cut area. A number of the latter plants were treated with an insecticide (1% Intaktol, which contains DDT, Lindane and dieldrin) before planting. All the experiments were examined after one growing season and the planting experiments the next fall.

The transplants (2+1) in the nursery, and in the forest had survived and grown better than the seedlings. In the nursery the 1+0 seedlings survived and grew better than the 2+0 seedlings. There was no difference in mortality between the seedlings. After the first growing season occasional significant differences between the packing methods were observed, but they disappeared during the second growing season. Thus, all packing methods proved to be as successful as the control method without winter storage.

Transplants were more often attacked by the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) than the smaller seedlings. The damage, however, was considerably greater on the seedlings because of their lower resistance. No significant differences in the Hylobius-attack between the packing methods could be observed. The Intaktol-treated plants were as often attacked as the untreated ones, but the damage was slighter on the treated ones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Långström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4812, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Aarno Koukkula, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1970). Pakkauksen, varastoimisen ja valeistutuksen vaikutus männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4812. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14601
English title: The effect of packing, storing and heeling-in on the field survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings.

The aim of the present study was to establish, by means of planting experiments, the influence of different packing, heeling-in and watering as well as the length of the storage period on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, in all 2,090 seedlings, that had been lifted from the nursery bed in spring. The plants were packed in bundles and into plastic sacks in 1965 (6 storage methods) and in 1966 (3 storage methods). Control seedlings were planted without storing at the time when storage of the test material begun. The plantations were followed 3–4 years.

Storage for two weeks in the different ways and planting without storage gave similar results when seedling survival was compared. Storage in plastic sack proved to be as good as storage in bundles in a cellar, and healing-in in moist soil or in a drain were both usable methods. Watering the seedlings did not improve the results, which indicates that the storage caused no serious lack of water.

After four growing seasons an average of 19,6% of the seedlings of the 1965 experiment died, the bulk of them by the end of the first growing season. Despite control treatment, Hylobious abietis caused serious damages. In the plantations of the year 1966 mortality of the seedlings was under 5% by the end of third growing season. During the first two growing seasons after planting differences in growth of the seedlings stored in different ways could be observed in the plantations of the year 1965, but the differences levelled out later. In the plantations established in 1966 no differences in growth occurred.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koukkula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4812, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Aarno Koukkula, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1970). Pakkauksen, varastoimisen ja valeistutuksen vaikutus männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4812. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14601
English title: The effect of packing, storing and heeling-in on the field survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings.

The aim of the present study was to establish, by means of planting experiments, the influence of different packing, heeling-in and watering as well as the length of the storage period on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, in all 2,090 seedlings, that had been lifted from the nursery bed in spring. The plants were packed in bundles and into plastic sacks in 1965 (6 storage methods) and in 1966 (3 storage methods). Control seedlings were planted without storing at the time when storage of the test material begun. The plantations were followed 3–4 years.

Storage for two weeks in the different ways and planting without storage gave similar results when seedling survival was compared. Storage in plastic sack proved to be as good as storage in bundles in a cellar, and healing-in in moist soil or in a drain were both usable methods. Watering the seedlings did not improve the results, which indicates that the storage caused no serious lack of water.

After four growing seasons an average of 19,6% of the seedlings of the 1965 experiment died, the bulk of them by the end of the first growing season. Despite control treatment, Hylobious abietis caused serious damages. In the plantations of the year 1966 mortality of the seedlings was under 5% by the end of third growing season. During the first two growing seasons after planting differences in growth of the seedlings stored in different ways could be observed in the plantations of the year 1965, but the differences levelled out later. In the plantations established in 1966 no differences in growth occurred.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koukkula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4808, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Antti Oksanen. (1969). Morfologiset, gravimetriset ja fotometriset tunnukset männyn taimien juuristojen kuvaajina. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4808. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14596
English title: Morphological, gravimetric, and photometric characteristics in describing of the root systems of pine transplants.

This project studied the value of various shoot and root-system characteristics as indicators of plantability of transplants. Correlation and regression analysis was used to compare these characteristics. The study material consisted of two-year Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants that had grown in a plastic greenhouse for the first year and then been transplanted in the open. The seedlings had been transplanted in the field without treatment or with the roots cut to a length of 8 cm. A part was transplanted without treatment into plastic pails. A gravimetric and photometric method was used to obtain a description of the surface area of the root systems.

The results show that the photometric value gives a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The greatest advantage offered by the method is the simplicity and rapidity of measurement. The gravimetric, and especially the titrimetric, measurement takes much more time per plant. Photometric measurement affects plantability little, and measured and planted transplants can be followed up in the field. In gravimetric measurements, it was found that fresh and dry weight of the plants were closely correlated.

Mycorrhizal frequency in the root systems gave a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The number of living roots-tips was also rather closely correlated with the surface area of the root system. The other morphological characteristics failed to serve as a satisfactory index for the surface area of root systems. The one closest correlated was the annual leader growth. The second best was stem diameter; the height of the plant, on the contrary, was rather poorly correlated with the other characteristics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Oksanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4803, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Männyn ja kuusen siemenien esikäsittelyn vaikutuksesta itämiseen ja taimien alkukehitykseen kasvihuoneoloissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4803. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14591
English title: The effect of treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce seeds on their germination and the early development of the seedlings.

The aim of this study was to establish the need of treatment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds to be sown in greenhouse. 3 x 100 seeds of each treatment (soaking in water, treatment with Pb3O4, treatment with tiram-containing coating substance) were sown in a glasshouse on a fertilized garden peat, and covered with peat layer of 6 mm thickness. The development of seedlings was followed for 100 days before the final measurement.

Soaking the seeds with water made germination somewhat faster. In spruce the germination percentage increased, but the opposite was observed in pine. No difference could be observed between the results from soaking with acid water from peat soil and lake water. Drying the soaked seeds for a week before sowing had no harmful influence on the germination or the early development of the seedlings. Treatment with Pb3O4 did not affect the germination speed or the seedling percentage of pine or spruce, but increased the germination percentage of spruce. Coating decreased germination and seedling percentages in pine. However, the differences between the treatments were so small that their practical significance is negligible.

Germination of both the species initiated on an average in 8 days, and 16 days after sowing 80% of the seeds had germinated. Seedling mortality was about 10% of the total number of seedlings, the most common reason being damping-off.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4802, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Äkämäpunkkilaji (Nalepella haarlovi var. piceae-abietis Löyttyniemi, Acarina, Eriophyidae) kuusen taimien tuholaisena taimitarhoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4802. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14590
English title: An Eriophyidae species damaging Norway spruce seedlings in nurseries in Finland.

In Finland the mite Nalepella is found in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in forests practically in every tree, and even in the nurseries. The paper reports on the occurrence of Nalepella Haarlovi var. picea-abietis Löyttyniemi in Finland in tree nurseries in Finland. The study is based on a large material, collected in connection with an investigation into spruce spider mites.

Nalepella lives vagrantly on the needles. Due to the sucking of the mites, the needles turn yellow, become dry an die. Single patches from sucking cannot be seen by the naked eye. They occur on all sides of the needles. The worst damage to spruce seedlings in nurseries is caused to the needles located in the top of the seedling. Sometimes the terminal bud dryes and the whole terminal shoot can die. However, the whole seedlings seldom die in consequence of the Nalepella mite alone. Subsequent damage to the injured needles is often caused by fungus Cladosporium herbarum.

The study shows that the mite causes economically significant damages only in the nurseries. In forests no such damages were observed in seedlings or in older trees. In 1965–68, significant damages occurred in 16 nurseries in Finland. About 600,000 four-year-old seedlings were destroyed in 1967. The damages were economically important only in the 4-year-old seedlings.

According to the study, seedlings damaged by Nalepella can be used for planting as they recover rather well after planting in the forest. Moreover, the damages end after planting, and density of the mite population decreases during the first summer.

The mite overwinters as egg on needles. The eggs hatch in Southern Finland in the end of April and in the beginning of May.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4766, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1968). Roomalaisten taimitarhat. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4766. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14551
English title: The nurseries of the ancient romans.

The paper outlines the information about forest tree nurseries in the Roman Empire, found in ancient writings. According to the author, it cannot be stated that actual forest cultivation was practiced in the times of the Roman Empire, even if tree seedlings were used for a variety of purposes, such as embellishment of cities, parks and gardens, and raising supporting trees in forest vineyards. Nurseries were usually established on farms to fill the owner’s needs. For instance, Gato, Varro, Virgil, Pliny and Colulmella have given instructions about establishment and management of nurseries, and methods to sowing seeds of different tree species. Except for seeds, both root- and branch-cuttings were used in cultivation of trees. Also, grafting was known.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7656, category Article
Kari Leinonen, Matti Leikola, Antti Peltonen, Pentti Räsä­nen. (1989). Kuusen luontainen uudistaminen Pirkka-­Hämeen metsälautakunnassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 209 article id 7656. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7656
English title: Natural regeneration of Norway spruce in Pirkka-Häme Forestry Board District, Southern Finland.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate and develop the use of natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in private forestry. The study was carried out using a line-plot survey with permanent circular sample plots. In total 40 regeneration sites were measured. The study includes results from three successive inventories: prior to the shelterwood cutting, in the summer after the cutting, and one year after the cutting. Regression and logistic regression analyses were used to construct models describing the effect of various factors on the restocking of the stands.

The standing volume prior to the shelterwood cutting was on average 236 m3/ha (ranging from 80 to 428 m3/ha) and after the cutting 120 m3/ha (39–220 m3/ha). The average number of stems per hectare decreased from 435 to 186. Prior to the shelterwood cutting 22% of the stands were satisfactorily restocked. After the cutting and one year later these percentages were 6 and 29%, respectively. Prior to the shelterwood cutting the number of acceptable seedlings was 1,440/ha, in the summer and year later 1,308/ha and 1,546/ha, respectively. Prior to the shelterwood cutting the characteristics of the mother stands did not correlate well with the number of seedlings. The change in the number of seedlings during the initial stage of shelterwood method depended on height of the seedling stand, amount of logging waste and number of germlings prior to the cutting. The risk to fail in regeneration was highest in the poorly restocked, sparse shelterwood stands, where a fast expansion of grass vegetation took place.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsä­nen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7584, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine. (1976). Lannoituksen, kuivatuksen ja lämpöolojen vaikutus istutus- ja luonnontaimistojen kehitykseen rämeillä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 150 article id 7584. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7584
English title: Effect of fertilization, drainage and temperature on the development of planted and natural seedlings on pine swamps.

The paper presents some preliminary results of a 10-year-old study the purpose of which is to determine the effect of simultaneous variations in the intensity of drainage and fertilization on the development of planted and natural seedlings on peatlands under various climatic conditions. The development of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings appeared to be better the more intensive the degree of drainage and fertilization used. The increase in the temperature sum had a positive effect on the development of pine seedlings and decreased the mortality rate.

The best growth result was obtained with a 10 m ditch spacing and strong fertilization. As it is difficult to decrease the 10 m ditch spacing for cost reasons, it can be concluded that on such oligotrophic peatlands as were used in this experiment, only an average growth level in the seedling stands can be reached even with the most efficient forest improvement measures. Broadcast fertilization used in the experiment, at least in large doses, increases seedling mortality, as well as the coverage of the ground vegetation, particularly that of cottongrass and fireweed, and also the shrub height, thus increasing competition. It cannot be recommended for afforestation, and today spot fertilization is used. According to this experiment natural seedlings seem once they have recovered after the first years, to grow better than the planted seedlings. This was true especially in the north and in areas, where drainage was not efficient. The height and height growth of the seedlings were to a large extent dependent on the temperature sum.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7548, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Pertti Veijola. (1971). Lannoituksen ja sarkaleveyden vaikutus rämeen uudistumiseen ja taimien kasvuun. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 114 article id 7548. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7548
English title: Effect of fertilization and ditch spacing on regeneration and seedling growth in pine swamps.

In 1965 and 1966 a total of 25 experiments were laid out in various parts of Finland in order to find out the effect of simultaneous variation in the intensity of drainage and fertilization on the development of plantations and natural seedling stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on pine swamps. The fertilizer used was Y fertilizer for peat soils, a fertilizer mixture containing 14 % N, 18 % P2O5 and 10 % K2O. It was applied in rates of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 kg/ha. The ditch spacings studied were 10, 20 and 30 m. The present paper is a preliminary report on a series of studies, the experiments will be observation for a total of 15–20 years.

Mortality of the planted seedlings was found to be the higher after the first growing season, the larger the quantity of fertilizer that had been applied. Fertilizing caused an increase in seedling mortality even after the first growing season following application. At the end of the fifth growing season the height of both natural and planted seedlings is the greater, the larger the quantity of fertilizer that has been applied. Analysis of the height growth of the seedlings showed that larger quantities of fertilizer did not increase growth in the same proportion. The occurrence of growth disturbances is the greater, the more fertilizer has been applied.

Fertilization also changed the composition of ground vegetation. The in the beginning of the experiment  birch (Betula sp.) was absent in the area, but was found in the stands the greater abundance the higher application of the fertilizer.

From the viewpoint of growth of the seedlings the best results were obtained with the greatest intensity of fertilization and the narrowest ditch spacing used in the study. The results also show that strong fertilization and a high degree of drainage intensity are not capable of bringing about any particularly good growth on peatlands which originally are relatively poor in nutrients. The growth values now obtained equal only one third of those obtained on peat soils of greater fertility.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Veijola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7546, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen. (1970). Nostoajankohdan, pakkaustavan, varastointiajan pituuden ja kastelun vaikutuksesta männyn taimien kehitykseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 112 article id 7546. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7546
English title: The effect of lifting date, packing, storing and watering on the field survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings.

This study was carried out in 1966 in the nursery at Hyytiälä, Korkeakoski Forest District, in Southern Finland. The influence of lifting date (two liftings), way of packing (two methods) and length of storage (one, three and six weeks) on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 2 + 1, during the four years following planting was assessed. On the seedlings stored for six weeks, the influence of compensating for the water deficit was also studied.

According to the results, the lifting carried out later, i.e. when the seedlings had already started growth, gave slightly better results than when seedlings were lifted earlier. No difference could be observed for seedlings stored for one week, but for the seedlings stored for three or six weeks, mortality in the lot lifted earlier was 6- to 7-fold that of the seedlings lifted later. The main reason for this was probably that the seedlings of the earlier lifting suffered from lack of water at the time of lifting.

The growth of the seedlings lifted earlier and stored for three weeks showed a decrease compared to those lifted later. For the seedlings stored for six weeks, on the other hand, faster growth was recorded for both the seedlings of the earlier and the later lifting in comparison with those stored for shorter times. Watering increased to some extent the growth of the seedlings stored for six weeks.

During the normal, one- and three-week storing periods, seedlings were well preserved when packed both in bundles and in polythene sacks. Three years after the planting the average mortality was about 10%. Effect of watering was large for those seedlings that had been longer in the storage.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4703, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1960). Havupuiden taimistojen talvituhosienivauriot ja niiden kemiallinen torjunta. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4703. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9138
English title: Damage by low-temperature parasitic fungi on coniferous nurseries and its chemical control.

Since 1954 studies have been carried out by the Department of Plant Pathology of Agricultural Research Centre on occurrence of low-temperature parasitic fungi in nurseries in Finland. This paper reports analysis of the damage caused by the fungus to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings.

In Southern and southwestern Finland, scarcely any damage caused by low-temperature parasitic fungi to coniferous seedlings was found. On the other hand, in Central, Eastern and Northern Finland, considerable injuries were present in the seedlings. The extent of damage varies between different localities and in a same location from year to year. The extent of damage is mostly dependent on snow cover which is heaviest in Central and Northern Finland. Damages are largest in wooded areas and in places where snow accumulates abundantly and remains until late in the spring.

The principal cause of winter damage to spruce seedlings is Hepotricia nigra (Hartig) which causes black snow mould. Depending on the amount of infestation, the damage can be limited to scattered groups or consist of large areas of dead seedlings. The fungus is unable to infect the plants during warm months of the growing season. The most damaging parasitic fungus in Scots pine is Phacidium infestans (Karst.) causing snow blight. The infestation varies from reddish-brown patches of infected seedlings to large areas of infected plants. Also, Botrytis cinerea has been determined from one- and two-year plants of pine and spruce.

In trials of chemical control by PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene) gave nearly complete control of low-temperature parasitic fungi in one-year spruce seedlings. In addition, a compound of zineb (Dithane Z-78) gave similar results. Chemical control of the fungi is now common in the nurseries.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jamalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7188, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Pentti K. Räsänen, Asko Hilli. (1968). Taimien talvivarastoinnista ja sen vaikutuksesta männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 88 article id 7188. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7188
English title: Cold-storage and its effects on the field survival and growth of planted Scots pine.

The aim of this study was to find out the planting vigour of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stored over the winter either in winter storage mainly in the temperature of 4 – -6 °C or in nursery beds. The experimental planting included about 4,500 of 2+1 transplants in Northern Finland. In spring 1965 the control plants were lifted in the spring before budbreak and stored in closed bags in a cold store, in the following year the control plants were lifted in June when the growth had started.

Winter storage of pine transplants in a cold store, tightly closed into bags for the major period, did not, according to the results, increase plant mortality as compared to lifting in the spring. Soaking the stored-plant roots did not affect plant mortality. Mortality was rather small in all treated lots and probably more dependent on planting site and other local factors.

No consistent difference on the leader growth, needle length, bud number and plant grade was found between the plants stored over winter and those lifted in the spring. Sealing the plants into tight bags for winter proved to be suitable method, efficiently preventing water shortage in the plants. No moulds or fungal diseases were found in the plants. In the exceptionally cold 1965–1966 winter, temperature in the cold store sank to -15 °C, but in spite of the temperatures below the recommended storing temperature, the plants survived well. The reason was that the plants froze slowly in the fall and thawed out slowly in the spring.

The value of vigour grade in predicting plant-characteristic development proved to be good, and predicted plant development also in the following year fairly well.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hilli, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4644, category Article
Vilho Antero Kolehmainen. (1955). Havaintoja kulotuksen merkityksestä metsiemme uudistamisessa. Silva Fennica no. 85 article id 4644. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9106
English title: Effect of prescribed burning in the forest regeneration.

Prescribed burning has reported to avail forest regeneration, for instance, by releasing nutrients for the use of seedlings, changing the pH of the soil and decreasing competition of ground vegetation. The aim of the study was to find out if the effects could be verified. Sample plots were measured in the experimental area of Tuomarniemi, in Central Finland, both in previously burned and untreated seedling stands and young forests. The main species in the sample plots was Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

According to the results, prescribed burning prepares the soil for regeneration. Germination percentage of the seeds is higher on the burned soil. All the species, Scots pine, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and birch species (Betula sp.) grow faster. Prescribed burning increases the amount of birch seedlings by improving its regeneration compared to unburned sites. The seed trees survive burning better if they are tall and have short crown, and have thick bark. In general, prescribed burning improves regeneration in seed tree stands.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Kolehmainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4571, category Article
Tauno Lampimäki. (1939). Nautakarjan laiduntamisesta metsämailla. Silva Fennica no. 50 article id 4571. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9074
English title: Grazing of cattle in forest land.

Finland has a long tradition of grazing cattle in the forests and common land. There are also reports of degradation of forests by grazing already in 1600th century. The aim of the survey was to study which positive and negative effects grazing has in forests.

The study concludes that grazing has caused considerable economic losses through damages to forests. In addition, woodland pastures cannot give the yields required in modern animal husbandry. The quality of woodland pastures have decreased after the woodlands used in slash and burn culture have become wooded.

Grazing has also some positive effects to forests. It increases the diversity of vegetation in the woodland pastures and spreads species to new areas. This is supported by the lists of species found in different woodland pastures. Cattle destroy large grasses like Calamagrostis, which may avail growth of tree seedlings in the pastures. Grazing can also prepare the site for tree seedlings. On the other hand, prolonged grazing destroys tree seedlings and prevents regeneration.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Lampimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4571, category Article
Tauno Lampimäki. (1939). Nautakarjan laiduntamisesta metsämailla. Silva Fennica no. 50 article id 4571. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9074
English title: Grazing of cattle in forest land.

Finland has a long tradition of grazing cattle in the forests and common land. There are also reports of degradation of forests by grazing already in 1600th century. The aim of the survey was to study which positive and negative effects grazing has in forests.

The study concludes that grazing has caused considerable economic losses through damages to forests. In addition, woodland pastures cannot give the yields required in modern animal husbandry. The quality of woodland pastures have decreased after the woodlands used in slash and burn culture have become wooded.

Grazing has also some positive effects to forests. It increases the diversity of vegetation in the woodland pastures and spreads species to new areas. This is supported by the lists of species found in different woodland pastures. Cattle destroy large grasses like Calamagrostis, which may avail growth of tree seedlings in the pastures. Grazing can also prepare the site for tree seedlings. On the other hand, prolonged grazing destroys tree seedlings and prevents regeneration.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Lampimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4544, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1938). Näkökohtia taimien kasvatuksesta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4544. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13953
English title: Production of forest tree seedlings.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes production of forest tree seedlings.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4536, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1938). Metsän uudistumisen tarkkailusta kovilla metsämailla ja ojitetuilla soilla sekä ojien tarkkailusta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4536. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13945
English title: Inspection of regeneration of forests in mineral soil forests and drained peatlands and checking of ditches.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes inspection of forest regeneration of mineral soil forest types and drained peatlands, and inspection of ditches. 

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4486, category Article
Martti Tertti. (1937). Metsien luontaisen uudistumisen edistämisestä. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4486. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13896
English title: Facilitating natural regeneration.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes natural regeneration in forests and factors affecting the success of regeneration.

  • Tertti, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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