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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'taimitarhat'.

Category: Article

article id 5438, category Article
Juha Heiskanen, Hannu Raitio. (1991). Maan vesipotentiaali paljasjuuristen männyntaimien taimitarhakasvatuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 1 article id 5438. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15592
English title: Soil water potential during the production of bare-rooted Scots pine seedlings.

The matrix potential, measured with tensiometers, and its effect on the soil air-water ratio were examined during the production of bare-rooted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in nursery fields. Soil water potential was monitored during the growing season of 1983 at three nurseries in Finland, and from fields growing various seedling types at depths of 10 and 20 cm. In 1986, soil core samples were collected in order to assess the water desorption characteristics of the soil. In addition, the effect of polypropylene gauze covering (Agryl P 17) on the soil water potential was examined during the growing season of 1985 at two nurseries in Finland at depths of 5, 10 and 15 cm.

The soil water potential was relatively high in all the fields studied. In fields growing one- and two-year-old seedlings, the median potential was higher than -10 kPa. The potential did not fall below the limit of the measured scale (ca. -85 kPa) of the tensiometers. Soil aeriation may have been periodically insufficient in the rooting zone, as a result of high water content. The favourable water potential is below -5 to – 6 kPa. The gauze covering slightly (1–4 kPa) increased the soil water potential, an effect which could be harmful if the soil air space is low. During the second growing season, the soil water potential was lower in the fields covered by the gauze during the first year than in the fields without the covering.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raitio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5406, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1990). Leikattu paakkutaimi. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5406. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15558
English title: The cut-block method for seedling production: birth of an idea.

The author first introduced the cut-block seedling production method to Finland in 1969. The aim is to raise seedlings whose lateral roots do not become deformed as a result of a restricting container or other external pressure. The seedlings are raised in a large, fairly compact substrate block where the roots can freely develop in a normal fashion. The blocks are then cut up into individual cubes, each containing a seedling. The precise positioning of the sowing point permits mechanization of the work.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Huuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5384, category Article
Raija-Liisa Petäistö. (1989). Syyskoulinnan ajankohdan vaikutus männyn taimien kuiva-ainepitoisuuteen, neulasten pitolujuuteen ja juurten uudistumiskykyyn. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 3 article id 5384. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15541
English title: The influence of autumn transplanting date on the dry matter content, needle retention values and root regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings.

The experiment was performed in 1982–85 at the forest tree nursery in Suonenjoki, Central Finland. There were four to five transplanting dates ranging from the beginning of August to the end of September. The dry matter content, root regeneration and needle retention value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were examined. Development of the needle retention value in autumn was followed in nurseries at Suonenjoki, Rantasalmi, Mäntyharju and Taavetti in 1982.

Root regeneration was usually the worse, the later the seedlings were transplanted in the autumn. The dry matter content was generally lowest in the seedlings transplanted later in the autumn, and also to some extent in the seedlings transplanted at the beginning of August. The needle retention value increased as autumn advanced. Early transplanting in autumn had an adverse effect on the development of needle retention, and the values were highest in the seedlings transplanted later in the autumn.

The PDF includes an abstract English.

  • Petäistö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4766, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1968). Roomalaisten taimitarhat. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4766. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14551
English title: The nurseries of the ancient romans.

The paper outlines the information about forest tree nurseries in the Roman Empire, found in ancient writings. According to the author, it cannot be stated that actual forest cultivation was practiced in the times of the Roman Empire, even if tree seedlings were used for a variety of purposes, such as embellishment of cities, parks and gardens, and raising supporting trees in forest vineyards. Nurseries were usually established on farms to fill the owner’s needs. For instance, Gato, Varro, Virgil, Pliny and Colulmella have given instructions about establishment and management of nurseries, and methods to sowing seeds of different tree species. Except for seeds, both root- and branch-cuttings were used in cultivation of trees. Also, grafting was known.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7631, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1983). Taimitarhamaiden fysikaalisia ja kemiallisia ominaisuuksia sekä niiden suhde orgaanisen aineksen määrään. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 184 article id 7631. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7631
English title: Physical and physio-chemical properties of forest tree nursery soils and their relation to the amount of organic matter.

The aims of the present study were to determine physical and physio-chemical properties of some Finnish forest tree nursery soils, and to examine relationships between these properties and the amount of organic matter in the soil.

The following soil tillage layer properties of 33 fields belonging to 8 forest tree nurseries were determined: soil particle size distribution, organic matter content, bulk density and density of solids, total pore space, soil water volume at potentials pF 2.0 and 4.2, available water content and air space at potential pF 2.0, active acidity, electrical conductivity index and cation exchange capacities at pH 4.5 and 8.0. The soil texture class of the tillage layer parent material was sand, only in a few cases did higher percentage of silt and clay indicate a morainic nature of parent material. The amount of organic material in the soils varied within wide limits, reflecting differences in amelioration policy between the single nurseries.

Relationships between the physical properties of the soil parent material and those related to fertility were in most cases strongly influenced by the amount of soil organic matter. Soil density values decreased as the organic matter content increased from 2 to 25%, giving rise to the increase in the total pore space. However, the amount of water held at potential pF 2.0 and the available water content did not increase with increasing organic matter content. This was due to the absence of the particle fraction in the sand. Nursery soil amelioration, involving in most cases a mixture of Sphagnum peat with sand, thus gives rise to an increase in the content of drainable water.

Cation exchange capacities were positively correlated with the organic matter content. However, the absolute number of exchange sites expressed as equivalents in the tillage layer did not increase in accordance with the increase in organic matter content due to the influence of the organic matter content upon the ratio of solids in the voids.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4703, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1960). Havupuiden taimistojen talvituhosienivauriot ja niiden kemiallinen torjunta. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4703. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9138
English title: Damage by low-temperature parasitic fungi on coniferous nurseries and its chemical control.

Since 1954 studies have been carried out by the Department of Plant Pathology of Agricultural Research Centre on occurrence of low-temperature parasitic fungi in nurseries in Finland. This paper reports analysis of the damage caused by the fungus to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings.

In Southern and southwestern Finland, scarcely any damage caused by low-temperature parasitic fungi to coniferous seedlings was found. On the other hand, in Central, Eastern and Northern Finland, considerable injuries were present in the seedlings. The extent of damage varies between different localities and in a same location from year to year. The extent of damage is mostly dependent on snow cover which is heaviest in Central and Northern Finland. Damages are largest in wooded areas and in places where snow accumulates abundantly and remains until late in the spring.

The principal cause of winter damage to spruce seedlings is Hepotricia nigra (Hartig) which causes black snow mould. Depending on the amount of infestation, the damage can be limited to scattered groups or consist of large areas of dead seedlings. The fungus is unable to infect the plants during warm months of the growing season. The most damaging parasitic fungus in Scots pine is Phacidium infestans (Karst.) causing snow blight. The infestation varies from reddish-brown patches of infected seedlings to large areas of infected plants. Also, Botrytis cinerea has been determined from one- and two-year plants of pine and spruce.

In trials of chemical control by PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene) gave nearly complete control of low-temperature parasitic fungi in one-year spruce seedlings. In addition, a compound of zineb (Dithane Z-78) gave similar results. Chemical control of the fungi is now common in the nurseries.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jamalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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