Current issue: 53(1)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'technology'.

Category: Research article

article id 1218, category Research article
Mikko Niemi, Mikko Vastaranta, Jussi Peuhkurinen, Markus Holopainen. (2015). Forest inventory attribute prediction using airborne laser scanning in low-productive forestry-drained boreal peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 1218. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1218
Highlights: Following current forest inventory practises, stem volume was predicted in low-productive drained peatlands (LPDPs) with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 13.7 m3 ha–1; When 30 reference plots measured from LPDPs were added to the prediction, RMSE was decreased to 10.0 m3 ha–1; Additional reference plots from LPDPs did not affect the forest inventory attribute predictions in productive forests.
Nearly 30% of Finland’s land area is covered by peatlands. In Northern parts of the country there is a significant amount of low-productive drained peatlands (LPDPs) where the average annual stem volume growth is less than 1 m3 ha–1. The re-use of LPDPs has been considered thoroughly since Finnish forest legislation was updated and the forest regeneration prerequisite was removed from LPDPs in January 2014. Currently, forestry is one of the re-use alternatives, thus detailed forest resource information is required for allocating activities. However, current forest inventory practices have not been evaluated for sparse growing stocks (e.g., LPDPs). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the suitability of airborne laser scanning (ALS) for mapping forest inventory attributes in LPDPs. We used ALS data with a density of 0.8 pulses per m2, 558 field-measured reference plots (500 from productive forests and 58 from LPDPs) and k nearest neighbour (k-NN) estimation. Our main aim was to study the sensitivity of predictions to the number of LPDP reference plots used in the k-NN estimation. When the reference data consisted of 500 plots from productive forest stands, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the prediction accuracy of Lorey’s height, basal area and stem volume were 1.4 m, 2.7 m2 ha–1 and 13.7 m3 ha–1 in LPDPs, respectively. When 30 additional reference plots were allocated to LPDPs, the respective RMSEs were 1.1 m, 1.7 m2 ha–1 and 10.0 m3 ha–1. Additional reference plot allocation did not affect the predictions in productive forest stands.
  • Niemi, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland & Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.t.niemi@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Vastaranta, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland & Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.vastaranta@helsinki.fi
  • Peuhkurinen, Arbonaut Oy Ltd., Latokartanontie 7 A, FI-00700, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jussi.peuhkurinen@arbonaut.com
  • Holopainen, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014, Finland & Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markus.holopainen@helsinki.fi
article id 912, category Research article
Heidi Hallongren, Juho Rantala. (2012). Commercialisation and international market potential of Finnish silvicultural machines. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 912. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.912
Recently, the need to mechanise silvicultural operations has increased in the Nordic countries. While several new machine concepts have been developed, the manufacture of silvicultural devices remains at the market introduction stage. Information is required in support of existing and forthcoming Finnish small-scale producers of silvicultural devices, who wish to commercialise and further market their innovations in domestic and export markets. The aim of this study was to identify the opportunities, challenges and market potential of business activities that develop in connection with device or machine production. Small-scale Finnish manufacturers of silvicultural devices, Finnish large-scale harvester manufacturers and international silvicultural experts participated in the study. The results show that participant groups have varying opinions of cooperation methods and export activities, as well as of the export markets with the best potential. According to international silvicultural experts, mechanised planting and pre-commercial thinning have the greatest potential worldwide. However, demand for mechanised pre-commercial thinning and planting has been mainly confined to the Nordic countries. For a foreign firm marketing a new silvicultural machine concept, the most important customers and cooperation partners are locally operating forest firms, machine contractors and research organisations. The results of the study provide a useful overview of the current state of silvicultural device manufacturing in Finland.
  • Hallongren, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heidi.hallongren@metla.fi (email)
  • Rantala, Metsä Group, Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metsagroup.com
article id 108, category Research article
Back Tomas Ersson, Urban Bergsten, Ola Lindroos. (2011). The cost-efficiency of seedling packaging specifically designed for tree planting machines. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 108. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.108
Today’s crane-mounted planting heads plant seedlings with biologically similar or better results than operational manual planting. However, the total cost of mechanized tree planting in southern Sweden must decrease at least 25% to compete economically with manual planting. Although seedlings packed in machine-specific packaging increase the productivity of planting machines by reducing seedling reloading time, they also increase logistics and investment costs. In this study, we analyzed the total cost of outplanting seedlings with an excavator-mounted Bracke Planter and seedlings packed according to four different concepts: cultivation trays, cardboard boxes, band-mounted seedlings in cardboard boxes and linked pots in container modules. The total cost per planted seedling was calculated for each packaging system as the sum of all costs from nursery to the recovery of empty packaging. The results showed that today’s system of transporting seedlings in cultivation trays is the most cost-efficient of the four alternatives. Machine-specific seedling packaging was 16–23% costlier per planted seedling than cultivation trays when trucking distances were 100 km. Sensitivity analyses indicated that machine-specific seedling packaging increased in cost-efficiency relative to cultivation trays primarily when more planting machines were contracted, but also as planting machine fixed costs and productivity increased. Moreover, the relative cost-efficiency of band-mounted seedlings, but not seedlings in container modules, increased with increasing trucking distance. Thus, we show that investments in machine-specific seedling packaging for today’s planting machines are justified only when the fixed costs, productivity and number of contracted planting machines increase substantially.
  • Ersson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: back.tomas.ersson@slu.se (email)
  • Bergsten, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindroos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 125, category Research article
Juho Rantala, Tiina Laine. (2010). Productivity of the M-Planter tree-planting device in practice. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 125. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.125
Need to mechanise tree-planting work have recently increased for many reasons. The newest planting and soil scarification device performing work in Nordic forests is the Finnish M-Planter. This study aims to clarify M-Planter’s productivity in practice and show how various factors affect it. The follow-up data set covers 607 work shifts, of 13 operators with, in total, five M-Planters. The average productivity figures for the operators were 143 and 169 seedlings per effective working hour during the first and second planting season, respectively. Overall, the measured average productivity was 34.2% lower than that observed in an earlier work study of the M-Planter based on an experimental study design. On average, the operators learned to use the combination of the M-Planter and a base machine more efficiently while their experience in using it increased during the follow-up. Increasing number of stones and stumps as well as a thicker humus layer decreased productivity of the M-Planter. The study concludes that utilisation of the full productivity potential of the M-Planter requires not only good operators but also development of the whole planting service supply chain.
  • Rantala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metla.fi (email)
  • Laine, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 515, category Research article
Juho Rantala, Kari Väätäinen, Nuutti Kiljunen, Pertti Harstela. (2003). Economic evaluation of container seedling packing and disinfection machinery. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 515. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.515
Productivity and costs of packing container seedlings were studied in a mechanised line for packing and disinfecting seedling trays. The hypothesis was that adequate cost-efficiency could be achieved when some common principles of mechanisation were applied. Results indicated that the unit costs are lower than those of manual packing, if these principles were applied and the annual number of packed seedlings exceeded 6 million. However, most of the nurseries in Finland are still too small to gain a real advantage from large-scale production.
  • Rantala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metla.fi (email)
  • Väätäinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kiljunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harstela, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 623, category Research article
Anders Roos, Matti Flinkman, Armas Jäppinen, Mats Warensjö. (2000). Adoption of value-adding processes in Swedish sawmills. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 4 article id 623. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.623
Adding value to lumber by processing it after sawing and standard drying is one means for the sawmilling industry to increase market shares in competition with other materials, e.g. glass, steel, concrete, aluminium, and plastics. In this study the adoption patterns of value-adding processes used in Swedish softwood sawmills were analysed based on production data from 1995. About 90% of the sawmills applied a value-adding process after initial sawing and drying, and 72% of the sawmills applied two or more processes. The total share of processed sawnwood was about 40%. Important dimensions of value-adding processes are: extra drying and production of blanks for doors/windows and for furniture; surface-treatment, mainly planing, which is sometimes associated with preservation and painting; length trimming and pallet production; extra drying and production of edge-glued panels and laminated beams; and stress grading and production of building components. The association of different value-adding dimensions with location, ownership and production characteristics were investigated. The total share of value-added production were higher for private sawmills than for mills owned by forest companies or by forest owners’ associations, and it was higher for mills in southern Sweden than for sawmills in other parts of the country. Value-added share does not clearly correlate with mill size or with the dominating tree species being sawn.
  • Roos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: anders.roos@sh.slu.se (email)
  • Flinkman, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jäppinen, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Warensjö, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 311, category Research note
Dan Bergström, Urban Bergsten, Tomas Nordfjell, Tomas Lundmark. (2007). Simulation of geometric thinning systems and their time requirements for young forests. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 311. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.311
In Fennoscandia, large areas that have not been subjected to pre-commercial thinning (PCT), and thus support dense stands, are becoming suitable for harvesting biomass. However, efficient systems for harvesting biomass from young stands have not yet been developed. In order to optimise biomass harvesting it is here hypothesized that the handling unit should not be a single tree but a corridor area, i.e., all trees in a specific area should be harvested in the same crane movement cycle. Three types of corridor harvesting approaches (using accumulating felling heads for geometric harvesting in two different patterns) were compared in terms of time required to fell a corridor of standardised size. Corridors are defined as strips of harvested areas between conventional strip-roads. Harvests were simulated in two types of stands, first thinning (FT) and delayed PCT stands, in which the spatial positions of the trees had been mapped. The differences in simulated time consumption per corridor were minor when the only variable changed was the corridor pattern. However, there were ca. 2-fold and 3-fold differences in simulated time consumption per corridor between the harvesting approaches for the FT stand and the PCT-stand, respectively. Furthermore, area handling (felling head accumulating all trees corridor-wise, with no restrictions on the accumulated number of trees except for a certain load limit) was found to give up to 2.4-fold increases in productivity compared to a single-tree (reference) approach for the FT stand. In conclusion, the simulation results clearly show the benefits of applying area-harvesting systems in young, dense stands.
  • Bergström, SLU, Dept. of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bergsten, SLU, Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nordfjell, SLU, Dept. of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lundmark, SLU, Vindeln Experimental Forests, Svartberget Field Station, SE-922 91 Vindeln, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7498, category Article
Theodor Wegelius. (1959). Survey of forest technology research in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 8 article id 7498. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7498

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest technology in the previous 50 years. The field of research is relatively new among the forest sciences. In the beginning and still during the last century forest technology as an individual field of science was directed entirely towards the anatomical properties of wood and their uses, and to the chemical composition of wood. Later the attention was given to the actual forest work, mainly felling, logging and transportation of timber. The invention of production of wood pulp and cellulose opened new fields of work within the processing and use of wood.

The review indicates that the forest technological research is finally going ahead at full speed. It has proved right that logging technics have received attention in research. The technical questions are by nature such that they require a rapid solution in order that the production machinery would not stop.

The article is published in Finnish in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 7.

  • Wegelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7497, category Article
Theodor Wegelius. (1959). Metsäteknologinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 7 article id 7497. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7497
English title: Survey of forest technology research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest technology in the previous 50 years. The field of research is relatively new among the forest sciences. In the beginning and still during the last century forest technology as an individual field of science was directed entirely towards the anatomical properties of wood and their uses, and to the chemical composition of wood. Later the attention was given to the actual forest work, mainly felling, logging and transportation of timber. The invention of production of wood pulp and cellulose opened new fields of work within the processing and use of wood.

The review indicates that the forest technological research is finally going ahead at full speed. It has proved right that logging technics have received attention in research. The technical questions are by nature such that they require a rapid solution in order that the production machinery would not stop.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 8.

  • Wegelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7254, category Article
I. Lassila. (1929). Metsäteknologisen tutkimuksen lähiaikojen tehtävistä Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 41 article id 7254. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7254
English title: The next tasks of wood-technological research in Finland.

The article gives a summary of the range of the wood-technological research, and suggests that the research in the subject in Finland should be divided in two parts: research on problems of wood-technology in the strict sense of the word, and those concerning wood refinement and the problems of wood technology, related to the latter. The wood-technology research would be addressed to the Forest Research Institute, and the research on wood refinement to the organization to be founded by the wood manufacturing industry. Finally, main subjects to be studied are listed.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7201, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Forest research work in Finland : the origins and development of forest research work and a review of the investigations carried out up to date. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 7201. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7201

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization.  English translation of the article was published at the same time with an Finnish article. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7200, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsätieteellinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa : metsätieteellisen tutkimustoiminnan synty ja kehitys sekä yleiskatsaus toimitettuihin tutkimuksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 7200. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7200
English title: Forest research in Finland: the origins and development of forest research and a review of the investigations carried out up to date.

The article is a review of forest research carried out in Finland. The article includes a short review of the origins of forest research in the country and the research institutions in the country. It describes the main studies in different fields of forest research, divided on biological and silvicultural research, forest mensuration and forest policy research, and research on forest utilization. An English translation of the article was published at the same time. A need for an English summary of the forest research was realized, because the publications have mainly been written in Finnish or German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5466, category Article
Hely Häggman. (1991). Application of biotechnology to forest tree breeding. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5466. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15624

Forest tree breeding involves manipulation of genetic composition of populations and individuals, and biotechnology focuses on selected individuals. The new techniques cannot replace the conventional breeding techniques but both need effective cooperation of each other. Thus, the distinction between conventional breeding and biotechnology is artificial. The biotechnology methods are new and fast developing and the future with field and progeny testing will show which techniques will be permanently adopted into tree breeding. For instance, the earlier hope of the use of somaclonal variation as a new source of variability and a powerful tool for the breeder seem today quite the opposite. Somaclonal variation constituting a major problem in present-day micropropagation is due to the unpredictable variation. Based on knowledge of today, especially micropropagation via somatic embryos, transgenic trees and the identification of major genes seem to be good candidates to be permanently adopted into tree breeding.

  • Häggman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5464, category Article
Donald I. Dickmann. (1991). Role of physiology in forest tree improvement. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5464. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15622

The paper introduces different ways plant physiology research can avail the process of tree improvement. The breeding of tree cultivars that efficiently produce a particular wood product or amenity will be an important aspect of forest management. What physiologist can provide to breeders and genetic engineers is the opportunity to move their work from empirical level towards a more theoretical level, and help to make breeding more predictable and more precise in its objectives. The areas of research discussed in the paper are biotechnology, flowering, selection criteria, adaptability and application of ideotypes.

  • Dickmann, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4935, category Article
Pentti Hakkila. (1976). Metsätyötieteen asema metsäntutkimuslaitoksessa ja tohtori Mikko Kantola. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4935. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14780
English title: On the status of forest work science in the Finnish Forest Research Institute; a comment to professor Mikko Kantola.

This paper includes the answer of professor Pentti Hakkila for professor Mikko Kantola who in this issue of Silva Fennica gives some critical points on professor Hakkila’s earlier article (Silva Fennica vol. 9, no. 4 in 1975) on the status and future prospects of forest work science in the Finnish Forest Research Institute. He emphasises that the worry about the forest work reseach presented in his earlier article was not directed towards the research work but towards the financing of forest work science in Finland.

  • Hakkila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4934, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1976). Lisänäkökohtia metsätyötieteen asemasta ja tulevaisuuden näkymistä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4934. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14779
English title: Viewpoint on the status and future prospects of forest work science.

This article is a comment on a previous article in Silva Fennica (vol. 9, no.4) published in 1975, written by professor Pentti Hakkila, titled ‘The status and future prospects of forest work science at the Finnish Forest Research Institute’. It aims at giving some further aspects on the choice of research fields and subjects, and the concepts of result, opinion and research work.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4928, category Article
Pentti Hakkila. (1975). Metsätyötieteen asema ja tulevaisuuden näkymät metsäntutkimuslaitoksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4928. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14770
English title: The status and future prospects of forest work science at the Finnish Forest Research Institute.

The article reviews the position of the Department of Forest Technology in Finnish Forest Research Institute, among Finnish establishments in research on forest work. In addition, it describes the current research programmes of the departments both in wood harvesting studies and studies on silvicultural work. The equitable aims of the former are to increase productivity, lower the cost level, ease the work and improve job satisfaction, as well as to improve the utilization of wood raw material. The latter aims at e.g. improvement of the biological results.

Future prospects are surveyed from the point of view of the goals imposed by the State on the research and, on other hand, the appropriations earmarked for forest work science. A regrettable conflict has arisen between them.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hakkila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7651, category Article
Raymond K. Omwami. (1988). An economic model underlying the choice of capital intensity in timber production. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 204 article id 7651. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7651

The process of capital accumulation in timber production has been examined in this study. A detailed explanation of new investment in forest industry in terms of productive capacity as the determinant of national forest policy target growing stock and silviculture is presented. The basis of the explanation of forest industry productive capacity was a linear vertically integrated input-output production model. The model was used to derive a macroeconomic equilibrium condition specifying forest sector aggregate demand as an integral part of the national economy. Timber production has been constructed as a state variable system and the Maximum Principle used to derive silvicultural investment criterion. The derivation of the investment criterion was formulated as a dynamic problem in a labour surplus economy with linkage between savings and choice of silvicultural technology defined via income distribution between wages and profit. Maximization of aggregate consumption was specified as the goal of timber production.

By assuming a state of sub-optimal savings rate, it is shown that the real cost of labour is not zero in a labour surplus economy. Because unemployment labour is not a free commodity, it is concluded that capital-intensive silvicultural technology represents an optimal means of maximizing aggregate consumption in labour surplus economy, contrary to the recommendation of social marginal productivity theory.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Omwami, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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