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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'terminology'.

Category: Discussion article

article id 270, category Discussion article
Seppo Rouvinen, Jari Kouki. (2008). The natural northern European boreal forests: unifying the concepts, terminologies, and their application. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 270. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.270
Recent emphasis on conserving the biodiversity has stressed the value of natural ecosystems in saving the species from extinction. In the Fennoscandian region the conifer-dominated boreal forests form the largest single ecosystem. The forests have been under varying intensity of human influence for decades or centuries. Recent attempts have tried to seek the last remaining natural forests to be included in the protection programmes. However, due to long and widespread human influence, finding and defining the natural forests has proven to be extremely difficult, not only because they are so rare but also because the concept of natural forest is vague. These difficulties are partly seen through the diverse terminology used. We first review the varying terminology as seen in recent studies. Secondly, we propose the basis for defining the natural forest and show some intriguing and challenging difficulties are involved in the concept. These difficulties are at least partly related to inherent strong and long-term dynamic component in boreal forest ecosystems that is manifested over several temporal and spatial scales. Finally, we outline a more general terminology with associated indicators and measurements that might be used in the classification and terminology. Conceptual clarification is necessary, for example, to compile ecologically justified and representative global, national and regional forest statistics. Many currently applied definitions of “forest” and “natural” that are applied in the context of forest statistics overlook ecologically important components of natural forests, and thus provide quite misleading or inadequate data of existing diversity patterns in these ecosystems.
  • Rouvinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kouki, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.kouki@joensuu.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 5500, category Article
Mikko Kantola, Pertti Harstela. (1993). Puunhankinnan englantilaiset ja suomalaiset perustermit. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5500. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15661
English title: The basic terminology of timber harvesting in Finnish and in English .

The paper discussed the definitions of different Finnish and English terms concerning timber harvesting, and suggests definitions and translations of the terms.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5094, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1980). Kuka on maanviljelijä? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5094. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15035
English title: Who is a farmer?

This paper comments on the article written by Simo Hannelius that is published in the same issue of Silva Fennica (Who is the non-farmer forest owner? Silva Fennica 14 no. 4). Hannelius suggests that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics, and that the recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners would be classified as non-farmers. Veli-Pekka Järveläinen states in his opinion that when distinguishing a farmer and a non-farmer, the key criterion should be the profession, which has been proved to be an important parameter in behavioural research.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5075, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1980). Kuka on metsätilanomistaja? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5075. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15016
English title: Who is the non-farmer forest owner? The semantic influence of the non-farmer forest owner-concept to research results and published statistics.

Research into the forestry behaviour of private forest owners in Finland began 10 years ago. The private forest owners have been dichotomously classified into two groups, farmers and non-farmers. The farmer forest owner was considered to derive his main income (earnings) from agriculture. This classification is compared to the concepts in statistical publication Farm Economy 1976 (Maatilatalous). On the basis of this examination, it is recommended that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics. The recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners are classified as non-farmers.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4779, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Sisäisen korkokannan käsite metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4779. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14564
English title: Internal rate of return in forestry.

The concept of the internal rate can be defined as the rate of interest, which if applied to expenditures incurred at different times, gives a compounded sum equal to revenues compounded at the same rate for the same time. This concept has long been used in forestry, particularly concerning the development of a stand, because in this case there is a time difference between many items of expenditure and revenue. Several terms have been used or the notions derived on this basis. The term internal rate of return has begun to appear only recently. This article explains different variations of the concept and its different names, together with some related concepts and terms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4772, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Vajaatuottoisen metsikön ja metsämaan käsite. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4772. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14557
English title: The notion of reduced yield stands and forest soils.

The technical term reduced yield stands – sometimes reduced yield soils – is widely used in the Finnish forest literature. However, there is no clear definition of the notion reduced yield and no explanation of how this notion is measured in the classifications. Some committee reports and bill proposals and some laws and statutes use the reduced yield forest soil. No definition can be found. In my opinion the term reduced yield forest soils ought to be completely abolished until forest soil experts can perhaps define what it means, if they consider such a concept useful.

Explanations for the term reduced yield stands can be found in the descriptions of classification systems of stands. According to them, the criterion is partly silvicultural (site, species of tree), partly mensurational (volume, sometimes growth), partly economic. No explanation is found as to how the economic aspect is measured, nor about the limit of a full yield and reduced yield.

In my opinion such a term is confusing. I therefore suggest that the term reduced yield stand ought to be abolished. If something is needed instead, I suggest the term understocked stand, defined as a growing stock under certain percentage of a fully stocked stand. The notion of economic reduced yield cannot be generally tied to certain silvicultural and mensurational characteristics of stands. The economic aspect of certain kinds of stands may differ, depending on the owner of the forest and his economic situation, the location of the forest, the composition of the whole forest ownership unit, etc.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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