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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'tiheys'.

Category: Article

article id 7164, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1965). Puiden paksuuden ja nuoruuden kehityksen sekä oksaisuuden ja sahapuulaadun välisistä suhteista männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 80 no. 2 article id 7164. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7164
English title: Relation between the development of the early age and thickness of trees and their branchiness in Scots pine stands in Finland.

The objective of the study was to establish the influence of the founding density of a stand and the intensity of intermediate cutting on the quality of pine saw logs stems, primarily on their branchiness. Measurements were carried out in 68 Myrtillus-type and 32 Vaccinium-type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The quality of 1,982 sample trees was assessed.

According to the results, the branchless part of the stem is longest in the older age classes of trees. In all age classes the percentage of the branchless part is highest in medium sized stems. The relative height of the crown limit is greatest in small diameter classes and continues as the thickness of the tree increases. The crown is longer in the thicker tree. The grade of the butt log is on average highest in medium sized stems. Knottiness of a log made it unsuitable for a saw log only among the thickest stems. The relative share of the u/s grade decreased as the thickness of the trees increased.

From the point of view of early development of the trees it was concluded that in all age classes the branchless part is the shorter the faster the tree has grown in diameter when it was young. Also, branches of the butt log are the bigger the faster the tree has developed when it was young. The grade of the butt log improves as the thickness of the annual rings diminishes.

To produce good quality sawn timber, the pine stands should be established dense, and the first thinnings should be delayed as much as possible. The best time for the thinning would be when the diameter of the dominant trees at stump height is 12–15 cm and when all the branches have died on the length of the butt log. After the first thinning, comparatively intense intermediate thinning may be applied.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7164, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1965). Puiden paksuuden ja nuoruuden kehityksen sekä oksaisuuden ja sahapuulaadun välisistä suhteista männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 80 no. 2 article id 7164. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7164
English title: Relation between the development of the early age and thickness of trees and their branchiness in Scots pine stands in Finland.

The objective of the study was to establish the influence of the founding density of a stand and the intensity of intermediate cutting on the quality of pine saw logs stems, primarily on their branchiness. Measurements were carried out in 68 Myrtillus-type and 32 Vaccinium-type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The quality of 1,982 sample trees was assessed.

According to the results, the branchless part of the stem is longest in the older age classes of trees. In all age classes the percentage of the branchless part is highest in medium sized stems. The relative height of the crown limit is greatest in small diameter classes and continues as the thickness of the tree increases. The crown is longer in the thicker tree. The grade of the butt log is on average highest in medium sized stems. Knottiness of a log made it unsuitable for a saw log only among the thickest stems. The relative share of the u/s grade decreased as the thickness of the trees increased.

From the point of view of early development of the trees it was concluded that in all age classes the branchless part is the shorter the faster the tree has grown in diameter when it was young. Also, branches of the butt log are the bigger the faster the tree has developed when it was young. The grade of the butt log improves as the thickness of the annual rings diminishes.

To produce good quality sawn timber, the pine stands should be established dense, and the first thinnings should be delayed as much as possible. The best time for the thinning would be when the diameter of the dominant trees at stump height is 12–15 cm and when all the branches have died on the length of the butt log. After the first thinning, comparatively intense intermediate thinning may be applied.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7116, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1960). Metsikön taksatorinen tiheys keskipituuteen ja tiheyteen perustuvassa kuutiomäärän arvioinnissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 7 article id 7116. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7116
English title: The mensurational density of a stand in estimating the volume on the basis of the mean height and the density class.

In Finland ocular estimation of the growing stock has been made by means of volume tables based on the mean height and density class, or on the dominant height and density class of the stand. The author has observed that if the volume of a stand is estimated by employment of both tables, the results vary markedly from one another. Furthermore, volume of fully stocked stands in the dominant height tables show an approximate correspondence with the volumes of managed normal stands in Southern Finland.

The purpose of this study is therefore to develop volume tables for coniferous trees, based on the density class and the mean height; these tables should give the same volume for a stand as the dominant height tables.

Volume per hectare of 187 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and 120 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands on different forest types were estimated using the relascope method in Southern Finland. With the volume and the measured mean and dominant heights as a basis, the density classes were extracted from both mean height tables and the dominant height tables. The investigation indicates that the author estimated the dense stands too thinly, and the thin ones too densely, and that the erroneous estimation of the density can be corrected by comparison of the ocular estimations and the corresponding measurements. The density can be measured by means of crown closure, stem number per hectare or the basal area per hectare.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7458, category Article
Sulo Väänänen. (1955). Ammattimaisten metsätyömiesten asunto-olot. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 5 article id 7458. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7458
English title: Housing conditions of professional forest workers in Finland.

The data on housing conditions presented in this study derives from the general population census of Finland of 1950. The sub-sample of professional forest workers was taken from the sample collected for the larger investigation of rural labour force. The housing density of professional forest workers was considerably higher than the average for the population in general. The total population of the country, according to the 1950 Census, showed a ratio of 154 persons to 100 rooms, while the average weighted with the number of rooms for forest workers was 237:100, and the unweighted 340:100. If three per room is taken as the limit of crowded housing, nearly half of the professional forest workers lived in crowded conditions. Over two-thirds of them owned their dwellings, and only 2% of them lived in dwellings owned by the employer. Three quarters of all the men belonged to the holder-family of small farms. About three quarters of them lived in dwellings of one or two rooms. Also, the size of the family and household affected the housing density. The housing density exceeds the average in the youngest age classes. This is probably because the sons of families with poor economic standing must start work young in forestry, and those families have a high housing density. A quarter of the families had electricity in their dwellings. Few had running water or sewage in their houses.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Väänänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7361, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1942). Siperian lehtikuusen kasvusta sekametsiköissä Evon valtionpuistossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 8 article id 7361. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7361
English title: Growth of Siberian larch in mixed stands in state forests of Evo in Finland.

Of the foreign tree species Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) has the biggest economical potential in Finland. In its natural distribution the species grows mostly in mixed stands in other areas than the core of its range in Siberia, where it grows also in pure stands. However, growth studies have given contradictory results about how Siberian larch can manage competition of different tree species in mixed stands. In this study two-year old Siberian larch seedlings were planted in areas previously sown with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The growth of the trees was measured when the stands were 50 years old.

It appears that the stands, about 3700 larch seedlings per hectare, have originally been too been too dense. In the two thinnings done in the area, larch has probably been favoured, which has resulted in varying mix of pine and spruce. In the 50-year old stands, Siberian larch has developed faster than Scots pine and Norway spruce. Contrary to some previous studies, the results show that Siberian larch can be grown also in mixed stands, but the growth will probably be slower than in pure stands. Best growth is achieved in pure stands that have been planted thinly enough.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5277, category Article
Kirsi Maasalo. (1986). Pihlajan puuaineen ominaisuuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5277. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15456
English title: Properties of the wood of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia).

The basic density of the wood of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia L.) is almost the same along the stem but that of the bark is increasing along the stem. The moisture content of the wood and of the bark is increasing along the stem. Its strength in the bending and in the compression is high. The volume shrinkage is high.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Maasalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5277, category Article
Kirsi Maasalo. (1986). Pihlajan puuaineen ominaisuuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5277. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15456
English title: Properties of the wood of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia).

The basic density of the wood of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia L.) is almost the same along the stem but that of the bark is increasing along the stem. The moisture content of the wood and of the bark is increasing along the stem. Its strength in the bending and in the compression is high. The volume shrinkage is high.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Maasalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5275, category Article
Pirkko Velling, Gérard Nepveu. (1986). Männyn puuaineen laadun ja tuotoksen vaihtelu suomalaisessa provenienssikoesarjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5275. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15454
English title: Variation of wood quality and yield in a Finnish series of provenance trials on Scots pine.

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the origin of seeds and the location of cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on certain properties particularly important to the pulp industry. The research material consisted of six parallel trials of the same 12 provenances. Increment cores were taken of a total of 1,267 sample trees, 19 years old. The location of the trial site generally affected the properties to a larger extent than the origin of the seed. The effect of the variation of wood density and fibre yield on the cultivation values of the provenances was only a few percentages on average, however, at most the effect was nearly 10%. Eastern Finnish provenances adapted well to western Finnish conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish and French.

  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nepveu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5238, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1985). Suomalaisen kuusen puuaineen vertailua Keski-Euroopassa kasvaneiden kuusi- ja jalokuusilajien puuaineeseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5238. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15417
English title: Norway spruce wood grown in Finland compared with spruce and fir wood grown in Central Europe.

The aim of this literature review was to compare Finnish Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) sawn goods to Central European spruce sawn goods which contain fir in some amount. However, it was found that no statistically valid comparisons have been made. Therefore, conclusions have been based mainly on the relationship between various properties and growth rate. According to this analysis, most properties of Finnish spruce are better, although small in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5233, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1985). Verhopuuston vaikutus kuusitaimikon kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15412
English title: The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubescens) on the growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling stands on drained peatlands.

Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are susceptible to early summer frost damage. Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) naturally colonize rich or fairly rich drained peatlands after clear cutting, and can provide protection for developing seedlings. The report describes the development of spruce stands after various types of handing of the birch nurse crops.

Different proportions of birch and spruces did not have any influence on the spruce stand production. In cases where the nurse crop stand is removed when the spruce stand age was 20 years and height 4 m the spruce suffered badly but recovered with time, reaching the spruce stand growing under a nurse stand within the next 20 years. The height growth of spruce depends on the density of the nurse stand, especially on fertile sites. The development of diameter growth also depends on the density of the nurse trees. Removal of the nurse stand in spruce stands on the sites concerned should be done when the spruce stand is 20 years old and at the height of 4 m.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5207, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1984). Havaintoja puuston kasvatustiheyden vaikutuksesta mäntyjen oksikkuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15386
English title: Observations on the influence of stand density on branchiness of young Scots pines.

The study based on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of varying density showed that number of living branches per whorl and total number of living branches per tree were negatively correlated with stand density. On the contrary, the number of dead branches increased with increasing stand density. The diameter of living and dead branches decreased with increasing stand density. Consequently, the branchiness, i.e. the share of the branch cross-sectional area from the surface area of the stem, decreased in dense stands compared with the thin stands. At the densest stands the branchiness, however, levelled of indicating a greater decrease of the radial growth at stems than at branches. The 2/3 power law described relatively well the relationship between stand density and mean squared branch diameter of living branches.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5207, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1984). Havaintoja puuston kasvatustiheyden vaikutuksesta mäntyjen oksikkuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15386
English title: Observations on the influence of stand density on branchiness of young Scots pines.

The study based on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of varying density showed that number of living branches per whorl and total number of living branches per tree were negatively correlated with stand density. On the contrary, the number of dead branches increased with increasing stand density. The diameter of living and dead branches decreased with increasing stand density. Consequently, the branchiness, i.e. the share of the branch cross-sectional area from the surface area of the stem, decreased in dense stands compared with the thin stands. At the densest stands the branchiness, however, levelled of indicating a greater decrease of the radial growth at stems than at branches. The 2/3 power law described relatively well the relationship between stand density and mean squared branch diameter of living branches.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5200, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Timo Nevalainen. (1983). Näkökohtia puuston tiheyden ja puiden koon välisestä suhteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5200. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15183
English title: Relationship between stand density on tree size.

Two Japanese models regarding the within-stand competition have been reviewed on the basis of relevant literature. Competition-density and 3/2 th power models seem to be applicable also into tree stands. The latter model has been applied into the material obtained from literature. Computations showed consistancy with the results obtained elsewhere in the world. It is concluded that also in Finnish conditions the 3/2 th power law may have great potentials in describing the effects of stand density on tree size.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nevalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5199, category Article
Pekka Saranpää. (1983). Puuaineen tiheyden ja vuosiluston leveyden vaikutus kuusen iskutaivutuslujuuteen Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5199. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15182
English title: The influence of basic density and growth ring width on the impact strength of Norway spruce wood from Southern and Northern Finland.

Basic density and absorbed energy in impact bending were measured for 500 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples from Northern and Southern Finland. Statistical analysis showed that the relationship between impact strength and basic density was significant and regression analysis showed that it was linear.

Furthermore, with constant density, the impact strength was higher in Northern than in Southern Finland. This was due to growth ring width: i.e. when density was kept constant the impact strength increased with decreasing growth ring width. In addition, when the growth ring width was kept constant, the basic density of wood was higher in Southern Finland than in Northern Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saranpää, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5185, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1983). Männyn oksien murtolujuus. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5185. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15101
English title: Strength of Scots pine branches.

Empirical measurements showed that the strength of a dead branch of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was related to the second power of the branch diameter and the third power of the basic density of branch wood. The same factors affected also the strength of living branches. Especially, the contribution of wood density was important. The significance of the results is discussed considering the natural process of self-pruning and its effect on the branchiness of the stem.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5182, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Herman Hakala. (1983). Kuusitukin koon vaikutus sivulautojen taivutus- ja puristuslujuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5182. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15098
English title: Effect of log size on the bending and compression strength of side boards in Norway spruce.

In order to evaluate the strength properties of boards made from small and large Norway spruce (Picea abies) butt logs, 15 small (top end diameter 13 cm) and 15 large (top end diameter 25 cm) logs were sampled from a sawmill in Finland. From each log two test pieces were made in order to measure the bending and compression strength, dry density and average ring width.

The boards from small logs were stronger and their density higher. When the differences between groups were analysed it was found that the strength was determined by the density and ring width. When the density was kept constant, the increase in ring width had a decreasing effect on the strength properties. Because there was a negative correlation between ring width and density, ring width alone had a great effect on the strength properties.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hakala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5181, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Olle Dumell. (1983). Kuusipuun taivutuslujuuden riippuvuus tiheydestä ja vuosiluston leveydestä Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5181. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15097
English title: Effect of basic density and growth ring width on the bending strength of Norway spruce wood from southern and northern Finland.

A population consisting of 450 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples was gathered from northern and southern Finnish wood. The static bending strength was affected greatly by the density of the wood. However, keeping the density constant, the bending strength was higher in northern than in southern Finnish wood. The reason was the effect of the growth ring width.

The basic density was affected by the growth rate. Keeping the growth ring width constant, the basic density was over 5 kg/m3 lower in northern than in southern Finnish wood. This result supports the earlier findings on the effect of latitude.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dumell, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5128, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1981). Eräistä ojitetuilla soilla kasvaneen puun fysikaalisista ominaisuuksista. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5128. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15069
English title: Physical properties of wood growing on drained swamps.

The objective of the investigation was to determine the differences between timber grown on a peatland before and after draining, in respect of compressive strength parallel to the grain, static bending strength and density. In addition, the characteristics of boundary zone between the wood formed before, and after the draining with wider growth rings was studied. 41 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 22 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees were studied.

The compressive strength of pine usually decreased from the butt end upwards, but no trend was observed in spruce wood. In coniferous trees, wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining was slightly lighter than the close-ringed wood produced prior the draining. The density of pine as well as spruce increases as the width of the growth rings decrease up to a certain limit. The strength of the different kinds of wood seems to decrease from the butt end upwards.

In both species, the compressive strength parallel to the grain and the bending strength are lowest in such wood that contains exclusively wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining. Also, compressive and bending strength increase with decreasing width of the growth rings. The longitudinal shrinkage of compression wood in spruce was several times that of normal wood, and the bending strength was lower than that of normal wood particularly in spruce. The compressive strength parallel to the grain in dry condition was, however, higher than in normal wood both in pine and spruce.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4989, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Havaintoja iän vaikutuksesta lehtikuusen puuaineen tiheyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4989. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14843
English title: Observations on the effect of age on the basic density of larch wood.

About 100 years old larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. And L. decidua Mill.) trees were felled and the basic density samples taken from the stump level were determined. The number of trees was 21 and number of samples 378. The maximum basic density was reached at the age of 40–60 years, as counted from the pith. The basic density decreased as the width of the growth rings increased or the amount of heartwood decreased. The average basic density of the whole disc was 543 kg/m3 in L. sibirica and 497 kg/m3 in L. decidua. The basic densities of bark were 328 kg/m3 and 286 kg/m3, respectively. 

The PDF includes a summary in English. 

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4970, category Article
Markku Mäkelä. (1977). Metsähakkeen tiheyden laskeminen. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4970. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14821
English title: Calculating the basic density of whole tree- and logging residue chips.

A method is presented in this study for calculating the basic density of whole tree- and logging residue chips and the results of trial measurements on some commonly used chip sorts. The basic density of Scots pine whole tree chips was found to be 1–18 kg/m3 smaller than that of pine pulpwood of the same age. The basic density of Norway spruce whole tree chips was 4–22 kg/m3 greater than that of similar aged pulpwood. The basic density of birch whole tree chips was 4–16 kg/m3 and grey alder whole tree chips 7–24 kg/m3 greater than pulpwood of the same age. The basic density of conifer logging residue chips was considerably greater than that of pine and spruce whole tree ships.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4958, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1977). Araukaarian ja männyn puuaineen ominaisuuksien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4958. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14809
English title: Comparison of wood properties of Parana pine and Scots pine.

According to the available literature, the appearance of Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze) wood resembles that of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The anatomy is quite different, however. There are no resin canals and fusiform rays with resin canals in Parana pine. They are abundant in Scots pine, however. The basic density of Parana pine is higher. In both species the density increases from the pith outwards, the maximum being reached at the age of 100 years. Compression wood is more common in Parana pine than in Scots pine, and this makes the longitudinal shrinkage of Parana pine greater than that of Scots pine. Otherwise the shrinkage properties do not differ. The mechanical strength is of the same magnitude with the exception of hardness, where Parana pine is superior.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4947, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Kokopuuhakkeen tiheyden mittaaminen. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4947. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14793
English title: Measurement of basic density of total tree chips.
Original keywords: hake; mittausmenetelmät; tiheys

The paper describes a method for the measurement of basic density of total tree chips. In the method the chips are placed in a container, which is immersed in a cylinder full of water, and the container is weighted at two levels. In the upper part of the cylinder the pressure against the air bubbles is smaller than in the lower level. In this method, the effect of air bubbles in the result can be eliminated. Besides this, due to homogenization of the material to be measured only small number of samples are needed for the estimation of the average basic density.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4901, category Article
Veli Pohjonen. (1974). Istutustiheyden vaikutus eräiden lyhytkiertoviljelyn puulajien ensimmäisen vuoden satoon ja pituuskasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4901. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14745
English title: Effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of some species undergoing short rotation culture.

The effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx. (Populus x wettsteinii), Salix ’Aquatica Gigantea’, and Salix phylicifolia L. was studied at the Arctic Circle Agricultural Experimental Station in Northern Finland. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ gave yields which were twice as high as those of the other species in the study. The highest yields were of the order of 60 tons per hectare (fresh yield including foliage). The annual height growth in S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ was about 100 cm, in the others about 30–50 cm. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ had a maximal height growth when the distance between the seedlings was 25 cm.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4784, category Article
Matti Leikola, Pentti Pylkkö. (1969). Verhopuuston tiheyden vaikutus metsikön minimilämpötiloihin hallaöinä. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4784. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14570
English title: Influence of stand density on the minimum temperatures during frost nights.

The objective of this investigation was to study the influence of stand density of white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrl.) on the minimum temperatures in the stand during the growing season, and the actual minimum temperatures of the leading shoot of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings growing in the open. The 40-year-old uniform white birch stand was situated in 142 m above the sea level in Southern Finland. The stand was treated with thinnings of three different densities in 1961.

Air temperature was recorded in four sample plots at heights of 0.1 m, 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 2 m and 4 m. In the stand of moderate density, temperatures were measured at heights of 6.0 m, and in the stand of full density at 6.0 m, 8.0 m and 10.0 m.

The temperature differences between stands of various densities proved to be rather small. Especially the thinnest stand differed very little from the open area. The soil surface has in all cases been warm compared with the higher air layers indicating meadow-fog-type by Geier (1965). On cloudy or windy weather all the temperature profiles in the various stands resembled each other. The difference between the air temperature and temperature of the spruce shoot was greatest at midnight and decreased steadily thereafter.

The problem in using shelter stands for spruce regeneration areas is that optimum shelter stand density is difficult to define. Already a thin shelter stand causes drawbacks to the young seedlings, but in order to be effective enough against early frosts, the shelter stand should be comparatively dense.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pylkkö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7624, category Article
Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki, Annikki Mäkelä, Pirkko Ilonen, Markku Kanninen, Eeva Korpilahti, Markku Nygren. (1982). Metsikön varhaiskehityksen dynamiikka. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 177 article id 7624. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7624
English title: Dynamics of early development of tree stand.

The report concludes a series of studies on the early development of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The basis assumption made in the study series was that the within-stand light regime is the main driving force for total tree growth and its allocation of photosynthates for crown, stem and root growth. An individual tree growing in a stand under a varying light regime which is controlled by the stand structure, is the basic unit used in the study. The photosynthesis of an individual tree is determined by the light regime. The stand is formed from individual trees.

The model is applied in simulation of the growth and development of tree stands. Several computer runs representing various densities, height distributions and tree species mixtures were carried out. Potential application areas, properties of the model and future needs of investigations are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Korpilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nygren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4460, category Article
I. Lassila. (1931). Suunnitelma Suomen lauttausväylillä uitetun puun uppoamisen tutkimisesta. Silva Fennica no. 19 article id 4460. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9001
English title: Research proposal for studies on sinking of logs in the floating channels of Finland.

Majority of the timber floated in Finland has been floated loose. Repair of the floating channels in the end of 1800s decreased the amount of sunken logs and loss of timber during the transportation. The increase of floating of pulpwood and other small timber has later increased the number of sunken logs. More information is needed on the amount and quality of floated timber, also the floating channels should be classified. A detailed study plan to investigate how big proportion of the timber is lost during floating, which factors influence the sinking of timber, and how the timber dries in the forest depots is presented. A classification of timber by its floatability is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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