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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'timber production'.

Category: Research article

article id 583, category Research article
Hans Fredrik Hoen, Tron Eid, Petter Økseter. (2001). Timber production possibilities and capital yields from the Norwegian forest area. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 583. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.583
How intensely should a forest be grown? This is a fundamental question in the process of formulating policy guidelines for the management of a forest area, both at the individual property level as well as at the national level. The question is related to a number of factors; the objective(s) of the forest owner, the productivity of the forestland, the initial growing stock, the accessibility within the forest, assumptions regarding future prices and costs and the required real rate of return. This paper presents an applied analysis with the objective of mapping possible future paths for the growing stock on, and timber harvest from the productive forest area in Norway. The analysis is deterministic. The regeneration strategy is a key factor for the long run development of a forest and is thus given particular attention. The analysis is restricted to deal with timber production only and maximisation of the net present value of the forest area is used as the objective function. The required real rate of return is varied and used as the driving force to find the best (optimal) level of intensity in silvicultural management and thus optimal paths for harvesting and growing stocks.
  • Hoen, Agricultural University of Norway, Dept. of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 5044, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: hans.hoen@isf.nlh.no (email)
  • Eid, Agricultural University of Norway, Dept. of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 5044, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Økseter, Agricultural University of Norway, Dept. of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 5044, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 659, category Research note
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio, Pirkko Velling. (1999). Growth and stem quality of mature birches in a combined species and progeny trial. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 3 article id 659. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.659
The growth and stem quality of silver birch (Betula pendula), downy birch (B. pubescens) and paper birch (B. papyrifera) were compared in a 32-year-old field trial in southern Finland. The material consisted of different unselected stand origins and progenies of phenotypically selected plus trees of silver and downy birch from southern Finland and differing stand origins of paper birch from the North-West Territories, Canada. Growth, yield and a number of stem quality traits, including taper, sweep, stem defects, heights of different crown limits and length of the veneer timber part of the stem were measured or observed. The native Finnish silver and downy birches were superior to paper birch in terms of both yield and stem quality, silver birch being the best. Progenies of silver birch plus trees were better than the stand origin, indicating that the former are able to reach high quality veneer log size in a shorter time than unselected material. The cultivation of paper birch can not be considered viable in Finland.
  • Viherä-Aarnio, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anneli.vihera-aarnio@metla.fi (email)
  • Velling, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5292, category Article
Ryoichi Handa. (1986). On the principles of Japanese forest policy since 1950. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5292. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27748

In Japan many governmental projects have been promoted during 35 years since 1950, which were most active in the history of our forestry and wood industry. They were pushed forward for and by high economic growth. This article refers to the development of our forest policy and projects in those days. But as for the future of the forest economics, it is an urgent question to develop the comparative study between every nation’s experience. In order to contribute to this problem, the forest policy is divided into three fields and experiences are discussed.

  • Handa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5260, category Article
The Forest 2000 Programme sub-commitee. (1986). The Forest 2000 Programme in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5260. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15439

The Forest 2000 Programme is a long-term programme for forestry and the forest industries in Finland. It attempts to obtain a better integration of timber production and other forms of forest use. The total annual cut is to be increased by 15 million m3 by the year 2010. This is almost one third greater than the level during the first few years of the 1980’s. In order to achieve the cutting targets, the cut area will have to be increased by almost one third by the turn of the century. The area of thinnings will experience the greatest increase. Considerable changes are proposed in silvicultural and basic improvement work. According to the programme, the growth of the raw-material base and the consumption of the wood-based products will permit an annual increase of about 3% in the production of the forest industries as a whole until the end of the century. This would be the same as the target growth rate of the GNP.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • The Forest 2000 Programme sub-commitee, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5244, category Article
Juha Lappi, Markku Siitonen. (1985). A utility model for timber production based on different interest rates for loans and savings. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5244. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15423

The paper discusses the evaluation of timber production policies with different income (timber drain) schedules. Special attention is given to the temporal smoothness of the income flow. A utility model is formulated in which the objective is to maximize a fixed consumption pattern, and money can be saved and borrowed at different interest rates. We thus have smoothness requirements only for consumption, the capital market then determines the smoothness of the optimal income flow. Present discounted value and maximization of even income flow criteria are special cases of the utility model. Consumption can be maximized by linear programming. A sample problem is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5101, category Article
Ilpo Tikkanen. (1981). Effects of public forest policy in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5101. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15042

The purpose of the present study is to explore the applicability of some methodological approaches to empirical policy analysis in evaluating the effectiveness of public forest policy. From the perspective of effectiveness analysis we can distinguish in forest policy, aiming at the promotion of timber production, two principal objective levels in forestry: the quantity of silvicultural investments and their allocation and the quantity (sufficiency) together with the structure of timber supply. This paper is restricted to the exploration of the effect of forest policy measures directed to silvicultural investments in private forestry. First, the effects of state subsidies in silvicultural investments are analysed. The analysis is macro analysis of quantitative forest policy means, in which aggregated time series data are used as study material. Second, an attempt is made to provide a causal interpretation of the impacts of qualitative forest policy means at the woodlot level. This micro analysis utilizes an approach characteristic to the behavioural sciences.

It is concluded that like quantitative forest policy means the qualitative means, coupled with the activities of the forest promotion organizations, play a significant role in attaining the timber production goals. Of these, the professional advice given by forestry experts, has a direct effect on silvicultural activities. Extension and training activities have an indirect effect by increasing the willingness of forest owners to employ experts on their woodlots.

  • Tikkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4973, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen. (1977). Economics of forest uses in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4973. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14824

The object of the study was to give a tentative indication of the realized economic significance of the principal forest (forestry land) uses in Finnish Lapland. Data concerns the years of the 1970s. Nowadays timber harvesting generates a major part of the total value of production. Recreation (tourism) is in second place. Reindeer husbandry, collection of berries and mushrooms and hunting together produce, in the best years, an output value which is about one fifth of that of timber harvesting. Non-timber uses together produce a rather significant portion on the total value of the integrated forestry output.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4918, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Raimo Pökälä, Markku Siitonen. (1975). Metsätalousyksikön puuntuotannon suunnittelu lineaarista ohjelmointia käyttäen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4918. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14762
English title: Linear programming in the planning of timber production in a forestry unit.

The planning of timber production in a forestry unit is divisible into two phases. In the first phase, planning provides the decision-maker with a number of possible timber production policies; these policies define the production possibility boundary. After the decision-maker has chosen one of these policies, planning moves to the second phase, in which a detailed programme is prepared with a view to meeting the requirements of the timber production policy accepted. The paper indicates one possibility of solving these two tasks simultaneously. In the first phase, the solution of the primal linear programming problem is employed and in the second phase the respective dual or shadow price solution.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pökälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4906, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1974). Maisemanhoitomallien käyttö metsätalouden maan aluevaraussuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4906. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14750
English title: Regional landscape planning of forest areas.

The study deals with economic significance of forest landscape planning models used in regional planning in Finland. The »judge»-method is used among professional foresters working on private forestry boards in Southern Finland to define their view of what would be moderate level of costs of landscape management for private forest owners. A sample of 154 forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland was sent a sociological questionnaire.

It was possible to form three hierarchical moderation classes by statistical grouping of judgement distributions. Prolongations in rotation ages and restrictions concerning ditching of forested bogs, forest read building and clear-cutting were considered the most immoderate models. Rather or wholly insignificant were evaluated such management models, which mean restrictions in »old fashioned» methods or which are already used in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4855, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1971). Puuntuotannon ja metsien virkistyskäytön koordinointi Saksan liittotasavallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4855. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14657
English title: Integration on timber production and forest recreation in the German Federal Republic.

The article is a report of a study tour of five Finnish foresters in Germany on September 27 – October 2. 1971. As in most industrial countries, the recreation use of forests is rapidly expanding and, therefore, its needs are considered in the management of forests. Two examples of intensively used recreation forests are described, Schönbuch near Stuttgart and the Bavarian Forest National Park at the Czechoslovakian border. These forests are effectively used for both timber production and recreation at the same time. Some other effects of urbanization on forests also are discussed in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7577, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Raimo Pökälä. (1975). A long-term timber production model and its application to a large forest area. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 143 article id 7577. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7577

A long-term timber production model was developed. The model is based upon numerical simulation and it is viewed only as a means of providing the decision-maker with values of the predicting variables in his utility function. Special attention was paid to the development of automatic cutting decision rules. The model was applied to the area of 2,752,000 hectares of forest land in Central Finland. The measurement data were extracted from the Sixth National Forest Inventory, which was made in 1973. Utilities from a hypothetical utility function were attained to a number of feasible timber production policies. The Bayes and maximin criteria were employed to evaluate these policies.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pökälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7577, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Raimo Pökälä. (1975). A long-term timber production model and its application to a large forest area. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 143 article id 7577. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7577

A long-term timber production model was developed. The model is based upon numerical simulation and it is viewed only as a means of providing the decision-maker with values of the predicting variables in his utility function. Special attention was paid to the development of automatic cutting decision rules. The model was applied to the area of 2,752,000 hectares of forest land in Central Finland. The measurement data were extracted from the Sixth National Forest Inventory, which was made in 1973. Utilities from a hypothetical utility function were attained to a number of feasible timber production policies. The Bayes and maximin criteria were employed to evaluate these policies.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pökälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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