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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
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Articles containing the keyword 'timber transport'.

Category: Article

article id 7142, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1964). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 2. Tutkimustulokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 2 article id 7142. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7142
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland II. Investigation results.

Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland was studied in an investigation based on questionnaires answered by a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. The method is described in detail in a separate article in Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 no. 1.

The seasonal variations in purchase of roundwood was largest in big sawmills, which purchase the main part of the timber as standing sales and buy most of the wood from the State Forest auctions at the end of September. Also, they can afford to reserve their material earlier than the smaller companies. The saw logs are mainly felled in the winter in Finland because the climatic conditions and availability of labour are best at that time. Small sawmills begin fellings a little earlier than the larger ones.

In long-transport of timber the proportion of floating decreased from 47% in 1958 to 38% in 1960. At the same time, proportion of truck transport increased from 48% to 55%. Small sawmills use almost exclusively land transport. They received almost three-fourths of their logs between January and May, because the sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. Therefore, floating does not suit for their transport method. The larger the sawmill, the later is the seasonal peak of log deliveries. The output of the big sawmills is distributed more evenly thoughout the year. The smaller the sawmill, the quicker is the turnover of raw material and the smaller the sawlog inventories.

The seasonal variation in output is sharper at small sawmills where sawing is concentrated in the first half of the year. The seasonal peak of the early spring is due to the aim at getting the sawn wood to dry early enough for shipments in the summer. Air drying takes an average of 4 ½ months. Kiln drying is more common at the larger sawmills, and gives them more flexibility. Due to the large seasonal variation in operation, the capacity of the small mills is poorly utilized. Domestic sales of sawn wood levels up the seasonality of the deliveries. Export sales are concentrated at the end and turn of the year. Also, the seasonal peak of expenditure occurs in the winter, but that of income in the summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7471, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1956). Tutkimuksia pyörätraktoreiden käytöstä puutavaran metsäkuljetuksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 1 article id 7471. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7471
English title: Investigations of the use of wheel tractors for the forest transport of timber.

Forest transport of timber in Finland has been arranged as horse haulage during winter time using horses vacant from farm work. Tractors have now begun to replace horses in agriculture, which will lead to shortage of horses for timber harvesting in future. The aim of this investigation was to find a method of mechanized forest transport suitable for Finnish conditions. The method should be provided by an agricultural wheel tractor that is shared with agriculture. It should also be applicable to timber transport of relatively small forest holdings.

A method for time studies of tractor driven timber harvesting was developed. The competitivity of tractor transport of timber against the traditional method was studied in four pulpwood harvesting sites. The results suggest that if the tractor forest transport method in question is to be applied in practice, conditions should first be chosen which favour it most. A tractor forest transport method evolved on the basis of experiments presupposes certain conditions to be successful. These include snow for the construction of the packed-snow driveway, frost to harden the driveway, the location of strip roads in relatively easy topography, and of the main haulage road that is gently sloping in the haulage-loaded direction. The optimal transport distance for this method are about 3-10 km.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Putkisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7435, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1954). On the possibility of pests being conveyed in export timber : survey of biological requirements. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 23 article id 7435. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7435

Many countries have enacted plant protection laws or statutes that consist timber imported into a country, both raw wood and processed timber. This has caused some inconvenience to the international timber trade. Necessary protection against the spread of pests via export is fully acceptable, but the protection should be based on actual need.
When considering processed or barked raw timber, the problem concerns only species that pass their development in the wood. The four most important biological requirements affecting the risk are 1) the tree species of the importing country and affinity of the pest, 2) climatic conditions of the importing country and the pest’s range and adaptability to the climate, 3) biological factors regulating the population, and 4) suitability of the individual development of the pest for transmission. These risks are discussed in the article.

It is concluded that it is possible largely to eliminate the species that might be conveyed via export timber. It is often possible to decide in advance what danger threatens the importing country from species that might be conveyed via export timber. This would make it possible to adapt plant protection regulations to suit the relation between the exporting and importing countries.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7434, category Article
Jarl Lindfors. (1954). Sahatukkien kaukokuljetuksen eräitä piirteitä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 22 article id 7434. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7434
English title: Long-distance transport of saw logs in Finland.

Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries decided in 1953 to begin collecting annual statistics of timber transportation of its members. The survey of members covers almost 97% of the timber transportations of the member companies, which have production over 1,000 cu ft. In all 79 companies answered the survey. Their total timber transportation was 166,4 million cu ft in 1952.

The long-distance transportation of saw logs by horse transport directly to the mill or other such location was 1,297 cu ft, by truck transport 42,644 cu ft, by rail transport 6,707 cu ft, and by water transport 115,789 cu ft. The average transportation distance was for horse transport 2.4 km, truck transport 27 km, rail transport 224 km and water transport 209 km.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lindfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7417, category Article
N. Stolpe. (1954). Uittoa, sen organisatiota ja tulevaisuutta koskevia näkemyksiä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 5 article id 7417. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7417
English title: Observations on floating, its organizations and future in Finland.

The costs of floating have increased by about 20-fold after the Second World War in Finland, which has raised concerns in the forest sector. At the same time, the costs of road transport have increased by 16% and costs of rail transport by 15%. Floating has been replaced mainly by road transport in transport of roundwood, especially near the factories. This development is likely to continue as new roads are built and the truck fleet develops.  

In spite of the changes in timber transportation, floating was still the most common way of transporting roundwood in 1952: 69% of saw logs, 53% of veneer timber, 42% of domestic pulp wood, 14% of exported pulp wood and mining timber and 14% of firewood was transported by a water route. There are several ways to improve the efficiency of floating and decrease its costs. This can be achieved in two ways. First, using modern technology, such as tugboats, bundlers and other equipment, and second, improving the operation and co-operation between different actors.  

The PDF includes a summary in German. 

  • Stolpe, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7415, category Article
W. E. Roitto. (1954). Eräitä näkökohtia Saimaan vesistöalueen puutavaran kaukokuljetuksen kehittymismahdollisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 3 article id 7415. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7415
English title: Development potential of transportation of roundwood in the river and lake system of Lake Saimaa in Finland.

About 17.5% of forest lands of Finland is situated around the river and lake system of Lake Saimaa. Furthermore, the growth of the forests  of the area correspond about 25% of the total growth of forests in Finland. The watersystem is one of the most important portages of roundwood in the country. It consists 11,000 km of floating channels, 2,000 km of which suit for floating in bundles. Annually 30-35 million cu ft of saw logs, 7 million cu ft of veneer timber and 2,5-3 million cu ft of pulp wood is floated in the area.

Even if the water system at present still suits well for floating, there are many opportunities for development, which would improve its competitiveness against other modes of transport. Several different sites where building of floating channels or improving the floatways are needed are described in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7272, category Article
Viljo O. Sierla. (1933). Uittoyhdistysten kuljettamat puumäärät vv. 1922-1927. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 7272. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7272
English title: Timber transportation of the floating associations in 1922¬‒1927.

 The numerous waterways have promoted the development of forest industry in Finland by offering an easy way to transport timber almost in the whole country. Floating associations arrange the floating for its members. This study, accomplished in the Forest Research Institute, compiles the statistics of the different associations in 1922­‒1927.  The volume of timber transported by the floating associations increased by 40% during the 6-year period, reaching 10.5 million m3 in 1927. The increase has been supported by the number of collectively used floating channels. The number of the floating associations increase from 17 to 26 and the length of the floating channels used by them to 8,300 km in 1922‒1927. About 70‒80% of the transported timber was logs and the 20‒30% small timber. Floated timber comprised 70-80% of the all roundwood used in the forest industry in Finland at the time. Majority of the logs were softwood.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sierla, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5130, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1981). Mikroaaltotutka jään paksuuden mittaukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5130. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15187
English title: Radar measurement of ice thickness on ice roads and landing.

Light and economic FM-CW radar has been developed for controlling the bearing capacity of ice roads and landings on ice used for timber transportation and storage of timber in Finland. It was tested on natural ice and ice roads of three lakes in Southern Finland and one location on sea on the southren coast of Finland (a total of 166 observations). Ice thickness varied from 0 to 100 cm. Correlation coefficient between auger and radar measured ice thickness was r=0.99 and absolute error varied from -10 to +7 cm. The quality of ice had no influence, but by improving the interpretation of results, also the quality factors might be detected.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4915, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1975). Raakapuukuljetusten optimointi. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4915. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14759
English title: Optimization of roundwood transport.

The paper deals with the optimization of roundwood transport in cases where many destinations for it exist and where several means of transport are available. It is also understood that the capacities of the factories to which wood is transported can be used at varying degree. A model was developed for a case such as Finland which sells most of its products abroad.

In the above case, the optimization of roundwood transport does not necessarily mean minimization of transport costs. What is aimed at is to obtain, by using different combinations (mill destinations and the media of transport) the maximum difference between the allowable cut (calculated) and real (actual) transport costs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4806, category Article
Esko Leinonen, Pentti Rikkonen. (1969). Puutavaran kuorma- ja kuormaotantamittaus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4806. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14594
English title: Load and load sampling measurement of timber.

Measurement of timber in a vehicle load or in a bundle is best performed at the mill where the measuring of large quantities can be mechanized and sampling is possible. Load measurement methods include calculation of the number of units, measurement of pile volume, weight scaling and determination of solid content in accordance with Archimedes principle by immersion in water. For some timber assortments, load measurement is sufficiently accurate and suitable unit of measure. The accuracy of load measurement can be increased or the result can be converted by sampling to a more appropriate unit of measure.

In load sampling measurement, a sample is taken from the population, and the desired more accurate measurement is made from the sample. The basic measurement for the whole population can be converted into the more accurate measuring unit by means of the ratio between it and the basic measure. Unit, pile and weight sampling can be used. The aim for pulpwood is to calculate the dry matter content without bark, which means that the amount of bark and the dry weight of wood must be determined by sampling.

The size of the sample depends on size of the population, variation of the ratio between the loads, and the accuracy required. As the quantity of wood to be measured decreases, sampling measurement will reduce the measuring costs by up to 80%. In addition, there is saving in costs by rationalization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7635, category Article
Reino Pulkki. (1984). A spatial database - heuristic programming system for aiding decision-making in long-distance transport of wood. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 188 article id 7635. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7635

The applicability of operations research, database management systems and geographic information systems for decision-making in long-distance transport of wood in the Saimaa area in Central Finland were reviewed. Due to the complexity of the transport problem a geographic information system is the most applicable. However, investment in such a system for only long-distance transport decision-making is unjustified. A spatial database – heuristic programming system was developed. It was applied to studying the competitiveness and search for possible areas for rationalization of water transport in particular and long-distance transport in general. The system proved to be a useful aid in long-distance transport research. Also, with the increased use of computers for planning at the field level, a system similar to that described could be a powerful managerial aid.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Pulkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7587, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1976). The economic transport unit size in roundwood towing on Lake Iso-Saimaa [in eastern Finland]. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 153 article id 7587. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7587

The transport unit in roundwood towing on Lake Iso-Saimaa in Central Finland comprises a tug and a raft of bundled wood with a towline between them. There are several factors influencing the economic size of the transport unit in roundwood towing. These are changing with the enterprises and along with general developments. In this paper these factors or factor groups are seen from the point of view of the enterprise. The main question is to determine the most economic combination of tug and raft size.

From the point of view of the towing enterprises the unit costs of transport are the most decisive factor. Both the size of the raft as well as the power of the tug influence strongly the unit costs. As a long-term goal a raft of about 35,000 m3 and a tug of 550 kW or more is considered to be advisable. The width of channels and sounds then allow a free passage for rafts being 36–40 m wide.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and in French.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7562, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1973). The effect of terrain on the output in forest transportation of timber. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 128 article id 7562. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7562

The first part of the study includes a summary of conclusions from five earlier reports dealing with terrain transportation costs, effect of terrain, load, snow and additional machine components on the mobility of forest tractors, and the distance a vehicle has to move in forest transportation of timber. In the second part of the study the effect of these separate factors on the transport output have been analysed on the basis of simulating a transportation of 3,000 loads by computer.

It was concluded that no specific terrain factor had a dominating effect on any component of the forwarding output. However, many terrain-factor combinations with a nonsignificant effect on the mobility and also on the forwarding output were identified. The most significant factors affecting the output were the size of load and the distance driven during the cycle.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4680, category Article
Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea. (1959). Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 102 article id 4680. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14123
English title: Report of the organizing committee for timber floating in Northern Finland.

Hydroelectric plants are being planned or already built in Northern Finland. The complete terracing and regulation of watercourses necessary for the power plants will mean great changes in floating conditions and hence for forestry, for which floating is the principal means of transport. Consequently, the Cabinet appointed a committee in 1958 to ascertain the economic, technical and legislative questions connected with timber transport in the area.

The committee has found that about half of the country’s forest area and two thirds of its water power resources are situated in Northern Finland. A prerequisite for the wise utilization of the forest in Northern Finland is an increase in fellings. This can only be put into effect by improving the means of transport, especially the floating channels. The financing required by the organization of floating connected with the building of the hydroelectric power plants amounts to about 10,000 million marks over a period of 20 years.

The committee has suggested that an advisory committee on floating should be established. Its most important task would be to try to produce a general programme for the organization of floating under the changed conditions, and that the State should participate in the expenditure caused by the organization as regards the capital investment needed for changing over to bundle floating.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4616, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1951). Uusimpia saavutuksia puutavaran kuljetuksen alalla. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4616. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14012
English title: Recent achievements in timber transportation.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the development of forest haulage and long-distance transportation of timber. The article gives examples of improving the effectivity of horse hauling, use of tractors, loading of timber and floating, and gives examples of new equipment used in timber transport.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4555, category Article
O. Seppänen. (1939). Puutavaran autokuljetuksesta ja sen merkityksestä valtion metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4555. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13962
English title: Car transportation of roundwood and its significance to forestry in the state forests.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the history of road transport of timber in Finland and discusses its significance and potential to forestry in the state forests.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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