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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'time study'.

Category: Research article

article id 1657, category Research article
Razvan Vasile Campu, Arcadie Ciubotaru. (2017). Time consumption and productivity in manual tree felling with a chainsaw – a case study of resinous stands from mountainous areas. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 1657.
Highlights: An important preoccupation in sustainable logging management is represented by the analysis of work time structure and productivity level in manual tree felling with a chainsaw; Sound knowledge of the factors which influence work time allows better planning of harvesting operations so that deadlines could be met and damage to forest ecosystems be minimized.

The purpose of this research is to establish time consumption and productivity when using Husqvarna 365 chainsaw for resinous tree felling in mountainous regions. The research was conducted in the Romanian Southern Carpathians, in two mixed spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and fir (Abies alba Mill.) tree stands (S1 and S2). Only one team of workers, made up of a feller and an assistant, was used in the felling operation. This was divided into nine specific stages for which work times were measured. Work time structure used here includes WP – workplace time (PW – productive work time; SW – supportive work time, NT – non-work time) and NW – non-workplace time. The results indicated a productivity of 10.138 m3 h–1 (4.55 tree h–1) in S1 and of 11.374 m3 h–1 (4.33 tree h–1) in S2. Work time structure was WP 88.61% (PW 19.59%; SW 33.88%; NT 35.14%) and NW 11.39% in S1 and WP 83.77% (PW 17.66%; SW 30.73%; NT 35.38%) and NW 16.23% in S2. The results obtained showed that the power function best describes the relationship between productivity expressed by tree h–1 and breast height diameter (dbh) (R2 = 0.89 in S1 and R2 = 0.94 in S2). When productivity is expressed by m3 h–1 the results obtained in the case of power, exponential and linear functions are comparable (R2 = 0.65 to 0.67 in S1 and R2 = 0.81 to 0.92 in S2). Productivity is also influenced by stump diameter and the distance between trees. Their influence on productivity was emphasized by linear regression equations.

  • Campu, Transilvania University of Braşov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial Measurements, Şirul Beethoven no. 1, 500123, Braşov, Romania ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Ciubotaru, Transilvania University of Braşov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial Measurements, Şirul Beethoven no. 1, 500123, Braşov, Romania ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 1064, category Research article
Back Tomas Ersson, Urban Bergsten, Ola Lindroos. (2014). Reloading mechanized tree planting devices faster using a seedling tray carousel. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 2 article id 1064.
Highlights: Seedling reloading onto the Bracke Planter crane-mounted planting device was twice as fast with the MagMat tray-wise-loaded carousel as today’s seedling-wise-loaded carousel; Tray-wise reloading combined with deplugging seedlings from suitable cultivation trays has the potential to be an efficient and robust way to feed seedlings on any type of tree planting machine.
On Nordic clearcuts, today’s tree planting machines produce high-quality but costly regenerations. Much of this high cost is attributable to the planting machines’ low productivity. One promising way of raising productivity is to lessen the time spent manually reloading seedlings onto the carousels of crane-mounted planting devices. Using MagMat, a carousel test-rig designed by engineering students, we studied how much faster tray-wise seedling reloading is on the Bracke Planter compared to reloading with today’s seedling-wise-loaded carousel. The MagMat test-rig held eight Hiko cultivation trays from which seedlings were deplugged individually and dropped into the planting tube. The time study confirmed that seedling reloading was on average twice as fast with MagMat compared to today’s seedling carousel, thereby increasing assumed planting machine productivity by 8–9% depending on the planting device used. MagMat’s cost-efficiency was analysed to be particularly reliant on its added investment cost, mechanical availability and how quickly trays can be switched automatically. Nevertheless, MagMat’s field performance illustrated the overall potential of tray-wise loading compared to piecewise seedling loading for increasing the productivity of crane-mounted planting devices. Also, deplugging proved to be a reliable method of extracting seedlings from the rigid, copper-painted Hiko cultivation trays even when performed at the excavator’s boom-tip during mounding work. We conclude that, rather than piecewise seedling loading, tray-wise loading combined with deplugging seedlings from suitable cultivation trays is a reliable and much more time-efficient method to feed seedlings on probably any type of tree planting machine.
  • Ersson, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SLU, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Bergsten, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SLU, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindroos, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SLU, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 1030, category Research article
Jussi Manner, Tomas Nordfjell, Ola Lindroos. (2013). Effects of the number of assortments and log concentration on time consumption for forwarding. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1030.
Highlights: We analysed the effects of total and forwarded log concentrations (m3 (100 m)–1) and the number of loaded assortments on forwarding; The combination of the number of loaded assortments and their abundance (i.e. forwarded log concentration) affected time consumption most; This knowledge enables improved efficiency by optimizing number and assortment proportions in the various loads required to forward a stand.
Forwarding has been carried out for 50 years, but much is still unknown about this work. Its complexity comes from both stand features and essential decision-making. Forwarding time consumption is influenced by e.g. log concentrations and number of assortments. Traditionally, focus has been on the total log concentration (TLC), referring to all logs at the harvesting site. However, we focused on forwarded log concentration (FLC), the load-specific log concentration which depends on the assortment distribution at harvesting site and the load-specific number of assortments. To evaluate the effects of TLC, number of assortments in a load and FLC on the loading and unloading times, a standardized field experiment was carried out. Pile and load sizes were constant, while TLC and FLC were manipulated by varying the pile distribution on the test path. For all work elements, the time consumption per m3 was significantly affected by the number of assortments that were loaded, but only the “driving while loading” work element was also significantly influenced by TLC. However, when untangling the intercorrelation between tested factors, it was found that the time consumption for driving while loading significantly decreased as a function of FLC and was unaffected by the number of assortments in a load. That FLC influences the forwarding time consumption highlights the need to study the effects of combining various assortment proportions in a load. Such knowledge will enable analysis of the most efficient number and assortment proportions to combine in the various loads required to forward a given stand.
  • Manner, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Nordfjell, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindroos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 227, category Research article
Ola Lindroos. (2008). The effects of increased mechanization on time consumption in small-scale firewood processing. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 227.
Firewood, which is mainly processed by the consumer, is still an important source of energy for heating houses in industrialised countries. Possibilities to compare the mechanization’s impact on efficiency of firewood processing are limited, due to variations between working conditions in previous studies. Therefore, the objective was to compare time consumption for two small-scale firewood processing systems with different levels of mechanisation under identical conditions. The systems were tested on two classes of wood: one with a homogeneous and medium-sized diameter of logs and one with a mixture of small and large-diameter-logs. Differences in time consumption were analysed for correlations with physical workloads, deviations to routine operations, operator influences and operator perceptions. Twelve operators (60–79 years old) were studied and they showed large variation in time consumption. However, the within-operator time consumption patterns were consistent. In other words, operators all responded similarly to the different combinations of systems and wood classes, but at different absolute levels. The time required to process a unit volume of wood was 25–33% lower when the more highly mechanised system was used, and the time required was 13–22% lower for the homogeneous wood class. Physical work load, deviations and perceptions of the work varied between operators, but were weakly correlated with time consumption. The results’ implications for analyses of investments in equipment for firewood-processing for self-sufficiency purposes are discussed.
  • Lindroos, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
article id 284, category Research article
Tuomo Nurminen, Jaakko Heinonen. (2007). Characteristics and time consumption of timber trucking in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 284.
Cost efficiency and flexibility have become increasingly important in the logistics of cut-to-length harvesting operations. At the same time, the operating conditions for long-distance transportation have become more demanding and variable. Since the number of log products has increased and the size of harvesting sites has decreased, loads of timber must increasingly be collected from several log decks, increasing the time consumption and costs of the trucking operation. The objectives of this study were to formulate time-consumption models for typical timber transportation activities in Finland and introduce a statistical procedure for examining the variation in time consumption during the trucking phases. The study used a combination of time studies and follow-up studies based on empirical data for 368 loads (a total volume of nearly 18 000 m3) collected from one wood procurement district in central Finland. The model included the following explanatory factors: driving distance, number of log decks, log product and load volume. Since transportation includes several phases and since many factors affect the work performance, significant variation in the total transportation time was observed. This makes planning and cost accounting more difficult. The models developed in this study are a promising initial tool to support route planning and optimization, and cost and profitability calculations for trucking entrepreneurs and the forest industry.
  • Nurminen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences; Forest Agency Tuomo Nurminen, Joensuuntie 5 B 8, FI-41800 Korpilahti, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heinonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 346, category Research article
Tuomo Nurminen, Heikki Korpunen, Jori Uusitalo. (2006). Time consumption analysis of the mechanized cut-to-length harvesting system. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 346.
The time consumption and productivity of harvesting are dependent on stand conditions, the operators’ skills, working techniques and the characteristics of the forestry machinery. Even if the basic methods and machine types of the cut-to-length harvesting system have not changed significantly in 10 to 15 years, improvements in the operators’ competence, technical solutions in forest machinery and changes in the working environment have undoubtedly taken place. In this study, the objective was to discover the special characteristics in the time consumption of mechanized cutting and forest haulage in Finnish conditions. The empirical time study was conducted with professional operators and medium-sized single-grip harvesters and forwarders in final fellings and thinnings in easy terrain in central Finland. The models for effective time consumption in the work phases and total productivity were formed. Stem size, tree species and bucking affected the cutting, whereas timber density on the strip road, the average driving distance, load capacity, wood assortment and the bunching result of the harvester operator had an effect on the forest haulage performance. The results may be used in simulations, cost calculations and education.
  • Nurminen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Korpunen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uusitalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 54, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 398, category Research article
Heikki Ovaskainen. (2005). Comparison of harvester work in forest and simulator environments. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 398.
Harvester simulators offer a safe and cost-saving method for studying the basics of harvester controls and working technique. Therefore, harvester simulators are increasingly being used in the education of harvester operators. In this study, the objective was to compare harvester work in real and simulator environments, and to determine how a professional harvester operator’s working technique may have changed in the simulator environment. Specific features of the simulator that encumbered operators’ normal work are also presented; and the correspondence of the simulator to reality is evaluated. The work of six professional harvester operators was studied in thinning and in clear cutting stands in both environments: first in the real forest and thereafter on the simulator. The results indicate that the operators’ working technique on the simulator was mainly the same as in the real forest. This means that the same restrictions are valid on the simulator as in the forest. The basic principles of harvesting must be known so that high productivity and good quality can be obtained. However, certain simulator-specific features encumbered the work of harvester operators. Limited visibility to the side increased the need to reverse and the 3D-visualization caused failed catches. Improvements in software would remove some of the defects, e.g. failed felling and cheating in the felling phase. These results also indicate that simulators can be used for research purposes.
  • Ovaskainen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
article id 604, category Research article
Dan Glöde, Ulf Sikström. (2001). Two felling methods in final cutting of shelterwood, single-grip harvester productivity and damage to the regeneration. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 604.
In order to find an efficient and careful way of final-cutting shelterwoods, two felling methods, in a single-grip harvester system, were compared with respect to productivity and damage caused to the regeneration. The shelterwood (140–165 m3/ha) consisted of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the natural regeneration (9530–11 780 seedlings/ha) mostly of Norway spruce. Treatments were: (i) conventional felling on both sides of the harvester striproad, preferably in blanks of the regeneration; (ii) felling of the trees top-end first into the striproad using a method named “tossing the caber”. Both treatments included forwarding after felling. Conventional felling had a non-significantly higher productivity (27.4 m3/E15–h) and lower cost (25.9 SEK/m3) than tossing the caber (26.1 m3/E15–h and 27.2 SEK/m3). However, tossing the caber was significantly more efficient in the felling and processing of pine trees compared with conventional felling. The mean proportions of the disappeared and damaged seedlings were approximately 40% after both treatments. The logging-related damage to the regeneration decreased with increased distance to the striproad in the tossing the caber treatment but not in conventional felling. The conclusions were that there were no differences between the treatments regarding productivity, cost and total damage to the regeneration in mixed conifer shelterwoods but that tossing the caber could be a more productive method than conventional felling in pine dominated stands. Tossing the caber could also be beneficial at a regeneration height of 2–3 m since at this height the damage to the regeneration seems less than at conventional felling.
  • Glöde, SkogForsk, Uppsala Science Park, S-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Sikström, SkogForsk, Uppsala Science Park, S-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 379, category Research note
Daniel Ligné, Lars Eliasson, Tomas Nordfjell. (2005). Time consumption and damage to the remaining stock in mechanised and motor manual pre-commercial thinning. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 379.
Selective pre-commercial thinning (PCT) is usually carried out by workers with a brush saw in order to increase the growth of the potential crop trees (main stems) through removal of competing trees. In the last decade relative PCT costs have increased, partly because stands are denser and have higher trees when treated, which has led to new interest for mechanised PCT. The objective was to compare mechanised and motor manual PCT regarding productivity and damage to remaining main stems. Time consumption for, and damage after, mechanised and motor manual PCT were studied on 50 plots per treatment in mixed pine birch stands with an initial stand density exceeding 4500 stems ha–1. In the present study productivity was influenced by stand density, stand height and the quota between height and diameter. Irrespectively of these factors, mechanised PCT was 0.74 hours ha–1 slower than motor manual PCT. Motor manual PCT of the average stand (average height 3.69 m, 10 816 stems ha–1) took 5.06 effective hours. In average 2475 and 2805 main stems ha–1 were left after the mechanised and motor manual treatments, respectively, whereof 1.3 and 2.1% were damaged by the treatments. The results show that efficiency in motor manual PCT has increased in dense and tall stands compared to older studies. Motor manual PCT was more time effective than mechanised PCT, and thereby also even more cost-effective. However, the potential for technical and methodological development of mechanised PCT is probably larger than for motor manual PCT.
  • Ligné, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eliasson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Nordfjell, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7184, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1967). Havusahatavaran valmistus kenttäpyörösahalla : työtieteellinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 3 article id 7184.
English title: The preparation of coniferous sawn goods using circular saws. A work study.

The objectives of the paper were to find out structure of the sawing time when using field circular saws, influence of the different factors on the sawing time and its structure, average sawing time per unit of raw material and sawn goods, and the fundamentals for the creation of an equitable system for the determination of the basis of payment in sawing work. The observations of the time study were made on both a single log and a work period basis. The material was collected using four saws of different brands.

The results showed that the season when the work was done, and top diameter of the logs to be sawn affected the constant times included in the total sawing time and the time used for sawing of center pieces. While the tree species did not affect the constant times, the grade of the logs of different tree species did have effect, especially in winter sawing. The factors affecting the different phases of the work are described in detail. The length of sawing time was longer in the winter than in the summer. The preparatory jobs in sawing required in average 82 cmin per log, and the time increased with increasing top diameter. The actual sawing is the most time-consuming part of the work, it took in average 132 cmin. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7374, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1942). Eräitä halkosahoilla suoritettujen sahauskokeiden tuloksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 21 article id 7374.
English title: Results of sawing experiments using wooden bow saw.

Effectiveness of 18 different saw blades of wooden bow saw from four producers (Oy Suomen Sandvik Sahat, Epilä Oy, Ab Orsa Sågbladsfabrik Oy, Kone ja Terä Oy) was tested in 1937. The experiments were divided into test series according to type of maintenance of the blade and tree species (Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch) to be sawn. Each saw blade was sharpened into four different sharpening angles (54°, 60°, 64°, 70°). Four blades had markedly longer sawing times compared to the others. These blades had a special serration. In addition, two blades with sparse serration had slightly poorer results than the blades in general. When the tree species were compared, birch (Betula sp.) was slowest to saw followed by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7372, category Article
Vilho Seppänen. (1942). Sahatukkien teosta aikatutkimuksen valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 19 article id 7372.
English title: Time studies on making of saw logs.

A time study was conducted in saw log harvesting site in state forests of Evo in Southern Finland in 1934. Felling was performed in teams of two loggers. Two teams were observed. The work was divided into several stages of work: felling, branching, cross-cutting, barking and making of top log. On the site grew Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

The daily working hours not including breaks was in average 5 hours and 33 minutes. The most time-consuming stage of the work was barking of the stem (55% of working time for Scots pine and 47% for Norway spruce), followed by felling (22.5% for pine and 19.4% for spruce), branching (11.7% and 21.6%) and cross-cutting (11.3% and 11.8%). Temperature affects barking strongly. Scots pine is slower to bark than Norway spruce. Similarly, butt and middle logs are slower to bark than top logs. It took in average 79.02 min to process one solid m3 of timber with bark and 91.45 min without bark.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5349, category Article
Raphael E. L. Ole-Meiludie, Goodseldah K. Pamba. (1988). Time study on different techniques for nursery pot filling operation. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5349.

Time study on different techniques in nursery pot filling operations at SUA Training Forest in Northern Tanzania was conducted. The results showed that improved tools and work place design significantly decreased the operation time, hence increased productivity. In addition, worker’s comfort was generally increased.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ole-Meiludie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pamba, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5314, category Article
M. Saarilahti, E. Bakena, G. Mboya, T. Minja, T. Ngerageze, J. Ntahompagaze. (1987). Studies on Tanzanian forest work. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5314.

Four teams of two workers were time-studied in clearcutting of a cypress plantation and three teams in sulky skidding. The heart rate was recorded every 30 s. The average heartrate in timber cutting was 117.5 ± 13.4 P/min, and it was mainly dependent on worker’s working capacity. Average work load index was 41 ± 3% when working at 97% performance. The production rate was then 2.5 m3/h (crew). In sulky skidding the heart rate was lower, 106 ± 1.1 P/min, as well as the work load (WLI 30 ± 1%) and performance rating (87%). The low production rate (1.1 m3/h) (crew)) over 45 m distance is mainly due to under-dimensioned load size. The energy expenditure in timber cutting was 21.4 kJ/min and in sulky skidding 16.3 kJ/min. Daily energy expenditure was 15.0 MJ/d, and most of the timber cutters belonged to the class ”exceptionally active”.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bakena, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mboya, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Minja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ngerageze, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ntahompagaze, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4643, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1954). Aikatutkimuksia metsäojitusten kivitöistä. Silva Fennica no. 84 article id 4643.
English title: Time studies on stone work done in forest drainage.

When ditches are dug in forest drainage, smaller stones are removed by hand, but the larger ones require the use of explosives or stone lifting machinery. Use of explosives have been a more common method for the larger stones. Due to development of detonation methods, it has also been used for smaller stones than earlier.

The investigation was a time study comparing five different stone lifting machines. Time needed for different stages of the work was measured. The stages lasted approximately as long for all of the machines. However, the effectivity of the machines could not be determined, because the stones removed were not similar enough. Stone lifting machine Pekka appeared slightly more effective than the other four machines. It was also easy to assemble, disassemble and move.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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