Current issue: 54(3)
Under compilation: 54(4)
The aim of the present study was to find the factors influencing the distribution of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) logs on various grades with special stress on the effects of the grade on the value of logs. The material was obtained from ten sawmills located in Southern Finland by grading a total of 13,559 logs.
The results showed that knottiness in its different forms of appearance is the most important factor influencing the quality of spruce logs. Its significance is clearly greater in spruce than in Scots pine saw logs. Among the other defects, the most common are crooks. Even scars and decay occur to a considerable degree, but other defects seldom affect the grade. The quality of butt logs is markedly better than that of top logs. Both in butt and top logs the smallest logs in diameter are of poorer quality. However, in the largest diameter classes the quality begins again to decrease.
The difference in the quality of logs of the same grade at various sawmills is very small. The results of grading at varying times at the same sawmill show greater differences than can be observed between different sawmills. However, the logs of sawmills that procure the timber from coastal areas and islands are inferior to those which procure the timber from the mainland.
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