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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'tractors'.

Category: Article

article id 5639, category Article
Dimitris Athanassiadis. (1997). Residual stand damage following cut-to-length harvesting operations with a farm tractor in two conifer stands. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5639. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8541

The objectives of this study were to record residual stand damage during harvesting operations and evaluate the influence of factors such as distance of the tree from the strip road, machine parts, operational phase, on the occurrence of tree wounds. The machine was a farm tractor equipped with a crane mounted on the front axle and a single grip harvester head. The study was carried out in two stands located in Southeast Sweden. Stand 1 was a 30-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) plantation on an afforested pasture while stand 2 was a 90-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), birch (Betula pendula Roth) and aspen (Populus tremula L.).

The mean damage percentage was 6.3% for the first stand and 6.5% for the second stand. Sixty-five percent of the wounds were less than 50 cm2, with 91% of the damage occurring on the stem and 91% of the damage on or below the root collar. Sixty-six percent of the wounds produced by the stem under processing or by the harvesting head while only 10% of the wounds were produced by the tractor wheel. Damaged trees were distributed evenly in the crane reach zone. Significant differences were found between rut depths after one, two, four and six passes of the tractor in stand 1.

  • Athanassiadis, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5380, category Article
Arto Rummukainen. (1989). Moreenimurskeella pinnoitettujen metsäteiden kunnossapito maataloustraktorikalustolla. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5380. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15537
English title: Maintenance of crushed moraine paved forest roads with agricultural tractor implements.

The condition of forest road pavements was studied in spring, one week after maintenance and in autumn. The effect of vibrating blade was slightly better than that of pulled drag. Large loose stones couldn’t be pressed into pavement with either of the implements. The use of the vibrating blade was three times as expensive as the use of the pulled drag, however, the blade is suitable for other purposes as well.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Rummukainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5186, category Article
Kaarlo Rieppo, Seppo Väyrynen. (1983). Kuormatraktoreiden huolto-ominaisuusvertailu haastattelemalla. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5186. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15102
English title: Interview survey on the servicing properties of forest tractors.

The aim of this concise interview survey was to collect information about the servicing properties of forest tractors. Ten interviewees gave grades (in a scale from 4 to 10) concerning two servicing properties of various types of forest tractor. The rating covered the general safety during servicing (structural serviceability) and work postures during the work. Four types of forest tractor widely-used in Finland were chosen. The forwarders were of different size and structure.

According to the rating, the lightest forwarder was clearly superior to the other types. This machine was also the smallest in size and the most modern. Differences between the other three forwarders were not quite so clear. The variation between the machines as regards both so-called easy and troublesome tasks was considerable. Lubrication of the articulated shafts and supporting bearings was, however, very troublesome regardless the machine type. The heaviest tractor was considered the most difficult to service.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rieppo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väyrynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5127, category Article
Simo Kaila, Juhani Päivänen. (1981). Metsämaanmuokkauksen suoritemäärät ja konekalusto vuosina 1976-1979. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5127. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15068
English title: Forest soil cultivation areas and machinery in 1976–1979 in Finland.

The areas of soil cultivation in regeneration sites using different methods in 1976–1979 and the cultivation units in use in Finland in 1979 were studied by means of a questionnaire. Application of soil cultivation methods appears to have become strongly polarized: in Southern Finland disc plowing with wheel tractors are used, whilst in Northern Finland wing plowing with crawler tractors is the most popular method, each being practically the only alternative in the respective area.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kaila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5127, category Article
Simo Kaila, Juhani Päivänen. (1981). Metsämaanmuokkauksen suoritemäärät ja konekalusto vuosina 1976-1979. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5127. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15068
English title: Forest soil cultivation areas and machinery in 1976–1979 in Finland.

The areas of soil cultivation in regeneration sites using different methods in 1976–1979 and the cultivation units in use in Finland in 1979 were studied by means of a questionnaire. Application of soil cultivation methods appears to have become strongly polarized: in Southern Finland disc plowing with wheel tractors are used, whilst in Northern Finland wing plowing with crawler tractors is the most popular method, each being practically the only alternative in the respective area.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kaila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4936, category Article
Erkki Wuolijoki. (1976). Metsäkoneiden heilunnan ergonomiset haitat. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4936. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14781
English title: Ergonomic effects of jolting of forest machines.

The paper deals mainly with the effects of jolting of forest tractors and processors on the health and working capacity of the driver. The literature surveyed presents especially the following points of interest: Jolting of the machine may hamper the focusing of the eyes and mastery of the controls. Long-term exposure to jolting may result in reduced sympathetic nervous activity at rest, and may impair an already existing back problem. Workers exposed to vibration, get more frequently gastric changes and changes in reproductive functions than usual. Jolting, as also the other negative physical factors of working environment, must be minimized as early as possible during the design of the machines.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Wuolijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7560, category Article
Matti Palo. (1972). Kaivuriurakoitsijain välinen kilpailu ja metsäojan hinnan alueellinen vaihtelu. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 126 article id 7560. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7560
English title: Competition among tractor-digger contractors and regional variation of forest drain prices.

In Finland The Central Forestry Board Tapio conducts forest drainage operations on swamps owned mainly by private individuals. This drainage is almost totally financed by the Government either as loans or subsidies. The local contractors have left bids about new forest drainage projects, and the best bid has won the contract. The trend of the average price for forest drains has been declining during the last 11 years although digging costs have increased. The aim of this study was (1) to explain the regional price variation of forest drains made by tractor-diggers and (2) to describe competition among tractor-digger contractors and to measure its effect on prices.

Correlation and regression analyses support the hypothesis that competition among tractor-digger contractors has decreased forest drain prices, especially in 1967. In the course of the last two years this competition effect has been lessening. The most significant other variables explaining price variations were the proportion of winter drainage, length of drainage work done for each participant in the project, and density of drains.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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