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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'tree breeding'.

Category: Research article

article id 10076, category Research article
Tore Skrøppa, Arne Steffenrem. (2019). Genetic variation in phenology and growth among and within Norway spruce populations from two altitudinal transects in Mid-Norway. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 10076. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10076
Highlights: Norway spruce populations distributed along each of two altitudinal transects showed strong clinal relationships between the annual mean temperatures of the sites of the populations and height and phenology traits in short term tests and height in field trials; Large variation was present among families within populations for height and phenology traits and with a wider range within than among populations; Correlation patterns among traits were different for provenances and families.

Progenies from open pollinated cones collected in natural populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) distributed along two altitudinal transects in Mid-Norway were tested in the nursery, in short term tests and in long-term field trials. The populations showed clinal variation related to the mean annual temperatures of the populations, with the earliest bud flush and cessation of shoot elongation and lowest height at age nine years for the high altitude populations. Within population variation was considerable as the narrow sense heritability for these traits was 0.67, 0.31 and 0.09 in one transect and 0.55, 0.18 and 0.14 in the other transect, respectively. Lammas shoots occurred in the short term trials with large variation in frequency between years. There was significant family variation for this trait, but also interactions between populations and year. The variance within populations was considerably larger in the populations from low altitude compared to the high-altitude populations. Significant genetic correlations between height and phenology traits and damage scores indicate that families flushing early and ceasing growth late were taller. Taller families also had higher frequencies of damages. Selection of the top 20% families for height growth in short term tests at age nine years gave a simulated gain of 11% increased height growth at age 18 years in long term trials at altitudes similar to those of origin of the populations. The gain was negative when high altitude populations were selected based on testing in the lowland.

  • Skrøppa, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: tore.skroppa@nibio.no (email)
  • Steffenrem, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 9914, category Research article
Jun Tanabe, Futoshi Ishiguri, Akira Tamura, Yuya Takashima, Jyunichi Ohshima, Kazuya Iizuka, Shinso Yokota. (2018). Within-tree radial and among-family variations in wood density, microfibril angle, and mechanical properties in Picea glehnii. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9914. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9914
Highlights: The modulus of elasticity was affected by both microfibril angle and wood density, whereas the modulus of rupture was mainly affected by wood density in Picea glehnii; A larger degree of among-family variation in wood properties was detected in juvenile wood than in mature wood, indicating that genetic improvements in the mechanical properties may be more effective for juvenile wood.

Genetic improvements in the mechanical properties of wood are important in forestry species used for lumber, such as Picea. The within-tree radial and among-family variations for the modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and their related traits [i.e., microfibril angle (MFA) of the S2 layer in latewood tracheid and air-dry density (AD)] were evaluated in nine open-pollinated families of Picea glehnii (F. Schmidt) Mast. The radial variation in MOR was mainly affected by AD, whereas MOE was affected by MFA and AD. Higher F-values obtained by analysis of variance and coefficient of variation were observed for all properties at the 6th–15th annual ring, except for AD at the 6th–10th annual ring. This result suggests that the contribution of genetic effect is larger in these highly variable regions. In addition, positive correlation coefficients were obtained between wood properties at the 6th–15th annual ring and mean values of these properties. Therefore, genetic improvements for MOE, MOR, and their related traits in P. glehnii is likely to be more effective in juvenile wood, specifically at the 6th–15th annual ring from the pith.

  • Tanabe, Faculty of Education, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: tanabe_j@chiba-u.jp (email)
  • Ishiguri, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: ishiguri@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp
  • Tamura, Forest Tree Breeding Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Hitachi, 319-1301, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: akirat@affrc.go.jp
  • Takashima, Forest Tree Breeding Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Hitachi, 319-1301, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: ytakashima@ffpri.affrc.go.jp
  • Ohshima, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: joshima@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp
  • Iizuka, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: kiizuka@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp
  • Yokota, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: yokotas@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp
article id 1562, category Research article
Mats Erik Berlin, Torgny Persson, Gunnar Jansson, Matti Haapanen, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Lars Bärring, Bengt Andersson Gull. (2016). Scots pine transfer effect models for growth and survival in Sweden and Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1562. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1562
Highlights: Scots pine transfer effect models for growth and survival, valid in both Sweden and Finland have been developed; The models use high-resolution gridded climate data and can predict performance in future climatic conditions; The models perform well both for unimproved and genetically improved material and can be used to develop deployment recommendations of contemporary forest regeneration material in Sweden and Finland.

In this study, we developed models of transfer effects for growth and survival of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Sweden and Finland using a general linear mixed-model approach. For model development, we used 378 provenance and progeny trials with a total of 276 unimproved genetic entries (provenances and stand seed check-lots) distributed over a wide variety of climatic conditions in both countries. In addition, we used 119 progeny trials with 3921 selected genetic entries (open- and control pollinated plus-tree families) for testing model performance. As explanatory variables, both climatic indices derived from high-resolution gridded climate datasets and geographical variables were used. For transfer, latitude (photoperiod) and, for describing the site, temperature sum were found to be main drivers for both survival and growth. In addition, interaction terms (between transfer in latitude and site altitude for survival, and transfer in latitude and temperature sum for growth) entail changed reaction patterns of the models depending on climatic conditions of the growing site. The new models behave in a way that corresponds well to previous studies and recommendations for both countries. The model performance was tested using selected plus-trees from open and control pollinated progeny tests. Results imply that the models are valid for both countries and perform well also for genetically improved material. These models are the first step in developing common deployment recommendations for genetically improved forest regeneration material in both Sweden and Finland.

  • Berlin, Uppsala Science Park, SE-75183 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.berlin@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Persson, Skogforsk, Box 3, SE-91821 Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torgny.persson@skogforsk.se
  • Jansson, Uppsala Science Park, SE-75183 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: gunnar.jansson@skogforsk.se
  • Haapanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.haapanen@luke.fi
  • Ruotsalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Finlandiantie 18, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.ruotsalainen@luke.fi
  • Bärring, Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Folkborgsvägen 17, SE-60176 Norrköping, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.barring@smhi.se
  • Andersson Gull, Skogforsk, Box 3, SE-91821 Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: bengt.andersson@skogforsk.se
article id 132, category Research article
Mats Berlin, Lars Lönnstedt, Gunnar Jansson, Öje Danell, Tore Ericsson. (2010). Developing a Scots pine breeding objective: a case study involving a Swedish sawmill. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 132. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.132
The aim of this study was to develop a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) breeding objective for a vertically integrated sawmill in northern Sweden. The production system was defined as comprising the sawmill and the forests supplying it. Volume per hectare, wood density, survival and straightness were used as objective traits and the related selection criteria were measurements, collected at young tree age, of height, diameter, pilodyn penetration, vitality and straightness. A bio-economic model was used to calculate economic weights for the objective traits identified. We also investigated the efficiency of different selection indices based on these economic weights, in combination with available data on genetic parameters. Furthermore, we studied the effect of different discount rates on the calculated economic weights. The results showed that, compared to the full index (which included all selection criteria), omitting either vitality or straightness had a negligible effect, reducing predicted profit gain per hectare by less than one per cent. Height or diameter each had a greater effect, with a loss of predicted profit gain per hectare of up to 6%. Excluding pilodyn penetration from the selection index caused the largest reduction in predicted profit gain per hectare, amounting to over 10%. However, when both height and diameter were removed the predicted profit gain per hectare dropped to one-third of that based on the full index. Finally, ranking and genetic selection for the developed breeding objective was insensitive to changes in the discount rate.
  • Berlin, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.berlin@skogsforsk.se (email)
  • Lönnstedt, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jansson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Danell, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ericsson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 1660, category Review article
Lars Rytter, Morten Ingerslev, Antti Kilpeläinen, Piritta Torssonen, Dagnija Lazdina, Magnus Löf, Palle Madsen, Peeter Muiste, Lars-Göran Stener. (2016). Increased forest biomass production in the Nordic and Baltic countries – a review on current and future opportunities. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 1660. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1660
Highlights: Annual growth is 287 million m3 in the forests of the Nordic and Baltic countries; Growth can be increased by new tree species, tree breeding, high-productive management systems, fertilization and afforestation of abandoned agricultural land; We predict a forest growth increment of 50–100% is possible at the stand scale; 65% of annual growth is harvested today.

The Nordic and Baltic countries are in the frontline of replacing fossil fuel with renewables. An important question is how forest management of the productive parts of this region can support a sustainable development of our societies in reaching low or carbon neutral conditions by 2050. This may involve a 70% increased consumption of biomass and waste to meet the goals. The present review concludes that a 50–100% increase of forest growth at the stand scale, relative to today’s common level of forest productivity, is a realistic estimate within a stand rotation (~70 years). Change of tree species, including the use of non-native species, tree breeding, introduction of high-productive systems with the opportunity to use nurse crops, fertilization and afforestation are powerful elements in an implementation and utilization of the potential. The productive forests of the Nordic and Baltic countries cover in total 63 million hectares, which corresponds to an average 51% land cover. The annual growth is 287 million m3 and the annual average harvest is 189 million m3 (65% of the growth). A short-term increase of wood-based bioenergy by utilizing more of the growth is estimated to be between 236 and 416 TWh depending on legislative and operational restrictions. Balanced priorities of forest functions and management aims such as nature conservation, biodiversity, recreation, game management, ground water protection etc. all need consideration. We believe that these aims may be combined at the landscape level in ways that do not conflict with the goals of reaching higher forest productivity and biomass production.

  • Rytter, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Ekebo 2250, SE-26890 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.rytter@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Ingerslev, Copenhagen University, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958, Frederiksberg C, Denmark ORCID ID:E-mail: moi@ign.ku.dk
  • Kilpeläinen, Finnish Environment Institute, Joensuu Office, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.kilpelainen@ymparisto.fi
  • Torssonen, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: Piritta.Torssonen@uef.fi
  • Lazdina, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Riga str, Salaspils, LV 2169 Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: Dagnija.Lazdina@silava.lv
  • Löf, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49 SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: magnus.lof@slu.se
  • Madsen, Copenhagen University, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958, Frederiksberg C, Denmark ORCID ID:E-mail: pam@ign.ku.dk
  • Muiste, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Dept. Forest Industry, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: Peeter.Muiste@emu.ee
  • Stener, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Ekebo 2250, SE-26890 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Lars-Goran.Stener@skogforsk.se

Category: Article

article id 5608, category Article
Harri Mäkinen. (1997). Possibilities of competition indices to describe competitive differences between Scots pine families. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5608. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8509

Possibilities of distance-independent and -dependent competition indices to describe the competition stress of an individual tree was studied in Southern Finland. Five half-sib open-pollinated families and one check lot of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was used as study material in order to analyse competitive interactions of crown form and stand density variation. Almost all competition indices correlated strongly with radial increment. Thus distance-independent indices were adequate to describe competition in young row plantations, where distance effects between trees were implicitly eliminated. Correlations between indices and height increment were not significant. Along with the increase in competition, the width and length of the crown and the diameter increment of the stem of some narrow-crowned families decreased slowly compared to wide-crowned families.

  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5539, category Article
Tore Skrøppa. (1994). Impacts of tree improvement on genetic structure and diversity of planted forests. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 5539. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9179

After a presentation of basic biodiversity concepts, reviews are made of studies reporting genetic implications of tree improvement activities: seed treatments, seedling production, provenance transfers, plus tree selection, seed production in seed orchards and progeny testing.

Several of the activities may influence the genetic structure and diversity of the planted forests. The general conclusion is, however, that planted forests are at least as genetically diverse as the natural stands that they replace. The diversity in forest management and use is best assurance for the future adaptability of the forests.

  • Skrøppa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5466, category Article
Hely Häggman. (1991). Application of biotechnology to forest tree breeding. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5466. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15624

Forest tree breeding involves manipulation of genetic composition of populations and individuals, and biotechnology focuses on selected individuals. The new techniques cannot replace the conventional breeding techniques but both need effective cooperation of each other. Thus, the distinction between conventional breeding and biotechnology is artificial. The biotechnology methods are new and fast developing and the future with field and progeny testing will show which techniques will be permanently adopted into tree breeding. For instance, the earlier hope of the use of somaclonal variation as a new source of variability and a powerful tool for the breeder seem today quite the opposite. Somaclonal variation constituting a major problem in present-day micropropagation is due to the unpredictable variation. Based on knowledge of today, especially micropropagation via somatic embryos, transgenic trees and the identification of major genes seem to be good candidates to be permanently adopted into tree breeding.

  • Häggman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5465, category Article
Gösta Eriksson. (1991). Challenges for forest geneticists. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5465. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15623

Studies of phenotypic as well as mixed population plasticities are urgently needed in a world that supposedly experiences a gradual change of its environment. It is important to understand that man creates his environment and silviculture. This is one of the reasons why for breeding it cannot be expected to find optimal phenotypes in nature. Other reasons are the phylogenetic constraints and migration of pollen and seeds.

Forest genetics up to now is characterized by the study of one trait at a time. There is an urgent need for simultaneous analysis of several traits by the aid of genetic correlations or multivariate analysis. Generally there is a need for inclusion of larger numbers of genetic entries in forest genetic investigations.

For the long-rotation-time species there is a need to determine the curves for degree of dormancy and hardiness during the annual cycle. Information of plasticity in two-dimensional environments like water availability and temperature is needed. Studies on nutrient utilization and acquisition will tell us whether or not we must have different breeding populations for different soil fertilities. An understanding of the phase changes between juvenile and adult opens up possible applications such as faster generation turn-over in the breeding population via early flowering and early testing as well as better plants for frost-prone and weedy sites.

  • Eriksson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5464, category Article
Donald I. Dickmann. (1991). Role of physiology in forest tree improvement. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5464. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15622

The paper introduces different ways plant physiology research can avail the process of tree improvement. The breeding of tree cultivars that efficiently produce a particular wood product or amenity will be an important aspect of forest management. What physiologist can provide to breeders and genetic engineers is the opportunity to move their work from empirical level towards a more theoretical level, and help to make breeding more predictable and more precise in its objectives. The areas of research discussed in the paper are biotechnology, flowering, selection criteria, adaptability and application of ideotypes.

  • Dickmann, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5463, category Article
Öje Danell. (1991). Survey of past, current and future Swedish forest tree breeding. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5463. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15621

The paper gives an introduction of the tree breeding program of Sweden that started in 1936 by the establishment of an association for the tree breeding. In 1967 the Institute of Forest Improvement was founded and it replaced the earlier association. The main species in the programme have been Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), lately also birch (mainly Betula pendula Roth.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). In addition, limited breeding has been done also with hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides), oak (Quercus), larch (Larix), black spruce (Picea mariana) and a few other native and exotic species. The dominating initial effort has been to select plustrees in natural stands and use them for production of reforestation material. In addition, a considerable body of tests was built. The paper lists the status of breeding material of the different tree species and introduces the medium and short-term breeding programmes.

  • Danell, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5461, category Article
Run-Peng Wei, Dag Lindgren. (1991). Selection effects on diversity and genetic gain. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5461. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15619

Four different methods of truncation selection were studied in a population consisting of a large number of unrelated full sib families of equal size: phenotype selection, family selection, within-family selection and combined index selection (optimal weighting of individual and family performance to get the best prediction of breeding value). Methods were developed for calculating diversity (”relative effective family number”) for the different selection methods. Numerical calculations were made for genetic gain and diversity. Model assumptions are additive gene control and normal distribution. Phenotypic was good at high heritabilities and between family at low heritabilities. Loss of diversity was strongly dependent on selection method and selection strength. Compared at the same diversity, genetic gain was lower for combined index compared to phenotypic. There is a need for methods combining the goals gain and diversity.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Wei, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindgren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5204, category Article
Pirkko Velling, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1984). Harvest index in a progeny test of Scots pine with reference to the model of selection. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5204. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15383

Harvest index and number of associated traits were measured in a 16-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny test based on full-sib families. It was found that harvest index is a highly heritable trait and that a number of yield components are positively correlated with it. It is suggested that harvest index and tree ideotypes should be the basis of selection in cultivated trees. It is emphasized that an integrated approach to tree improvement including silviculture, soil science, industrial and economic constraints and tree breeding is a prerequisite for maximal response.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5160, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1982). Metsäpuiden populaatiogenetiikka. Helsingissä 1981 pidetyn symposion tutkimusraportit. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 2 article id 5160. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15075
English title: Population genetics of forest trees.

The publication comprises proceedings of a conference held in Helsinki in 1981. Forest tree populations are investigated for population genetic structure, mating systems, mechanisms of genetic adaptation and ecological adaptation. Methods and techniques used in population genetic research of forest trees are presented. Much concern is given to applications by means of forest tree breeding, particularly the seed orchard breeding technique. Generally, the application of population genetics in cultivated forests is discussed.

The PDF includes a preface and the presentations of the conference (25 short papers) in English, and a comprehensive summary of the themes of the conference in Finnish.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5066, category Article
J. P. Efimov. (1980). Some results on the regularities of seed crops in Scots pine seed orchards. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5066. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15007

Establishment of seed orchards to produce genetically improved seed started in the USSR in the 1960’s. The aim is that within 10–15 years the total seed production will reach 50% of the seed used. The paper describes seed production in seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the forest-steppe of the European part of the USSR. The orchards have been established either by grafting or by planting of seedlings originating from plus trees. The grafts begin flowering relatively early, however, only at the age of 8–10 years seed crops become relatively regular and abundant. The cone yield in young seed orchards have great variability, and the yield of cones varies between clones. Cone yield does not always correlate with a good seed yield. One of the reasons for high amount of empty seeds is the difference in the periods of flowering between the clones.

The seed crops can be improved by establishing optimal conditions for the growth of the trees. Also, when a seed orchard is founded, the peculiarities of the generative activities of the clones and their reactions to changes in the environmental conditions must be taken account by taking an individual and selective measure approach to improvement measures. The orchards can be established with clones for their genetic combining ability and their requirements for the stimulation of seed-bearing.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Efimov, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5064, category Article
E. P. Prokazin. (1980). Geographic variation in forest trees. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5064. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15005

Planting of forest trees takes place in USSR on millions of hectares but without permanent forest seed bases having yet been established in every region of the country. Consequently, local seed does not suffice the need, and it is necessary to secure it from other geographical regions. To avoid negative consequences of seed transfer it is necessary to study geographic variation of the genetic characteristics of forest trees and construct scientifically based division into seed zones. Geographic transfer of seed can also be regarded as a breeding measure. A large research program is being carried out in the USSR on the subject. Most of the existing trials are provenience tests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Over 2,000 hectares of new provenience experiments is to be established in near future.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Prokazin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5062, category Article
I. Etverk. (1980). Geographical variability of the Norway spruce in the Estonian SSR. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5062. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15003

The productivity and several morphological features of Estonian Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) show significant geographical variation. This is no doubt because of differences in the climatic and soil conditions, which in spite of the small area of the country is quite large. In order to check the possible geographical variability of the gene pool, preliminary experiments were carried out in 1969, when seeds from 93 spruce stands originating from 14 forest enterprises were sowed in a nursery. After two years, the seedlings originating from south-eastern Estonia were the tallest. The seedlings from northern origins were smallest. However, it cannot be maintained that spruces from Southern Estonia are of better genotype than genotype from Northern Estonia since the genotypes are evaluated on the basis of ecological conditions under which the experiments are carried out. Another study suggests that an average shift of 7° to the east of the territory for spruces are suitable for cultivation in Estonia.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Etverk, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5061, category Article
Max Hagman. (1980). Experiences with Norway spruce provenances in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5061. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15002

Ecological investigations have shown that Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) reached Western Finland about 1,500–1,000 years B.C. and did not reach Åland islands before around the year 0. The species spread into Finland from the east and north-east, having survived the glaciation somewhere in the central parts of the Asian continent. Geographical variation has provided foresters with provenances of better growth and higher economic yield. In Finland, provenances, for instance, from Austria, Eastern Germany, Romania, Southern Poland and Slovakia have been planted in experiments, mostly in various parts of Southern Finland. According to the results of the experiments, it seems that for the more northern parts of Finland and Sweden the best material was to be obtained from north-east Europe.

The Scandinavian countries decided in 1975 to make a common assessment of all the provenance experiments with Norway spruce. The synthesis confirms the earlier view that provenances from the most north-eastern parts of Central Europe are of the greatest value for Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hagman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5060, category Article
A. I. Novoselceva. (1980). On the application of forest genetics and forest tree breeding research to practical forest seed production. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5060. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15001

The development of the scientific basis for the production of high-quality seed led to the introduction of a large part of the research findings in forest genetics and forest tree breeding into practical forest seed production in the USSR. Since 1971, work has begun in forest enterprises on the establishment of a permanent seed supply for the main tree species – Pinus sylvestris, Picea ssp., Larix ssp. Quercus robur, Haloxylon ssp. and nut trees.

The basis for forest tree improvement is a gene pool which is built up using mass and individual selection of valuable forms in natural populations. In accordance with a long-term programme up to 1990, an inventory of 13.2 million ha of the best high-productive stands has been carried out for breeding purposes in the state forests. About 7,000 ha of plus stands have been selected, and a total of 9,453 ha of seed orchards and 141,253 ha of seed collection stands have been established. The first stage of the programme is planned to be complete in 1980, and in the second stage clonal high-quality seed orchards will be established.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish

  • Novoselceva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5058, category Article
Max Hagman. (1980). Suomalais-neuvostoliittolainen metsägenetiikan ja siemenhuollon symposiumi Punkaharjulla 17.–18.8.1978. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5058. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14999
English title: Reports of the Finnish-Soviet symposium on forest genetics and forest tree seed production, Punkaharju, Finland, August 17-18. 1978.

As a part of the scientific and technical cooperation between Finland and the USSR a symposium and an excursion on forest genetics and seed production was organized in Finland in August 1978. The symposium paper presented at Punkaharju are published here in order to bring them available for a wider audience.

The 12 symposium reports deal with the following subjects: Practical application of forest genetic research (A.I. Novoselceva), geographical variability and provenance transfer (E.P. Prokazin, M. Hagman, I. Etverk), variation in wood density (P. Velling), variation of flowering and seed crops in seed orchards (Y.P. Efimov), and natural stands (V. Koski), vegetative propagation (J. Niiranen), seed size effects and early test problems (J. Mikola), quantitative analysis of genotypic and environmental effects (S.A. Petrov), hormonal induction of flowering (O. Luukkanen) and x-ray photography analysis of the ageing of seeds during storage (M. Ryynänen).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hagman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4930, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1976). Ionisoivan säteilyn vaikutus varastokuivien ja liotettujen metsäpuiden siementen idäntään ja taimien alkukehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4930. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14772
English title: Effect of ionizing radiation on the germination of storage-dry and soaked forest tree seeds and on the initial development of seedlings.

The study was carried out in order to find out the changes taking place in germination of seeds in certain tree species as a function of gamma irradiation, the height growth of the seedlings produced and the types of phenotypic mutants possibly found in the generation that had received radiation. The tree species studied were Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Betula verrucosa (Betula pendula Roth), B. Pubescens Ehrh., Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Alnus incana (L.) Moench.

Soaked seeds that had received a rather small dose of radiation germinated usually better than storage-dry seeds, B. pubescens being an exception. The damages observed in germination, height growth and the relative number of mutants were greater the higher the irradiation doses. The LD50 dose (germination, 28 days) was as follows in the case of the different tree species (storage dry/soaked): P. Sylvestris 1,500-2,000/2500-3,000, P. abies 1,000-1,500/4,000-4,500, B. pendula 9,500-10,000/7,000-7,500, B. pubescens >10,000/7,500-8,000 and A. Glutinosa 10,000/8,500-9,000 rad. Mass production of different mutants of deciduous trees for ornamental purposes, for example, appears to be easy using gamma-irradiation. On the other hand, the possibility of increasing tree growth remains open for further study.

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  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4897, category Article
A. V. Chudnyi. (1974). Metsäpuiden populaatiorakenteen tutkimusmenetelmistä. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4897. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14741
English title: Investigation methods in forest tree population studies.

From the tree breeder’s point of view, an investigation of the chemical compounds in a tree population is worthwhile, if sufficiently high correlations exist between the chemical composition and any economical important characteristics. In Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations, such a correlation seems to exist between a high α-pinene and a low Δ3-carene content on the one hand, and the poor resistance to Fomitopsis annosa Fr. (now Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.) but a rapid development during the first half of the life cycle on the other hand. Detailed investigation on the terpene contents in pine populations were conducted at 121 locations throughout the Soviet Union. As a result, the range of this species was divided into zones, each of which was characterized by a distinct terpene composition pattern. In continuing selection and breeding work, the terpene contents are being used as indicators when the variation of economically important characteristics of Scots pine populations is studied.

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  • Chudnyi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4888, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1973). Havaintoja kuusen vapaapölytysjälkeläistöjen ja männyn metsikköalkuperien CO2-aineenvaihdunnasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4888. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14726
English title: Observations on CO2 exchange in open pollinated progenies of Norway spruce and provenances of Scots pine.

Photosynthesis and dark respiration in five families of autochtonous Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and in seedlings from twenty Finnish stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were investigated in constant environmental conditions. Values of CO2 exchange were compared with the height growth and weight of seedlings in Norway spruce and with the weight alone in Scots pine. No statistically significant differences were found in CO2 exchange among progenies or stands. Photosynthetic efficiency and photosynthetic capacity showed a positive correlation both in spruce and in pine. Growth and net photosynthetic capacity were linearly and positively correlated in pine. Spruce and a higher light compensation point than pine. The use of an open IRGA system with several simultaneous measurements and the trap-type cuvette construction in genetic work are discussed.

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  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4869, category Article
Ole Oskarsson, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1972). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet II. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4869. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14672
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding II. Selection differences and genetic gains in selected seed stands of Scots pine.

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) selected seed stands. To obtain highest possible accuracy, the estimations are based on a large statistical material comprising 197 separate seed stands. It is concluded that the genetic gain of volume growth ranges between 7.4–15.0%. Unwanted pollen contaminations may, however, in the worst case halve this genetic gain.

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  • Oskarsson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4833, category Article
Eero Malmivaara, Jouni Mikola, Christel Palmberg. (1971). Pajujen mahdollisuudet metsäpuiden jalostuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4833. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14622
English title: Potential of willows in forest tree breeding.
Original keywords: metsänjalostus; pajut; Suomi

A review is made into the experiences and possibilities of willow breeding, with a particular consideration of their application under Finnish conditions.

In comparison with other tree genera, Salix has many advantages in breeding. The great number of species, large genetic variation between and within species and frequent crossability offer good possibilities for improvement by hybridization. The dioecious flowering, plentiful seed production and short generation cycle are valuable properties for breeding by controlled pollination. Individuals with desirable characteristics can be easily propagated vegetatively from cuttings. The propertied stated above are also characteristic of poplars, the breeding of which has resulted in great success. Corresponding results can be therefore expected from willow breeding, which has recently been initiated in several countries.

Today willows have no practical significance for forestry in Finland. There are, however, some suitable Salix species, both indigenous and exotic, for starting material for breeding, and plenty of favourable sites for willows. Therefore, the beginning of breeding research with willows should be well justified also in Finland.

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  • Malmivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4831, category Article
Lauri Mikkola. (1970). Kuusilajien risteytyvyydestä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4831. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14620
English title: On the crossability of Picea species.

Seed development was microscopically studied after controlled pollinations. In all the interspecific crosses incompatibility occured. In the following crosses the growth of all the pollen tubes stopped before they had penetrated through the nuclear cap: Picea abies (L.) Karst. x mariana, abies x jezoensis (and the reciprocal), abies x omorika (and the reciprocal), mariana x asperata, mariana x jezoensis and Picea abies x Pinus sylvestris L.

Some of the eggs were fertilized in the crosses Picea abies x glauca (and the reciprocal) abies x asperata, abies x koyamai, abies x obovata, mariana x omorika and jezoensis x omorika. Embryo degeneration was observed in all these crosses. All the embryos died in the crosses abies x glauca (and the reciprocal) as well as jezoensis x omorika. Adequate amounts of full seed for germination test was obtained from the crosses abies x asperata, abies x koyamai and abies x obovata. In all these crosses there were seeds which were able to germinate and the hybrids are now one growth season old.

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  • Mikkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4823, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1970). Heritabiliteetin arvioiminen eräässä männyn (Pinus silvestris L.) jälkeläiskokeessa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4823. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14612
English title: Estimation of heritability in open-pollinated plus tree progenies of Pinus sylvestris L.

Field experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was established by planting seedlings grown from seeds collected from open-pollinated plus trees throughout the country. The 36 progenies represented were planted in 4 blocks as 2+2 transplants in 1960. The main characteristics of the seedlings were measured in 1966 and 1968. Considerable damage had been caused to the stands by moose (Alces alces) and Melampsora pinitorqua Rostr., consequently, therefore, only normally developed seedlings were measured.

Highly significant differences between progenies were found in the number of branches in 1968 and in the ratio of height of tree to the length of the longest branch. In 1968, the differences in height between progenies were not significant, but there were significant differences between blocks both in tree height and length of terminal shoot. Obviously, the edaphic heterogeneity of the site has influenced mainly the juvenile growth of the plants, because in the length of the terminal shoot there could be seen also significant differences between the progenies. There were no significant differences between the progenies in the length of the longest branch, in the angles of the thickest branches, in stem taper and in the diameter of the thickest branch.

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  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4816, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt, Eero Malmivaara. (1970). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet I.Pluspuiden valintaero ja siemenviljelysten valintahyöty. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4816. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14605
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding. I Selection differential of plus trees and genetic gain in seed orchards in Finland.

An attempt was made to estimate critically the genetic gain in clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland. The selection differential of Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is calculated on the basis of filed information on selected plus trees which has been kept by the genetic register at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The differentials were computed as realized differences in height between plus-trees and normal stand characteristics on respectively site class and as a function of age.

The genetic gain in height growth of Pinus sylvestris was computed on the basis of information on selection differential and heritability. This genetic gain is between 2.6–4.4% provided there is no pollen contamination from unknown sources outside the seed orchard. The genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine is about 7–15%, provided there is no pollen contamination in the seed orchard. However, according to investigations, there is invariably some pollen contamination in this kind of seed orchards. The contamination decreases to about 30–50% as the orchard matures and starts to produce endemic pollen. If the pollination would be entirely due to foreign pollen sources, the mathematically calculated genetic gain would be 3.5–7.5%.

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  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Malmivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4753, category Article
Helge Johnsson. (1967). Olika vägar för rasmässig förbättring av vårt skogsodlingsmaterial. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4753. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14537
English title: Different ways of genetic improvement of forest trees in Scandinavia.

Transfer of southern provenances of trees to the north leads to an increased growth until the limit of hardiness is exceeded, which may be utilized in practical forestry. Selection from certain local provenances are important both for the immediate supply of seed and on a somewhat longer view. A certain degree of improvement can be achieved by avoiding minus regions and concentrating seed collection on better areas. Also, seeds can be collected from the best stands only, and by accepting only seed from the best trees of such stands. The selection can be strengthened considerably by production of seed orchards. The seed production is based on a small number of trees of particular superiority that are reproduced vegetatively. The clones are planted in an orchard, which pollinate each other.

Hybridization of two different provenances might result in an increased capacity of production. Such hybridized seed can be produced in orchards established, for instance, as a combination of selection and hybridization orchards. As regards the major Scandinavian tree species there are only small prospects of advancement through species hybridization. The method available at present for efficient racial improvement of our forest trees is individual selection in connection with seed production in orchards. In special cases, however, other methods such as transfer of provenances, provenance hybridization, species hybridization, and polyploidization will result in considerable progress.

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  • Johnsson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7620, category Article
Min-Sup Chung. (1981). Biochemical methods for determining population structure in Pinus sylvestris L. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 173 article id 7620. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7620

Studies on Finnish Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plus tree clones by monoterpene and isozyme analyses was undertaken to further investigate mating system, population structure and pollination. Six allozyme systems (3 GOT, 1 GDH and 2 LAP) were properly analysed on the basis of segregation. Monoterpenes were analysed from needle material and segregation in high and low 3-carene content was found to depend on two alleles C and c. Thus, six allozyme systems and one monoterpene system were used as markers in this study.

It was shown that the northern clonal group maintains a much genetic variation as the central or southern clonal groups. The conditional probability of self-fertilization in about 20-year old clones estimated by the multilocus model was 14.1%, of which 8% originate from mating between trees that carry the same alleles to one of the maternal parent at some loci and 6% through self-fertilization.

There was no prominent difference in allele frequency of male gametes that pollinated the very early or very late flowering clones. The northern clonal group has higher a lower frequency of alleles GOT B2 and B3 respectively than of the southern clonal groups. The artificial plus tree selection, particularly in northern Finland, appears to favour heterozygous genotypes for the alleles that control 3-carene content n Scots pine.

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  • Chung, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4586, category Article
Risto Sarvas. (1948). Metsäpuiden rodunjalostuksesta. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4586. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13988
English title: Forest tree breeding.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration in 1947. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation introduces the aims and work of Foundation of Forest Tree Breeding, established in 1946.

  • Sarvas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4586, category Article
Risto Sarvas. (1948). Metsäpuiden rodunjalostuksesta. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4586. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13988
English title: Forest tree breeding.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration in 1947. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation introduces the aims and work of Foundation of Forest Tree Breeding, established in 1946.

  • Sarvas, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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