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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'tree species composition'.

Category: Research article

article id 502, category Research article
Janne Levula, Hannu Ilvesniemi, Carl Johan Westman. (2003). Relation between soil properties and tree species composition in a Scots pine–Norway spruce stand in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 502. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.502
It is commonly known in Finland that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a tree of dry soils and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) is a tree of fresh soils. However, the concepts of dry and fresh soils still lack a precise definition. Consequently, the discussion on which soil/site is a pine or spruce habitat has continued over several decades. Moreover, in forest regeneration, the practice of tree species selection between the pine and the spruce has varied. We investigated the relationship between soil properties and pine–spruce species composition in a mature, naturally regenerated stand in southern Finland. We applied spatial analysis to divide the stand area up into 3–7 classes based on selected soil properties and then investigated the variations in species composition among those classes. The pine–spruce basal area ratio (BA of pines / BA of spruces) increased along with increasing mean particle size and proportion of coarse sand and gravel particle size fraction (0.6–20 mm) of mineral soil, and was lowest in classes, with the highest proportions of fine texture fractions. The results suggest that in southern Finland on sorted soils, pine is more competitive in regeneration and growth than spruce when mean particle size is above 0.44 mm or percentage of coarse sand and gravel is higher than 50%.
  • Levula, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.levula@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Ilvesniemi, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7295, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1934). Lounais-Suomen metsien puulajihistoriasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 18 article id 7295. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7295
English title: The history of tree species in southwest Finland.

Pollen analysis has given information on development of the tree species composition after the ice age, but this kind of studies have not been published in Finland. In this study, pollen analysis was performed in five peatlands in the southwest Finland. According to the analysis, the forests of the area have had similar tree species composition for many thousands of years. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been the dominant species as long as there has been Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in the area. Norway spruce seems to have arrived about 4,500 years ago. It increased slowly in the beginning, and after reaching a maximum has been slowly decreasing. Before spruce arrived, Betula sp. was more abundant, and seemed to be the dominant tree species in some places. Traces of fire in the peat layers indicate that forest fires have been common before people arrived in the area, and may have beneficial to birch. Like Betula sp., also Alnus sp. were more common before spruce arrived. Also pollen of other broadleaved species, for example, Tilia sp., Ulmus sp. and Corylus could be found. However, Quercus pollen was not found. The paludification of the peatlands had begun at different times which indicates that there has not been a common cause for the development of the peatlands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5600, category Article
Anton K. Chtchoukine. (1996). North European platyphyllous forests: biodiversity dynamics and climate changes in northwest European Russia. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5600. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9245

Distribution, biodiversity and reforestation dynamics of the platyphyllous forests in the Northwest European Russia were investigated. Data assembled from 21 landscape regions (250–350 km2 each) show special features of small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill., Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), mountain elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and English oak (Qurecus robur L.) reforestation during the last two decades. New tendencies were found for the taiga areas with natural Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) vegetation. Natural platyphyllous reforestation in cut spruce areas poses as supposed a special question for forest management policy in the relationship to global climate changes. Feasible unsustainability of the common types of succession (Norway spruce - European birch (Betula pendula Roth); Norway spruce - European aspen (Populus tremula L.)) is discussed. Biodiversity of herbs, shrubs and tree species of platyphyllous forests is high and complex and is situated in 4–15 old-growth relics in each landscape region. Low-level genotype heterogeneity of nemoral flora species of such isolated populations is presumed. Special biodiversity conservation regulations are proposed.

  • Chtchoukine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5574, category Article
Jouni Vettenranta. (1996). Effect of species composition on economic return in a mixed stand of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5574. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9219

The effect of species mixture was studied in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by simulating around 100 different treatment schedules during the rotation in a naturally regenerated even-aged stand located on a site of medium fertility in North Karelia, Finland. Both thinning from below and thinning from above were applied. Optimum rotations were determined by maximising the net present value calculated to infinity and different treatment schedules were compared with the net present value over one rotation as per rotation applied. In the optimum treatment programme, the proportion of pines was decreased by half of the basal area in the first thinning stage and by the end of the rotation to about one third. In thinning from above, the proportion of pines can be maintained at a slightly higher level. It is economically profitable to maintain the growing stock capital at approximately the level recommended by Forest Centre Tapio, a semi-governmental forestry authority. With non-optimum species composition, the loss in net present value over one rotation can be about 10 % in thinning from below and about 20 % in thinning from above.

  • Vettenranta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5239, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1985). On the use of tree stand parameters in estimating light conditions below the canopy. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5239. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15418

Especially in forest vegetation studies, the light climate below the canopy is of great interest. In extensive forest inventories, direct measurement of the light conditions is too time-consuming. Often only the standard tree stand parameters are available. The present study was undertaken with the aim to develop methods for estimation of the light climate on the basis of readily measurable tree stand characteristics. The study material includes 40 sample plots representing different kinds of more or less mature forest stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.).

In each forest stand, a set of hemipherical photographs was taken and standard tree stand measurements were performed. A regression approach was applied in order to elaborate linear models for predicting the canopy coverage. The total basal area of the stand explained 63% of variance in the canopy coverage computed from hemipherical photographs. A coefficient representing the relative proportion of Norway spruce in the stand increased the explanatory power into 75%. When either the stand density (stems/unit area) or dominant age of the stand was included into the model, increment of the explanatory power into 80% was achieved. By incorporating both of the preceding predictors, an explanatory power of 85% was reached.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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