Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'tuonti'.

Category: Article

article id 7413, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1954). Tutkimuksia Suomen teollisuuden vuonna 1950 käyttämistä polttoaineista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 1 article id 7413. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7413
English title: Investigations into industrial fuel in Finland in 1950.

The use of imported fuels has increased in Finland, which has resulted in a growing disregard of domestic fuels, primarily firewood, on fuel market. This has affected forest management and economy of forest owners as well as diminishing the working opportunities in the countryside by decreasing the demand of small-sized timber. This investigation studies the fuel problem in the industrial field by a survey sent to all industrial plants in the country.

The different fuels were converted to the calorific value of pine firewood measured in piled cubic meters (p-m3, cu.m.). In 1950 the industry utilized 14.1 million cu.m piled measure of imported and domestic fuels. Of this 47% was domestic fuels and 53% imported fuels. The share of coal was 40%, wood waste almost 30%, and firewood 18%. The relatively small proportion of firewood suggests that it could be possible to increase the industrial demand for firewood. However, it should be noted that industry uses fuel mainly for power production, where imported fuels are highly effective. Forest industry used 2/3 of all domestic fuel.

According to the report, waste wood was cheapest kind of fuel for industry. It was, however, often the plant’s own waste material. The cost of coal at the mill was 60% of the corresponding price of firewood. The location of the industry affects greatly the price relations between domestic and imported fuels. Coal is cheaper close to the harbours and the coastline of the country. The state has supported firewood transportation by lower freight rates for firewood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7413, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1954). Tutkimuksia Suomen teollisuuden vuonna 1950 käyttämistä polttoaineista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 1 article id 7413. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7413
English title: Investigations into industrial fuel in Finland in 1950.

The use of imported fuels has increased in Finland, which has resulted in a growing disregard of domestic fuels, primarily firewood, on fuel market. This has affected forest management and economy of forest owners as well as diminishing the working opportunities in the countryside by decreasing the demand of small-sized timber. This investigation studies the fuel problem in the industrial field by a survey sent to all industrial plants in the country.

The different fuels were converted to the calorific value of pine firewood measured in piled cubic meters (p-m3, cu.m.). In 1950 the industry utilized 14.1 million cu.m piled measure of imported and domestic fuels. Of this 47% was domestic fuels and 53% imported fuels. The share of coal was 40%, wood waste almost 30%, and firewood 18%. The relatively small proportion of firewood suggests that it could be possible to increase the industrial demand for firewood. However, it should be noted that industry uses fuel mainly for power production, where imported fuels are highly effective. Forest industry used 2/3 of all domestic fuel.

According to the report, waste wood was cheapest kind of fuel for industry. It was, however, often the plant’s own waste material. The cost of coal at the mill was 60% of the corresponding price of firewood. The location of the industry affects greatly the price relations between domestic and imported fuels. Coal is cheaper close to the harbours and the coastline of the country. The state has supported firewood transportation by lower freight rates for firewood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
English title: Opportunities of Finnish forestry and forest industry in the market of Continental Europe.

The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.

The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4624, category Article
Polttoainekomitea. (1952). Polttoainekysymys vuonna 1951 : polttoainekomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 74 article id 4624. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9096
English title: The fuel question in Finland in 1951.

The government of Finland appointed a committee to make a suggestion of measures to be taken to arrange fuel supply during the heating season. The committee drafted also a plan to regulate and govern the fuel economy.

The committee estimated that the total consumption of coal, coke, firewood, waste wood and fuel peat, converted into pine firewood increased from 33.8 million eu.m in piled measure in heating period of 1952-53 to 42.9 million in 1955-56. According to the report, the demand of fuel is met increasingly through imported fuels, such as coal, coke and oil. The change is mainly due by their lower price and technically easy handling compared to domestic fuels.

The committee suggests that the production of domestic fuels, peat and firewood, should be increased and rationalized. In addition, financial support should be targeted to construct hydroelectric plants. Fuel peat industry should be developed further. The use of oil should be promoted, and boilers able to use different kinds of fuel should be constructed. To be prepared in changes in international situation, stocks of fuel are needed.

  • Polttoainekomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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