Current issue: 55(2)
In Southern Finland Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is mainly sown on Vaccinium and Myrtillus-type sites. The material for the study was collected by measuring sample plots in pure, even-aged pine stand that had been sown. The sample stands had been thinned from below.
The volume of the stands was roughly the same as that of repeatedly thinned pine stands. The cubic volume of sown pine stands is 65–90%, varying according to age, of that of natural-normal pine stands. The current annual volume increment of stands on Myrtillus-type was 8–9 m3/ha at age of 20–30 years. The peak was reached at age of 35 years with 9 m3/ha, in the following years the increment is about 8 m3/ha until the age of 60 years. On Vaccinium type sites increment reaches 6–7 m3 level at age of 30 years, and attains the peak of 7 m3/ha at the age of 45 years. Annual increment was in young and middle-aged Myrtillus-type stands about 10% greater, and on Vaccinium-type stands 15–20% greater than in natural-normal pine stands.
The total volume increment in 70 years old Myrtillus-type stands was 580 m3/ha over bark, and in 80 years old Vaccinium-type stands 520 m3/ha. The total removal on Myrtillus-type sites totalled nearly 350 m3/ha in sown pine stands up to 70 years of age, and 280 m3/ha on Vaccinium-type stands. The total yield in sawn timber per hectare rises up to 6,300 cubic ft in a 70 years old stand on Myrtillus-type stands, and 5,300 cubic ft in Vaccinium-type stands. In conclusion, the volume and increment development of managed pine stands established by sowing up to 70–80 years of age is largely the same as in repeatedly thinned pine stands, but the structure and yield offer greater advantages. The investigation demonstrates that, in the case of Scots pine, sowing is an advantageous method of regeneration. Sowing is an advantage especially in the cases where natural regeneration is uncertain and slow.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The aim of the study was to determine the value of common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) in forestry by studying an unusually large alder forest in Kontusaari, an island of the size of 75 hectares in the Southern Finland. The forest is grass-herb forest site type. The coastline of the island is partly flooded. Wood has been harvested mainly for fuel wood. The stands have regenerated easily from stump shoots. The annual volume growth is slightly higher than what would be in Norway spruce (Picae abies (L.) Karst.) or Betula sp. stands, estimated based on growth and yield tables made by Ilvessalo. The site is well suited for common alder, and it is difficult to judge what the yield would be for other species on the site.
The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.
The aim of this paper was to study the nature of the relative areal differences in the Finnish forests in respect of timber yield, intensity of exploitation and stumpage prices. The yield index is the most inconsistent and the source of the greatest regional differences. The differences arise even in Southern Finland, as the yield in the South-West is only 80 % of that obtained in Eastern Häme. The areal variations in the wastage index are of the order of only 10 % at most, and the stumpage price index is relatively constant, remaining within the 10 % limit, as far north as the southern boundary of the province of Oulu.
Indices for the forest yield and final forest returns suggest that the further one goes in Finland the greater the discrepancy between the two, as a consequence of the increase in stumpage price differences. Thus, whereas the yield per hectare in North-Eastern Finland is about 20 % of that in Eastern Häme, the stumpage price is similarly only just over 50 % of that prevailing in the latter area. This, the resulting returns per hectare are only 10 % of those obtainable in the more southerly area. When the return per hectare for the Forestry Board District of Eastern Häme is represented by the index 100, one then obtains corresponding return indices of 21.0 for the Northern Ostrobothnia and Kainuu area, 13.0 for Lapland and 10.0 for North-Eastern Finland. Thus, it may be said that roughly 10 hectares of forest land in Lapland, 5 in Northern Ostrobothnia or Kainuu, or 2 in Northern Karelia or the coastal area of southern and central Ostrobothnia would be required to produce the same returns as 1 hectare in Eastern Häme. This represents an extremely wide range of variation within the borders of one country.
This work provides a clear and sufficiently accurate impression of the order of magnitude of the areal differences in returns from the Finnish forests, and may thus serve as an adequate basis for the taking of decisions in this field.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
No other manifestation of life is allied more conspicuously to the theory of relativity as the growth of forest stands which is a function of the inherent growth potential of trees, the productive capacity of environment, and time.
The height over age quotient of a forest stand is usually the most reliable indicator of the productive forces of the habitat. Stem analysis have shown that increment of a tree at different ages is closely correlated with the extension of roots into individual geological horizons of different productive capacity. Growth curves of stands of a same tree species growing on different soils can be disparate due to different conditions. The temporal variety of tree growth on different sites is of prime importance in the construction of yield tables. Investigations of natural plant communities of Finland provided one rational approach towards the construction of yield tables. By confining mensuration analyses to define floristic types, the Finnish foresters harmonized their records with Einstein’s formula for space-time matrix of material events.