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Articles containing the keyword 'variability'.

Category: Research article

article id 1718, category Research article
Mihails Čugunovs, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Lauri Mehtätalo, Laura Pekkola, Ida Sara-Aho, Jari Kouki. (2017). Variability and patterns in forest soil and vegetation characteristics after prescribed burning in clear-cuts and restoration burnings. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1718. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1718
Highlights: Soil parameter variability is similar across sites of different disturbance type; Variability of understory vegetation biomass and cover is higher and more different between sites than soil variability; Sites studied here reflect well the assumed disturbance-type gradient based on PCA; Sampling six forest sites per treatment should provide good statistical power to capture the differences in soil organic matter stocks.

Forest ecological restoration by burning is widely applied to promote natural, early-successional sites and increase landscape biodiversity. Burning is also used as a forest management practice to facilitate forest regeneration after clearcutting. Besides the desired goals, restoration burnings also affect soil biogeochemistry, particularly soil organic matter (SOM) and related soil carbon stocks but the long-term effects are poorly understood. However, in order to study these effects, a reliable estimate of spatial variability is first needed for effective sampling. Here we investigate spatial variability of SOM and vegetation features 13 years after burnings and in combination with variable harvest levels. We sampled four experimental sites representing distinct management and restoration treatments with an undisturbed control. While variability of vegetation cover and biomass was generally higher in disturbed sites, soil parameter variability was not different between the four sites. The joint ecological patterns of soil and vegetation parameters across the whole sample continuum support well the prior assumptions on the characteristic disturbance conditions within each of the study sites. We designed and employed statistical simulations as a means to plan prospective sampling. Sampling six forest sites for each treatment type with 30 independent soil cores per site would provide enough statistical power to adequately capture the impacts of burning on SOM based on the data we obtained here and statistical simulations. In conclusion, we argue that an informed design-based approach to documenting the ecosystem effects of forest burnings is worth applying both through obtaining new data and meta-analysing the existing.

  • Čugunovs, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Yliopistokatu 7, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mihails.cugunovs@uef.fi (email)
  • Tuittila, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Yliopistokatu 7, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8861-3167 E-mail: eeva-stiina.tuittila@uef.fi
  • Mehtätalo, University of Eastern Finland, School of Computing, Science Park, Länsikatu 15, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8128-0598 E-mail: lauri.mehtatalo@uef.fi
  • Pekkola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Yliopistokatu 7, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: laura.pekkola@gmail.com
  • Sara-Aho, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Yliopistokatu 7, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ida.sara-aho@mhy.fi
  • Kouki, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Yliopistokatu 7, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2624-8592 E-mail: jari.kouki@uef.fi
article id 81, category Research article
Tuomas Aakala. (2011). Temporal variability of deadwood volume and quality in boreal old-growth forests. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 81. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.81
Reference deadwood volumes from natural forests for forest management and restoration are often derived from one-time measurements or from repeated measurements over short time-scales. Such an approach often assumes an equilibrium state between tree mortality and decomposition, which is questionable in many boreal forest ecosystems due to the occurrence of allogenic disturbances. Using a simulation model based on empirical estimates of tree mortality, disturbance chronologies and models of wood decay class dynamics, this study aimed at characterizing variability in the volume and quality of deadwood for the past 200 years. The variability of deadwood volumes in old-growth forests, arising from differences in disturbance regimes and differing decay rates, was exemplified in two areas of Picea abies-dominated forests in northern Europe. The results imply that with stable deadwood input and slow decay rates the deadwood volume may be in an equilibrium state. On the contrary, if moderate-severity disturbances occur such a state seems improbable. Both study areas displayed continuity in deadwood availability, although temporary paucity in the early decay classes with shortest residence times was also observed. The results stress the importance of understanding the dynamic nature of deadwood in old-growth forests, instead of the traditional view of deadwood as a static ecosystem component.
  • Aakala, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuomas.aakala@helsinki.fi (email)
article id 460, category Research article
Hong Ling, Sandhya Samarasinghe, G. Don Kulasiri. (2009). Modelling variability in full-field displacement profiles and Poisson ratio of wood in compression using stochastic neural networks. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 460. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.460
Vertical and horizontal displacement profiles in compression parallel-to-grain in a 20 x 20 mm area (30 x 21 or 630 points) in the Tangential–Longitudinal (T–L) and Radial Longitudinal (R–L) sections of small wood columns were obtained from digital image correlation applied to simultaneously captured images of the two surfaces. These consisted of 21 displacement realisations of 30 points along the length of the specimen. They revealed considerable local variations. Stochastic neural networks were successfully developed to simulate trends and noise across and along a specimen in both displacements as well as Poisson ratios in T–L and R–L sections for two selected load levels of 20kN and 40kN. These networks specifically embed noise characteristics extracted from data to generate realistic displacement and Poisson ratio realisations with inherent variability. Models were successfully validated using independent data extracted based on bootstrapping method with high accuracy with R2 ranging from 0.79 to 0.91. The models were further validated successfully using a second approach involving Confidence Intervals generated from the data extracted from the models. Models and experimental results revealed that for 20kN load, both vertical and horizontal displacements in T–L section were less heterogeneous across the specimen (smaller vertical shearing and horizontal strain, respectively) than those in the R–L section. For the 40kN load, both displacement profiles in the T–L section were less noisy and more compact than those for the 20kN load indicating less heterogeneity due to compaction of structure. In the R–L section, larger vertical shearing and horizontal strains persisted at 40 kN load. Poisson ratio decreased with load and it was nonlinear in both sections but T–L section showed much less noise across the specimen than the R–L section.
  • Ling, Centre for Advanced Computational Solutions (C-fACS), Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Samarasinghe, Centre for Advanced Computational Solutions (C-fACS), Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: sandhya.samarasinghe@lincoln.ac.nz (email)
  • Kulasiri, Centre for Advanced Computational Solutions (C-fACS), Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 213, category Research article
Bum-Jin Park, Yuko Tsunetsugu, Tamami Kasetani, Takeshi Morikawa, Takahide Kagawa, Yoshifumi Miyazaki. (2009). Physiological effects of forest recreation in a young conifer forest in Hinokage Town, Japan. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 213. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.213
It is widely believed that coming into contact with forest environments is somehow beneficial to human well-being and comfort. In Japan, “Shinrin-yoku” (taking in the atmosphere of a forest) has been proposed to be a relaxation activity associated with forest recreation. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological effects of forest recreation on the autonomic nervous activity. The subjects were twelve male university students (21.8 ± 0.8 years old). On the first day of the experiment, six subjects were sent to a forest area, and the other six to a city area. On the second day, each subject was sent to the area he did not visit on the first day as a cross check. The subjects walked (15 minutes) around their assigned areas before noon, and sat on chairs viewing (15 minutes) the landscapes of their assigned areas in the afternoon. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, and pulse rate were measured as physiological indices. Measurements were taken at the place of accommodation in the morning, before and after walking, and before and after viewing at their assigned field areas. Pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure and LF/(LF+HF) (LF – low frequency, HF – high frequency) components of HRV were significantly lower in the forest area than in the city area. HF components of HRV tended to be higher in the forest than in the city. In conclusion, the results of the physiological measurements show that forest recreation enabled effective relaxation in people, both of the mind and body.
  • Park, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Kashiwa-no-ha 6-2-1, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: bjpark@faculty.chiba-u.jp (email)
  • Tsunetsugu, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Kashiwa-no-ha 6-2-1, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kasetani, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Kashiwa-no-ha 6-2-1, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Morikawa, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Kashiwa-no-ha 6-2-1, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kagawa, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Kashiwa-no-ha 6-2-1, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Miyazaki, Chiba University, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Kashiwa-no-ha 6-2-1, 277-0882 Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 381, category Research article
Jianxun Luo, Yuhua Wang, Helena Korpelainen, Chunyang Li. (2005). Allozyme variation in natural populations of Picea asperata. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 2 article id 381. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.381
A survey of allozymic alleles and genetic diversity was conducted for ten natural populations of Picea asperata Mast. originating from the mountains of Southwest China. A total of twenty-seven alleles at seventeen loci were observed. Ten of the loci were found monomorphic. Our results showed that the populations sampled were characterized by low genetic diversity (mean He = 0.096) and a low level of inbreeding (mean Fis = 0.005). The UPGMA tree of genetic relationships indicated that there was significant differentiation among populations. The coefficient of genetic differentiation among populations, based on Fst, equaled 0.311. Such extensive inter-populational differentiation detected in P. asperata could have resulted from allele frequency divergence among populations, particularly, in one population. Introgression from another species, variation in environmental conditions, and differing selection pressures could be some of the factors attributing to significant differences among populations. In addition, our results showed that the geographic and genetic distances were not correlated in the populations of P. asperata. Based on the genetic information obtained, we concluded that monitoring appropriate genetic markers may be an effective means of identifying potential genetic changes occurring during forest tree evolution.
  • Luo, Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wang, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Korpelainen, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Li, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: licy@cib.ac.cn (email)
article id 502, category Research article
Janne Levula, Hannu Ilvesniemi, Carl Johan Westman. (2003). Relation between soil properties and tree species composition in a Scots pine–Norway spruce stand in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 502. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.502
It is commonly known in Finland that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a tree of dry soils and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) is a tree of fresh soils. However, the concepts of dry and fresh soils still lack a precise definition. Consequently, the discussion on which soil/site is a pine or spruce habitat has continued over several decades. Moreover, in forest regeneration, the practice of tree species selection between the pine and the spruce has varied. We investigated the relationship between soil properties and pine–spruce species composition in a mature, naturally regenerated stand in southern Finland. We applied spatial analysis to divide the stand area up into 3–7 classes based on selected soil properties and then investigated the variations in species composition among those classes. The pine–spruce basal area ratio (BA of pines / BA of spruces) increased along with increasing mean particle size and proportion of coarse sand and gravel particle size fraction (0.6–20 mm) of mineral soil, and was lowest in classes, with the highest proportions of fine texture fractions. The results suggest that in southern Finland on sorted soils, pine is more competitive in regeneration and growth than spruce when mean particle size is above 0.44 mm or percentage of coarse sand and gravel is higher than 50%.
  • Levula, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.levula@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Ilvesniemi, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 616, category Research article
Markus Lindholm, Hannu Lehtonen, Taneli Kolström, Jouko Meriläinen, Matti Eronen, Mauri Timonen. (2000). Climatic signals extracted from ring-width chronologies of Scots pines from the northern, middle and southern parts of the boreal forest belt in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 4 article id 616. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.616
Climatic signals were extracted from ring-width chronologies of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) from natural stands of the northern, middle, and southern parts of the boreal forest belt in Finland. The strength of the common growth signals (forcing factors) were quantified as a function of time. This was achieved by mean inter-series correlations, calculated over a moving 30-year window, both within and between the regional chronologies. Strong regional signals and also evidence for common forcings were found, especially between northern and central, central and eastern, as well as central/eastern and southern chronologies. Response function analyses revealed that growing season temperatures govern the growth rates of northern pines, while towards south, pine growth becomes less affected by temperatures, and more affected by e.g. precipitation. During some periods, growing conditions seem to have been favorable in the south, while they have been unfavorable in the north (growth inversions). Going from the north to the south, the variability of radial growth clearly decreases, and the variance of ring-width series becomes smaller. Growth variability in the four regions was compared during the common interval of the chronologies, from 1806 to 1991. The spectral densities of the northern, central, eastern and southern chronologies were also compared as functions of frequency, viz. cycles per year. The variance is much greater and there is more periodic behavior in the north than in the south in high, medium, as well as lower frequencies.
  • Lindholm, Saima Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Joensuu, Linnankatu 11, FIN-57130 Savonlinna, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lehtonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kolström, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Meriläinen, Saima Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Joensuu, Linnankatu 11, FIN-57130 Savonlinna, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eronen, Department of Geology, Division of Geology and Palaeontology, Box 11, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Timonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Box 16, FIN-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 553, category Review article
Yves Bergeron, Alain Leduc, Brian D. Harvey, Sylvie Gauthier. (2002). Natural fire regime: a guide for sustainable management of the Canadian boreal forest. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 553. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.553
The combination of certain features of fire disturbance, notably fire frequency, size and severity, may be used to characterize the disturbance regime in any region of the boreal forest. As some consequences of fire resemble the effects of industrial forest harvesting, conventional forest management is often considered as a disturbance that has effects similar to those of natural disturbances. Although the analogy between forest management and fire disturbance in boreal ecosystems has some merit, it is important to recognise that it also has its limitations. Short fire cycles generally described for boreal ecosystems do not appear to be universal; rather, important spatial and temporal variations have been observed in Canada. These variations in the fire cycle have an important influence on forest composition and structure at the landscape and regional levels. Size and severity of fires also show a large range of variability. In regions where the natural matrix of the boreal forest remains relatively intact, maintenance of this natural variability should be targeted by forest managers concerned with biodiversity conservation. Current forest management tends to reduce this variability: for example, fully regulated, even-aged management will tend to truncate the natural forest age distribution and eliminate over-mature and old-growth forests from the landscape. We suggest that the development of strategic-level forest management planning approaches and silvicultural techniques designed to maintain a spectrum of forest compositions and structures at different scales in the landscape is one avenue to maintain this variability. Although we use the boreal forest of Quebec for our examples, it is possible to apply the approach to those portions of the boreal forest where the fire regime favours the development of even-aged stands in burns.
  • Bergeron, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID:E-mail: bergeron.yves@uqam.ca (email)
  • Leduc, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harvey, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gauthier, NSERC-UQAT-UQAM Industrial Chair in Sustainable Forest Management, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 678, category Research note
Ian A. Nalder, Ross W. Wein. (1998). A new forest floor corer for rapid sampling, minimal disturbance and adequate precision. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 4 article id 678. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.678
We describe an effective and inexpensive device for sampling forest floors. It is based on a rechargeable, battery-powered drill that drives a sharpened steel coring tube. The corer is simple to fabricate, is lightweight (3.5 kg) and can be used easily by one person to obtain intact, natural volume cores of the forest floor. It has been used extensively to obtain samples in 114 boreal forest stands of western Canada. We found that coefficients of variation were typically 30% for forest floor organic matter and bulk density, and tended to be higher in Pinus banksiana stands than in Picea glauca and Populus tremuloides. Ten samples per stand gave adequate precision for a study of forest floor dynamics and autocorrelation did not appear to be a problem with five-metre sampling intervals. In addition to sampling forest floors, the corer has proven suitable for sampling moss and lichen layers and mineral soil down to about 20 cm. A similar powered system can also be used for increment boring of trees.
  • Nalder, University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources, 442 Earth Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E3 ORCID ID:E-mail: inalder@gpu.srv.ualberta.ca (email)
  • Wein, University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources, 442 Earth Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E3 ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5068, category Article
S. A. Petrov. (1980). Quantitative analysis of the effect of genotype and environment in forest tree populations. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5068. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15009

The paper discusses the theoretical basis of quantitative analysis of the effect of genotype and environment in forest trees. Perhaps the main problem in the understanding of the laws of intrapopulation variability of the species of woody forest plants is the study of the structure of their populations. It may be characterized by a number of parameters. The intrapopulation variability of quantitative characteristics appears as a result of environmental and genetic factors, but to determine the relative weight of these factors in a concrete case is not easy. The study of the structure of a population by its quantitative characteristics has a wider task: to establish the relevance of the hereditary differences of the individuals of a population. Also, the differences caused by diverse growth conditions and how they are reflected in the level of general phenotypic variability of the quantitative characteristics in a given population has to be identified. The author gives examples of assessment of heritability in forest trees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Petrov, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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