Current issue: 55(5)
Under compilation: 56(1)
The aim of the investigation was to obtain by snow and soil frost observations sufficient material for determination of regional springtime snow and soil frost values, because the water equivalent of snow and the frost depth affect runoff. The present paper elaborates a method by which the observations along a survey line can be corrected to be valid for a basin. Along the line 50 measurement points were arranged at specific intervals. Snow depth was recorded at each point, and snow density and frost depth at every fifth point. The terrain was studied along the line and the terrain of the survey points were classified in eight classes depending on the vegetation. The classes ranged from cultivated lands and open bogs to wooded areas according to volume of the growing stock and tree species composition.
The mean snow depth was 51.9 cm and mean snow density 0.235 g/m2. Water equivalent of snow in class 4 terrain (forest with small growing stock) was 30% higher than in class 8 (forest with high growing stock). An ample stand increases evaporation in wintertime. The difference can be partly caused by the different accumulation of snow in the different types of stands.
Soil type was not found to have any distinct influence on the frost depth in the present material. On cultivated lands the soil frost clearly penetrates to greater depth than in the forest. The growing stock of wooded areas influences the snow depth
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The present study deals with correlation between level of ground water table and water content of peat in peatlands drained for forestry. The results have been obtained partly from field studies and partly from experiments in the laboratory.
Both the field and laboratory experiments proved that a close rectilinear correlation exists between the level of the ground water table and the water content of surface peat. A given change in the level of the ground water table corresponds to a smaller change in the water content the deeper the peat layer examined is situated. The change in the water content in the surface layer (0–20 cm) in the cases studied was of such a magnitude that a change of 10 cm in the level of the ground water table corresponded to a change of about 5 volume per cent. In deeper layers the change was smaller. The state of equilibrium regulating the water content of the peat is relatively stable. It is possible that the so-called optimum drainage of a peatland for each tree species can be theoretically determined on the basis of the correlation between the water content of peat and the level of ground water table.
The method used in the study, the repeated weighing of peat samples in their original place, has proved to be very useful and decisively better than the method based on one-time samples. The experiment also indicate that the correlation can be determined with laboratory experiments.
The article presents some basic elements of soil frost and its occurrence. The data contains observations from different regions and soil types in Finland. Different forms of soil frost and factors affecting its formulation are discussed.The article concludes with the factors effecting soil frost. There are three issues. By the single grain soils the water content determines whether the frost becomes massive or layered. The structure of soil determines the occurrence of hollow formed frost. Within the soils with crumb structure both layered and hollow formed frost may occur. Layered frost may occur in soils with homogeneous crumb structure in which two kinds of ice layers occur: irregular and solid. The hollow-formed frost may occur in locker soils.
The aim of this study was to investigate how the weight loss and water content of cold stored plants depend on the storage conditions, and if there is a clear connection between these factors and the field survival of the planting stock. The experiments were carried out in a climate chamber at about +2°C and at three moisture levels (about 70, 85, and 95%) from November 1968 to May 1969. Three-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) average length 127 mm, diameter 3.5 mm and the top/root-ratio of fresh weight 1.93, were stored in open and sealed plastic bags. In addition, a transpiration retardant (Silvaplast) was used. The plastic bags (10 plants each) were weighted every 4. week. The remaining 270 seedlings were planted out and inspected after one growing season.
Although the experiment was made in a small scale, the results showed clearly that plant mortality, varying between 3 and 97%, was due to the storage conditions. The weight loss ranged between 2 and 50%, and the correlation between the weight loss and the mortality in the field was high. The water content of the seedlings was about 61%. The correlation between water content and survival was very high. Thus, the determination of weight loss or water content could be a useful method in observing the changes of water balance of the seedling stock during winter-storage. Further investigations are needed to show the tolerable rate of drying out for different sorts of plants. The Silvaplast-treatment had no visible effect either on the drying out or on the field survival.
The PDF includes a summary in English.