Current issue: 54(1)
Under compilation: 54(2)
A big storm hit Finland in 12.10.1933, and caused forest damages especially in the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Baltic Sea, and in the eastern part of the country. In these areas the wind felled about 75,000‒85,000 m3 timber trees in the state lands. The extent of the wind damage was measured in forest area of 1,500 hectares in Lapinjärvi in Southern Finland. The wind had felled 42% of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 70% of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 44% of the Betula sp. trees. Thus, Norway spruce had been most susceptible for wind damage. That extensive damages in Norway spruce seed tree stands risk the regeneration in the area. Natural regeneration of Norway spruce using seed trees may, therefore, be questioned. The seed tree areas on hills, and especially hollows next to the hills were susceptible for wind damage. A denser border stand protects sparsely stocked seed tree area. The damages were also smaller in older seed tree areas, where the trees and ground vegetation had had time to recover after the felling. The felled spruce and birch trees had often stem rot.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
In the 1980 and 1981, windthrown and felled Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were examined at 8 localities in Sweden. The number and length of egg galleries as well as the number of exit holes of Tomicus piniperda (L.) and T. minor (Hart.) were recorded on sample sections (30 m in length) distributed at 3 m intervals on the 37 fallen pine stems, which were successfully colonized by the beetles. In addition, 78 uprooted pines were surveyed in 6 localities. Most trees were attacked by T. piniperda, but only a few by T. minor. Successful colonization often resulted in the production of several thousand beetles per tree, the maximum being approximately 1,800. The attack density of T. piniperda seldom exceeded 200 egg galleries/m3 bark area, and the brood production usually remained below 1,000 beetles/m3. Much higher figures were obtained or T. minor. In T. piniperda, the rate of reproduction (i.e. the number of exit holes /egg gallery) decreased rapidly with increasing attack density, whereas T. minor seemed to be less sensitive to intraspecific competition.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.