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Articles containing the keyword 'wood density'.

Category: Research article

article id 1474, category Research article
Cedric A. Goussanou, Sabin Guendehou, Achille E. Assogbadjo, Maguette Kaire, Brice Sinsin, Aida Cuni-Sanchez. (2016). Specific and generic stem biomass and volume models of tree species in a West African tropical semi-deciduous forest. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1474. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1474
Highlights: Non-destructive sampling approach applied to derive ground truth observations and generate robust basic wood densities; Species-specific and generic allometric equations; Specific equations have better predictive capabilities than generic models.

The quantification of the contribution of tropical forests to global carbon stocks and climate change mitigation requires availability of data and tools such as allometric equations. This study made available volume and biomass models for eighteen tree species in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in West Africa. Generic models were also developed for the forest ecosystem, and basic wood density determined for the tree species. Non-destructive sampling approach was carried out on five hundred and one sample trees to analyse stem volume and biomass. From the modelling of volume and biomass as functions of diameter at breast height (Dbh) and stem height, logarithmic models had better predictive capabilities. The model validation showed that in absence of data on height, models using Dbh only as variable was an alternative. The comparison of basic wood densities to data published in literature enabled to conclude that the non-destructive sampling was a good approach to determining reliable basic wood density. The comparative analysis of species-specific models in this study with selected generic models for tropical forests indicated low probability to identify effective generic models with good predictive ability for biomass. Given tree species richness of tropical forests, the study demonstrated the hypothesis that species-specific models are preferred to generic models, and concluded that further research should be oriented towards development of specific models to cover the full range of dominant tree species of African forests.

  • Goussanou, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin ORCID ID:E-mail: cedricgoussanou@gmail.com (email)
  • Guendehou, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin; Benin Centre for Scientific and Technical Research, 03 BP 1665 Cotonou, Benin ORCID ID:E-mail: sguendehou@yahoo.fr
  • Assogbadjo, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin ORCID ID:E-mail: assogbadjo@yahoo.fr
  • Kaire, Centre Régional AGRHYMET, Département Formation et Recherche, BP 11011 Niamey, Niger ORCID ID:E-mail: m.kaire@agrhymet.ne
  • Sinsin, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin ORCID ID:E-mail: bsinsin@gmail.com
  • Cuni-Sanchez, University of Copenhagen, Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Nørregade 10, P.O. Box 2177, 1017 Copenhagen K, Denmark ORCID ID:E-mail: aidacuni@hotmail.com
article id 202, category Research article
Tuula Nuutinen, Antti Kilpeläinen, Hannu Hirvelä, Kari Härkönen, Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Reetta Lempinen, Heli Peltola, Lars Wilhelmsson, Seppo Kellomäki. (2009). Future wood and fibre sources – case North Karelia in eastern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 202. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.202
Information on the potential wood supply is important for the wood industry. In this study, the future development of growing stock, cutting potential and wood properties corresponding to the regional scenario of North Karelian Forest Programme 2006–2010 was analysed. The simulations were performed by employing the Finnish MELA system together with the sample plot and tree data of the 9th Finnish National Forest Inventory (NFI9) as initial data for the simulations. Disc-based models for basic wood density, proportion of latewood and fibre length of Norway spruce and Scots pine in Sweden were calibrated and integrated into the MELA system. The wood properties at breast height of both harvested and standing trees were analysed in different strata (age, site type and cutting method) during the scenario period of 50 years (2002–2052). The average wood properties within the same strata varied only slightly over time. However, the results for different strata differed considerably. In general, wood density, fibre length and proportion of latewood increased, on average, as a function of tree age and along with a decrease in site fertility (excl. wood density and proportion of latewood in harvested Norway spruce in the first case and fibre length in the latter case for both species). For trees less than 80 years, properties in harvested trees were equal to or slightly greater than those of standing trees. The values for clear-cuttings were greater or equal to those of thinnings (excl. wood density and proportion of latewood in Norway spruce). The study demonstrates the value of model-based analyses utilising NFI tree measurements in regions that are considered to be sources of raw material.
  • Nuutinen, European Forest Institute, Torikatu 34, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuula.nuutinen@efi.int (email)
  • Kilpeläinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hirvelä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Härkönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ikonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lempinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wilhelmsson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 194, category Research article
Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Heli Peltola, Pertti Pulkkinen. (2009). Growth and wood property traits in narrow crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula) clones grown in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 194. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.194
We investigated the growth, yield, wood density traits and fibre properties in 13 narrow crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula) clones grown at a spacing of 2 m x 1.5 m (about 3300 seedlings/ha) in a field trial established in 1988 in southern Finland on a forest soil. For comparison, we used 3 normal crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) genetic entries grown as a mixture in the same trial representing southern Finnish breeding regions. We found that wood density traits and fibre properties showed, on average, lower phenotypic variation than growth and yield traits regardless of crown type. Narrow crowned clones also had, on average, lower stem volume and fibre length, but higher overall wood density. More over, the phenotypic correlations between studied growth and wood properties ranged, on average, from moderate (normal crown) to high (narrow crown). These results were opposite to previous findings for narrow and normal crowned genetic entries grown in narrower spacing (1 m x 1 m) in southern Finland. Thus, this indicates lower plasticity of narrow crowned clones to the increasing growing space compared to normal crowned ones, so, they should be grown at denser spacing in order to fully utilise its space efficiency capacity. However, this field trial was established as a mixture of normal and narrow crown trees, so that 90% of genetic entries were narrow crowned ones, and therefore the crown competition would be much higher for normal crowned trees when the whole trial would consist of that entry alone. In the latter case, we could expect significantly lower productivity of normal crowned genetic entries with this spacing.
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ane.zubizarreta@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 193, category Research article
Jaume Gort, Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Heli Peltola, Pertti Pulkkinen, Johanna Routa, Raimo Jaatinen. (2009). Differences in fibre properties in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) genetic entries grown at different spacing and sites. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 193. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.193
In forest breeding, stem volume growth and sawn timber quality indicators have been used as the most important selection traits for Scots pine, whereas less attention has been given to characteristics such as fibre properties. In the above context, we investigated the differences in fibre properties (i.e. fibre length, fibre width and coarseness) in 20 year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) genetic entries as affected by spacing and site, but also the phenotypic correlations between fibre properties, yield and wood density. The study was based on materials harvested from 10 genetic entries grown in a spacing trial (site 1) in central Finland, with a current stand density of 2000 (spacing 1), 2000–2500 (spacing 2) and 4000 trees/ha (spacing 3). In order to study the effects of site, we harvested additional material (4 of 7 genetic entries same as on site 1) from a trial located in southern Finland with a corresponding stand density of 2000 trees/ha (site 2). On site 1, spacing 1 and 3, all average values for analysed fibre properties were similar. In spacing 2 average values were slightly higher. On site 2, the average values for different fibre properties were similar compared to the corresponding spacing 1 on site 1. Spacing affected (p < 0.05) all average fibre properties on site 1; as did also site, when comparing same genetic entries grown on both sites. Regardless of spacing and site, the phenotypic correlations between average fibre length, fibre width and coarseness showed, on average, moderate to strong correlation (p < 0.05). Fibre width showed, in general, low and positive phenotypic correlation with diameter at breast height, stem volume and wood density on site 1. However, as a whole, the ranking of genetic entries changed depending on the trait and spacing considered. Thus, no overall ranking between genetic entries was possible.
  • Gort, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaume.gort@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Karkkilantie ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Routa, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jaatinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Karkkilantie ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 221, category Research article
Glen Murphy, Rod Brownlie, Mark Kimberley, Peter Beets. (2009). Impacts of forest harvesting related soil disturbance on end-of-rotation wood quality and quantity in a New Zealand radiata pine forest. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 221. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.221
The long-term effect of soil disturbance (litter removal, topsoil removal and compaction) from forest harvesting on wood quality and quantity of second-rotation Pinus radiata growing on a clay loam soil, was assessed at the end the rotation, 26 years after planting. Relative to Control plots, average tree and stand total volume at rotation end was not significantly affected by litter removal and nil or light compaction, but was significantly reduced by 28% by litter and topsoil removal and moderate subsoil compaction, and further reduced by 38% by heavy compaction. Wood density at breast height in the inner rings of trees in the most disturbed treatments was elevated by up to 30 kg m–3. This occurred because these treatments were more N deficient as reflected by foliar N levels during the first 11 years of growth relative to the Control. However, no treatment differences in wood density were evident in outer rings, and by rotation age overall mean density did not differ significantly between treatments. Neither acoustic velocity of standing trees, nor acoustic velocity of logs, was significantly affected by soil disturbance, indicating that stiffness of lumber cut from trees in the trial was likely to be similar for all treatments. Economic impacts of soil disturbance and compaction on this soil type will therefore result largely from the considerable negative impacts on final tree size, with little or no compensation from improved wood properties.
  • Murphy, Forest Engineering, Resources and Management Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: glen.murphy@oregonstate.edu (email)
  • Brownlie, Scion Research, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kimberley, Scion Research, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Beets, Scion Research, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 248, category Research article
Tuula Jyske, Harri Mäkinen, Pekka Saranpää. (2008). Wood density within Norway spruce stems. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 248. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.248
We studied the variation in average wood density of annual rings, earlywood density, and latewood density in addition to ring width and latewood percentage within Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stems from the pith to the bark, and from the stem base towards the stem apex. Moreover, the variation in wood density within annual rings was studied at the different heights and radial positions in the stem. The material consisted of 85 trees from central and south-eastern Finland. Variation between the annual rings accounted for 11–27% of the total variation in wood density. Only small differences (3–6%) in wood density were found between different heights in the stem. The largest (49–80%) variation in wood density was found within the annual rings. The difference in wood density between earlywood and latewood was smaller in the rings near the pith than in the outer rings. The increasing wood density from the pith outwards was related to increasing latewood density and latewood percentage, whereas the earlywood density increased only slightly from the pith outwards. In a given cambial age (i.e., given rings from the pith), the average wood density of annual rings increased with increasing stem height. In contrast, in the rings formed in the same calendar years (i.e., given rings from the bark), the average wood density of annual rings decreased with increasing stem height. The results of this study verify our knowledge of wood density variation and can further contribute to creating models to predict wood density.
  • Jyske, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuula.jyske@metla.fi (email)
  • Mäkinen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saranpää, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 247, category Research article
Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Heli Peltola, Pertti Pulkkinen, Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Raimo Jaatinen. (2008). Differences in growth and wood properties between narrow and normal crowned types of Norway spruce grown at narrow spacing in Southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 247. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.247
In recent years there has been increased interest in the so called narrow crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula), which is a rare mutant of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten), as a suitable wood raw material source for pulp and paper production. This is because it is less sensitive to competition than the normal crowned Norway spruce, and thus, could be more productive especially at dense spacing. In the above context, we investigated how the growth and yield (such as height, diameter, stem volume and ring width) in addition to wood density traits and fibre properties (such as wood density, fibre length and width, cell wall thickness and fibre coarseness) were affected in trees from 9 full-sib families representing narrow crowned Norway spruce grown at narrow spacing of 1 m 1 m in Southern Finland. For comparison, we used normal crowned Norway spruce trees from 6 breeding regions. We found that, compared to growth and yield traits, wood density traits and fibre properties showed, on average, lower phenotypic variations. In addition, these variations were smaller for narrow crowned families than for normal crowned genetic entries. Narrow crowned families also showed, on average, higher growth and yield and fibre length, but lower wood density. Moreover, the phenotypic correlations between growth, yield, wood density traits and fibre properties, ranged, on average, from moderate (narrow crowned) to high (normal crowned). As a whole, the growth and wood properties of narrow crowned families were found to be less sensitive to tree competition than the normal crowned genetic entries used as a comparison.
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ane.zubizarreta@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ikonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jaatinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 273, category Research article
Stefan Mattson, Urban Bergsten, Tommy Mörling. (2007). Pinus contorta growth in boreal Sweden as affected by combined lupin treatment and soil scarification. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 273. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.273
Effects of combining lupin (Lupinus nootkatensis L.) establishment and soil scarification on stem volume and stem biomass yield of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) were studied on a poor boreal site in Sweden 18 years after plantation. A field randomized block experiment was established with three different scarification techniques (disc trenching, moulding and ploughing) followed by establishment of lupins by either seeds or roots. There were three blocks without and two blocks with lupins. Overall, on average for the three soil scarification techniques, the lupin treatment significantly increased the volume per hectare by 102%.The lupin treatment significantly increased the stem volume per hectare by 236% for mounding and 139% for disc trenching, whereas the 55% increase for ploughing was not significant. The increase in the total stem biomass yield per tree was more pronounced for larger trees; 46% for average trees and 106% for dominant trees. However, there were no significant differences between scarification techniques for the lupin treatment in total stem biomass yield. Over the 18-year period, the increased growth rate following the lupin treatment resulted in a significantly decreased average stem basic wood density (on average 6%) for the sample trees. Because lupin is a nitrogen-fixing plant species, the large increase in tree growth following the lupin treatment was probably an effect of increased amount of nitrogen in the soil. The results indicate that use of lupin is a possible alternative to increase site productivity of lodgepole pine on poor boreal sites.
  • Mattson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bergsten, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mörling, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: tommy.morling@ssko.slu.se (email)
article id 285, category Research article
Heli Peltola, Antti Kilpeläinen, Kari Sauvala, Tommi Räisänen, Veli-Pekka Ikonen. (2007). Effects of early thinning regime and tree status on the radial growth and wood density of Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 285. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.285
In this work, we studied the effects of early thinning on the radial growth and wood density over a 12-year post-thinning period in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees grown on a site with a rather poor nutrient supply. Ring width, early and late wood width and early wood percentage, mean intra-ring wood density and early- and late wood density were analyzed in 98 sample trees using X-ray microdensitometry. For the analyses, ten different thinning plots with post-thinning stand density varying from 575 to 3400 stems ha–1 were grouped into four classes representing heavy thinning, moderate thinning, light thinning and no thinning. We found that the radial growth in the thinned treatments increased significantly compared to that of the unthinned treatment. Despite this, the mean intra-ring wood density did not decrease significantly as a result of heavy thinning, although it was 2% less, on average (with a range of 1–4% in large and small trees), compared to that of the unthinned treatment. In the lightly thinned treatment, the mean intra-ring wood density even increased by 5%, on average (with a range 4–7% in small and large trees), but in the moderately thinned treatment, the level of change was not as clear. The thinning response of trees representing different status in a stand differed significantly and was also affected by the post-thinning stand density. Altogether, observed simultaneous increases in early and late wood widths and late wood density, but a decrease in early wood density indicate that as a result of heavy thinning, especially, un-uniformity of wood density will increase. On the other hand, although heavy thinning increased tree growth by 9–20%, on average, compared to moderate thinning, which corresponds quite well with business-as-usual management, mean wood density decreased only 0–4% depending on tree status in a stand (from large to small trees). Thus, the decrease observed in wood density was less than expected as a result of heavy thinning at an early stage of stand development, which has recently been recommended as one possible management option in Scots pine in Finland.
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heli.peltola@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Kilpeläinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sauvala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räisänen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ikonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 322, category Research article
Jaakko Repola. (2006). Models for vertical wood density of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch stems, and their application to determine average wood density. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 322. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.322
The purpose of this study was to investigate the vertical dependence of the basic density of Scots pine, Norway spruce, and birch stems, and how such dependence could be applied for determining the average stem wood density. The study material consisted of 38 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), 39 Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and 15 birch (Betula pendula and Betula pubescens) stands located on mineral soil sites in southern Finland. The stem material mainly represented thinning removal from stands at different stages of development. The linear mixed model technique, with both fixed and random effects, was used to estimate the model. According to the fixed part of the model, wood density was dependent on the vertical location along the stem in all three tree species. Wood density in pine decreased from the butt to the top, and the gradient in wood density was steep at the butt but decreased in the upper part of the stem. The vertical dependence was similar in birch, but the density gradient was much smaller. For spruce the vertical dependence of the basic density was moderate. The model can be calibrated for a tree stem when one or more sample disks are measured at freely selected heights. Using treewise calibrated predictions of the vertical density dependence and measured stem diameters, almost unbiased estimates, and lower prediction errors than with traditional methods, were obtained for the average stem wood density. The advantages of the method were greater for pine with a strong vertical dependence in basic density, than for spruce and birch.
  • Repola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakko.repola@metla.fi (email)
article id 622, category Research article
Håkan Lindström. (2000). Intra-tree models of basic density in Norway spruce as an input to simulation software. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 4 article id 622. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.622
Basic density is said to influence aspects of conversion, properties, and end-use of forest products. Consequently, it is argued that accurate models of basic density variation, within and between trees, could be used to improve the utilisation of wood as an industrial raw material. The objective of the present study was to develop basic density models based on Norway spruce trees, that could be used within a model system for conversion simulation studies. Nineteen stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were selected throughout Sweden. Based on dbh, two small, two moderate, and two large timber trees were taken from each stand. Dbh varied between 180–470 mm, tree height between 17–34 m, and total age between 51–152 years. Each selected tree was cross-cut into logs; discs were prepared from the butt end of each log and from the top end of the top log. Computed tomography scanning and image analysis were used to determine basic density and growth ring development on sampled discs. Basic density development in 20-mm segments from pith outwards was modelled in models based on ring width, tree and growth condition data. The resulting models had an adjusted R2 of 0.37–0.51 and a RMSE of 37–41 kg/m3.
  • Lindström, University of Canterbury, School of Forestry, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: lindstromhakan@netscape.net (email)

Category: Research note

article id 7798, category Research note
Jānis Liepiņš, Jānis Ivanovs, Andis Lazdiņš, Jurģis Jansons, Kaspars Liepiņš. (2017). Mapping of basic density within European aspen stems in Latvia. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 7798. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7798
Highlights: Stem bark is significantly denser than wood and does not follow the same variation patterns along the stem; The main trend in radial variation of wood density was the increase from pith to bark; There is a weak relationship between mean basic density and commonly measured stand and tree parameters.

The objective of this study was to investigate basic density and its within-stem variation by studying 84 European aspen stems from 28 forest stands in Latvia. The studied forest stands covered all age classes from young stands to matured forests in representative growth conditions of European aspen. The densities of 2722 wood and 1022 bark specimens were measured from the sampled trees. Only the knot-free wood specimens without obvious wood defects were chosen for analyses. A map of basic density summarizing its radial and axial variations was constructed to show species-specific, within-stem variability and the relationships between density and tree and stand variables were examined. Stem wood and bark of the European aspen show different patterns of basic density variation along the tree stem. Wood density increases from pith to bark up to certain dimensions and shows a slight decrease afterwards. The weighted basic density of bark (446 ± 39.6 kg m–3) was higher than stem wood density (393 ± 30.4 kg m–3). Our results suggest that wood and bark density measurements obtained at breast height can be used for reliable estimation of the densities of whole-tree stem components, while tree parameters such as diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height and social status or stand parameters, including number of trees, basal area and age, are weak predictors in this context.

  • Liepiņš, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: janis.liepins@silava.lv (email)
  • Ivanovs, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: janis.ivanovs@silava.lv
  • Lazdiņš, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: andis.lazdins@silava.lv
  • Jansons, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: jurgis.jansons@silava.lv
  • Liepiņš, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas Str., LV 2169, Salaspils, Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: kaspars.liepins@silava.lv
article id 1346, category Research note
Āris Jansons, Roberts Matisons, Oskars Krišāns, Baiba Džeriņa, Mārtiņš Zeps. (2016). Effect of initial fertilization on 34-year increment and wood properties of Norway spruce in Latvia. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 1346. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1346
Highlights: The initial fertilization increased the productivity of Picea abies increasing stem volume by 17% at the age of 34 years; The tree-ring width was affected for up to15 years; The fertilization did not affect mean tree-ring density, although the latewood density was increased.

Initial fertilisation, when the fertilizer is supplied during the plantation, is applied to improve the competitive ability of the seedlings and hence to increase their growth and productivity; however, fertilization could also alter wood properties and timber quality. In this study, the dimensions and tree-ring parameters – width, proportion of latewood, maximum and mean density, mean earlywood and latewood density – of initially fertilized (by 14, 6 and 11 g of N, P and K per seedling, respectively) Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) growing in an experimental plantation in Kalsnava, Latvia (temperate climate region) were assessed. The fertilization significantly increased the dimensions of trees in long-term (ca. 17% increase of stemwood volume). The analysis of tree-ring width suggested that the duration of the effect was ca. 15 years. The maximum and latewood density were higher for the fertilized trees only in a few years. The mean and earlywood density of tree-rings were mainly similar for both treatments. Altogether, considering the one-time application of a limited amount of fertilizer, such treatment had notable and lasting effect on Norway spruce.

  • Jansons, LSRFI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv
  • Matisons, LSRFI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: robism@inbox.lv (email)
  • Krišāns, LSRFI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: oskars.krisans@silava.lv
  • Džeriņa, LSRFI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: baiba.dzerina@silava.lv
  • Zeps, LSRFI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: martins.zeps@silava.lv

Category: Discussion article

article id 119, category Discussion article
Markku Larjavaara, Helene C. Muller-Landau. (2011). Cross-section mass: an improved basis for woody debris necromass inventory. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 119. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.119
  • Larjavaara, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Unit 9100 Box 0948, DPO AA 34002-9998, USA, and University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: larjavaaram@si.edu (email)
  • Muller-Landau, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Unit 9100 Box 0948, DPO AA 34002-9998, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5275, category Article
Pirkko Velling, Gérard Nepveu. (1986). Männyn puuaineen laadun ja tuotoksen vaihtelu suomalaisessa provenienssikoesarjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5275. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15454
English title: Variation of wood quality and yield in a Finnish series of provenance trials on Scots pine.

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the origin of seeds and the location of cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on certain properties particularly important to the pulp industry. The research material consisted of six parallel trials of the same 12 provenances. Increment cores were taken of a total of 1,267 sample trees, 19 years old. The location of the trial site generally affected the properties to a larger extent than the origin of the seed. The effect of the variation of wood density and fibre yield on the cultivation values of the provenances was only a few percentages on average, however, at most the effect was nearly 10%. Eastern Finnish provenances adapted well to western Finnish conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish and French.

  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nepveu, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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