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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'wood products'.

Category: Research article

article id 109, category Research article
Ann Kristin Raymer, Terje Gobakken, Birger Solberg. (2011). Optimal forest management with carbon benefits included. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 109. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.109
In this paper, we analyse how optimal forest management of even aged Norway spruce changes when economic values are placed on carbon fixation, release, and saved greenhouse gas emissions from using wood instead of more energy intensive materials or fossil fuels. The analyses are done for three different site qualities in Norway, assuming present climate and with a range of CO2 prices and real rates of return. Compared to current recommended management, the optimal number of plants per ha and harvest age are considerably higher when carbon benefits are included, and increase with increasing price on CO2. Furthermore, planting becomes more favourable compared to natural regeneration. At the medium site quality, assuming 2% p.a. real rate of return and 20 euros per ton CO2, optimal planting density increases from 1500 per ha to 3000 per ha. Optimal harvest age increases from 90 to 140 years. Including saved greenhouse gas emissions when wood is used instead of more energy intensive materials or fossil fuels, i.e. substitution effects, does not affect optimal planting density much, but implies harvesting up to 20 years earlier. The value of the forest area increases with increasing price on CO2, and most of the income is from carbon. By using the current recommended management in calculations of carbon benefit, our results indicate that the forest’s potential to provide this environmental good is underestimated. The study includes many uncertain factors. Highest uncertainty is related to the accuracy of the forest growth and mortality functions at high stand ages and densities, and that albedo effects and future climate changes are not considered. As such, the results should be viewed as exploratory and not normative.
  • Raymer, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gobakken, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: terje.gobakken@umb.no (email)
  • Solberg, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 166, category Research article
Kim Pingoud, Johanna Pohjola, Lauri Valsta. (2010). Assessing the integrated climatic impacts of forestry and wood products. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 166. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.166
Managed forests serve as a store of carbon (C) and a renewable source of energy and materials. By using forest products as substitutes for fossil fuels or non-renewable materials, emissions from fossil C sources can be displaced. The efficiency of emissions displacement depends on the product, its lifecycle and the fossil-fuel based reference system that is substituted. Forest management practices have an impact on C stocks in biomass and on the annual supply of products and their mix. There are trade-offs between sequestering C stocks in forests and the climatic benefits obtained by sustainable forest harvesting and using wood products to displace fossil C emissions. This article presents an integrated, steady-state analysis comparing various equilibrium states of managed forests and wood product pools that represent sustainable long-term forestry and wood-use strategies. Two climatic indicators are used: the combined C stock in forests and wood products and the fossil C emissions displaced annually by harvested wood products. The study indicates that long-term strategies could be available that are better according to both indicators than forestry practices based on the existing silvicultural guidelines in Finland. These strategies would involve increasing the basal area and prolonging rotations to produce more sawlogs. Further, the climate benefits appear to be highest in case the sawlog supply is directed to production of long-lived materials substituting for fossil-emission and energy intensive materials and recycled after their useful life to bioenergy.
  • Pingoud, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi (email)
  • Pohjola, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Valsta, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 259, category Research article
Jani Laturi, Jarmo Mikkola, Jussi Uusivuori. (2008). Carbon reservoirs in wood products-in-use in Finland: current sinks and scenarios until 2050. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 2 article id 259. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.259
This study addresses the question of how much carbon will be sequestered in wood products during the coming decades in Finland. Using sawnwood and other wood material consumption data since the 1950s and inventory data of carbon reservoirs of wood products in the Finnish construction and civil engineering sector, we first derive estimates for the carbon reservoirs in wood products-in-use in that sector. We then extend the estimate to include all wood products-in-use. We find that the carbon pool of wood products in the Finnish construction and civil engineering sector grew by about 12% since an inventory for 2000, and that the overall estimate for carbon reservoirs of Finnish wood products in 2004 was 26.6 million tons of carbon. In building the scenarios until 2050, econometric time series models accounting for the relationship between wood material consumption and the development of GDP were used. The results indicate that the range of carbon reservoirs of wood products in Finland will be 39.6–64.2 million tons of carbon in the year 2050. The impacts of different forms of the decay function on the time-path of a carbon sink and its value in wood products were also studied. When a logistic decay pattern is used, the discounted value of the predicted carbon sink of wood products in Finland is between EUR850 and EUR1380 million – at the price level of EUR15/CO2 ton – as opposed to 440–900 million euros, if a geometric decay pattern is used.
  • Laturi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jani.laturi@metla.fi (email)
  • Mikkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uusivuori, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 389, category Research article
Ritva Toivonen, Eric Hansen, Erno Järvinen, Raija-Riitta Enroth. (2005). The competitive position of the Nordic wood industry in Germany – intangible quality dimensions. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 2 article id 389. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.389
This study examines the importance of various intangible product quality dimensions as perceived by wood-trading retailer and wholesaler companies in Germany. Using perceived importance and perceived performance, the study first examines the dimensionality of intangible product quality and then compares Nordic wood product suppliers with suppliers from other major supply regions. Data was collected from 76 German companies during 2000–2001. Results indicate that intangible product quality can be described in three dimensions, “Behaviour and Image”, “Serviceability and Environment”, and “Reliability”. Results also show that Nordic suppliers do not have a strong competitive position in Germany in terms of intangible product quality dimensions. Thus, Nordic suppliers could improve their competitive position by enhancing their service, logistics and other dimensions of the intangible product offering.
  • Toivonen, Pellervo Economic Research Institute PTT, Eerikinkatu 28 A, FI-00180, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ritva.toivonen@dnainternet.net (email)
  • Hansen, Oregon State University, Dept. of Wood Science & Engineering, Richardson Hall 108, 97331-5751 Corvallis, OR, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Järvinen, Pellervo Economic Research Institute PTT, Eerikinkatu 28 A, FI-00180, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Enroth, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 1544, category Research note
Osmo Mattila, Kaisa Hämäläinen, Liina Häyrinen, Sami Berghäll, Katja Lähtinen, Anne Toppinen. (2016). Strategic business networks in the Finnish wood products industry: a case of two small and medium-sized enterprises. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1544. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1544
Highlights: Network-based business models are not yet common in the wood products industry; Further research is suggested on network-based co-operation to vitalize industry.

The use of network-based business models has been brought up as a means of creating com-petitive edge in the tightening global competition. In practice, adopting network-based models has not yet become common in the wood products industry. The objective of this study is to gain better understanding of types of network-based business models using a case study of two small and medium-sized wood industry companies in Finland (for a sake of anonymity named as A and B). The network of company A is found to consist of mostly of established actors with a new-in-the-market value creation system, whereas network for company B is more stable and has an established value system aiming at growth and incremental innovations. Both networks had experienced difficulties in finding partners and lacked some strategic resources. Via this example we wish to stimulate further research interest on the sources of network-based competitive advantage in the traditional wood product industry in a need of renewal of business models.

  • Mattila, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, FI-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: osmo.mattila@helsinki.fi
  • Hämäläinen, Siparila Oy, Varaslahdentie 1, FI-40800 Vaajakoski, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kaisa.hamalainen@siparila.fi
  • Häyrinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, FI-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: liina.hayrinen@helsinki.fi
  • Berghäll, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, FI-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sami.berghall@helsinki.fi
  • Lähtinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, FI-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katja.lahtinen@helsinki.fi
  • Toppinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, FI-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anne.toppinen@helsinki.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 5398, category Article
Timo Karjalainen, Seppo Kellomäki, Ari Pussinen. (1994). Role of wood-based products in absorbing atmospheric carbon. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5398. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9163

The amount of carbon (C) stored in wood products manufactured in Finland was calculated with the help of a model using wood harvesting statistics, product flows and lifespans in order to study how much C could be set aside from the atmospheric C cycle outside the forest ecosystem. The calculations showed that on the average 9.9 Tg C/a was in harvested timber in 1986–1991 in Finland. C emissions of timber harvest and transport were 0.1 Tg C/a. In production processes about one third of the C bound in in timber was released into the atmosphere, but two thirds was still bound in products. After 50 and 100 years, more than 40% and 33% of the C initially in products was either in products still in use or disposed to landfills. The wood product C storage was most sensitive to landfill decay rate and to the burning of abandoned products for energy, but not to the same extent to the length of the lifespan of products.

  • Karjalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pussinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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