Current issue: 53(4)
In Finland roundwood is floated either privately or co-operatively. In the later, a co-operative floating association is established to operate floating. The association is compulsory association of those enterprises who want to have wood floated along the floating routes of the area. It is favoured when the number of enterprises and the wood to be floated is large. In addition, costs are lower than in private floating.
Floating in Lake Saimaa area in Central Finland can be divided into Iso-Saimaa, where floating is private, and into Saimaa Water System, where floating is operated by a co-operative floating association. It has been suggested that adoption of co-operative floating in Iso-Saimaa would be to the common interest. This study aimed at finding out if co-operative floating influences the transport costs, and if co-operative floating increases competition of roundwood by forest industry companies.
According to the study, the costs of most enterprises would decrease. The total decrease in costs would amount to 65 million Finnish marks annually, about 20% less than the present costs. The change of organization would not alter the competitive relationship in buying roundwood. On the other hand, it would seem that co-operative floating would be less flexible than private floating. The management of a large organization, whose effective operation time would cover only a part of the year, would meet with some difficulties. Also, co-operative floating would reduce competition among enterprises.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The present paper presents a study on the works of ancient writers that deal with trees, forests and the use of forests before the time of actual forest sciences. The work describes the development of knowledge pertaining to the forest and trees and the progress made on utilizing them. This second part of a series of two articles is concerned with logging, transportation and trade of timber, as well as procurement and trade of other forest products. These activities have been practiced as long as the history of mankind is known.
The article introduces the most important ancient written sources from the standpoint of the subject of the article, and related modern literature. The second part describes the texts concerning felling and primary conversion, and skidding and transportation. The third part concentrates on timber trade, and the fourth on the procurement and trade of other forest products.
The wages of logging and haulage has been dependent on the decisions of foremen. The aim of this study was to provide better insight on how working conditions in a logging site affect productivity of the work. Six working sites operated by Forest Service, Veitsiluoto Oy and Kemi Oy in the communes of Salla, Muonio and Kolari in Lapland were studied. The forests in the area were mostly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).
The effect of average volume of the stems, the average daily haulage over distances of various lengths, density of the stand and shape of the stem on effectivity was calculated. The size of the team was of considerable importance to the felling and haulage result in the Northern Finland where the feller assists in loading of the logs. One of the aims of the study was to find out what size of team is most advantageous for each haulage distance. The results show the optimum distance of haulage for teams of different sizes.
The article includes a summary in English.
The government of Finland appointed in1949 a committee to draft a program to promote forestry and increase the production of forests in the immediate future. The committee regarded promotion of transportation of roundwood and fuel wood as the most urgent question of the assignment. A separate committee was assigned to give a report on floating.
The report gives a summary of timber transportation facilities. The importance of land transport, especially truck transport, has grown. This has influenced other means of long-distance transport, such as railways and floating. Building of truck roads can bring large areas of presently unaccessible forests accessible for forest industry.
The committee suggest improvements in road legislation. Improvements needed in the road system for better timber transport facilities are outlined. The committee gives a detailed list of roads, compiled by area. The total length of forest roads to be constructed is 5,584 km, and the estimated cost 6,702 million marks. Railroads would be built 1,453 km at the cost of 35,745 million marks.
The article includes an abstract in English.
Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.
Floating channels of Northern Finland have been unable to fulfill all the needs of wood transportation of the area. This presentation presents diferent ways to improve the efficiency of floating by improving working methods and the channels, and thus decreasing costs of wood transportation.
Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.
This presentation describes budgeting of costs of delivery loggings, which have been at times underestimated in the practical forestry in the state forests.