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Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 | 2021

Category: Editorial

article id 10604, category Editorial
Samuel F. Bartels. (2021). The deciduous confusion: it is time to get the contrast right. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10604. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10604
  • Bartels, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Norther British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada V2N 4Z9 ORCID ID:E-mail: samuel.bartels@unbc.ca (email)

Category: Research article

article id 10555, category Research article
Ferréol Berendt, Felix Wolfgramm, Tobias Cremer. (2021). Reliability of photo-optical measurements of log stack gross volume. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10555. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10555
Highlights: Gross volume estimations of larger log stacks showed a smaller deviation compared to those of piles with smaller volumes; Log stack quality affects estimation accuracy; The deviations between the manual section-wise estimations were of similar amplitude as those for the photo-optical estimations.

In terms of assessing economic impact, one of the most important elements in the wood supply chain is the measurement of round wood. Besides the one-by-one measurement of logs, logs are often measured when stacked at the forest road. The gross stacked volume includes the volume of the wood, bark and airspace and is widely used for industrial wood assortments. The increasing international attention given to photo-optical measurement systems for portable devices is due to their simplicity of use and efficiency. The aim of this study was to compare the gross volumes of hardwood log stacks measured using one widespread photo-optical app with two manual section-wise volume estimations of log stacks based on the German framework agreement for timber trade (RVR). The manual volume estimations were done starting from the left (RVRleft) and right (RVRright) sides of the log stacks. The results showed an average deviation of the photo-optical gross volume estimation in comparison to the manual estimation of –2.09% (RVRleft) and –3.66% (RVRright) while the deviation between RVRleft and RVRright was +2.54%. However, the log stack gross volume had a highly significant effect on the deviation and better accuracy with smaller deviation were reached for larger log stacks. Moreover, results indicated that the gross volume estimations of higher quality log stacks were closer for the three analyzed methods compared to estimations of poor-quality log stacks.

  • Berendt, Department of Forest Utilization and Timber Markets, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, 16225 Eberswalde, Germany ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6285-7590 E-mail: ferreol.berendt@hnee.de (email)
  • Wolfgramm, Landesforst MV Anstalt des öffentlichen Rechts, Forstamt Billenhagen, 18182 Blankenhagen, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: felixwolfgramm@yahoo.de
  • Cremer, Department of Forest Utilization and Timber Markets, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, 16225 Eberswalde, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: tobias.cremer@hnee.de
article id 10545, category Research article
Karol Tomczak, Tomczak Arkadiusz, Bartłomiej Naskrent, Tomasz Jelonek. (2021). The radial gradient of moisture content of silver birch wood in different seasons. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10545. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10545
Highlights: Seasonal variation in moisture content is significant, the greatest moisture content of wood was recorded in winter, and the lowest in summer; The greatest moisture content on cross-section was observed near to the pith, and lower values near to the bark; From environmental perspective results of this study may have an impact for log transport planning, weight-scaling systems, lumber drying.

Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) is classified in diffuse-porous wood category. In this case structure of wood tissue is quite similar across whole cross-sectional area. The aim of this study was to analyse cross-section variability of moisture content (MC) of growing silver birch wood, significant hardwood species in Polish forests. Investigations were performed on 120 model trees. In the trunk of each model tree, an increment core was collected at breast height. Samples were collected of 30 different trees in four different seasons. The greatest MC was observed during winter, lowest MC in summer. Differences in MC were statistically significant only between winter versus spring, summer, and autumn. Distribution of MC on cross-section was similar in each season. The greatest average value was observed close to pith, then it was decreasing in bark direction. The greatest difference between observed in spring – 19.51% (p < 0.05) and lowest in autumn – 4.66%. Distribution of green density (GD) on cross section was inverse proportional to MC value. Variations in GD and MC are relevant for log transport planning, weight-scaling systems, lumber drying and dynamic assessment of stiffness. Therefore, from an environmental loss perspective, it is important to determine changes in MC and GD across the year.

  • Tomczak, Department of Forest Utilization, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71A, 60-625 Poznań, Poland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5192-0294 E-mail: karol.tomczak@up.poznan.pl (email)
  • Arkadiusz, Department of Forest Utilization, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71A, 60-625 Poznań, Poland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1140-8282 E-mail: arkadiusz.tomczak@up.poznan.pl
  • Naskrent, Department of Forest Utilization, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71A, 60-625 Poznań, Poland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0756-4162 E-mail: bartlomiej.naskrent@up.poznan.pl
  • Jelonek, Department of Forest Utilization, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71A, 60-625 Poznań, Poland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9558-9951 E-mail: tomasz.jelonek@up.poznan.pl
article id 10509, category Research article
Chuan Xie, Tianfeng Liu, Song Guo, Jian Peng, Zailiu Li. (2021). Effects of ultra-dry storage on seed germination and seedling growth of Handeliondendron bodinieri. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10509. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10509
Highlights: By reducing the moisture content of the seeds, Handeliodendron bodinieri seeds showed a strong tolerance; PEG played a protective role in the process of re-wetting ultra-dry seeds; Ultra-dry storage could promote Handeliodendron bodinieri seedling growth and root development.

Handeliodendron bodinieri (H. Lév.) Rehder is a rare, endangered, and therefore, protected tree species native to China. However, there are serious limitations to the effective protection of the species, including a low seed germination-rate and difficult storage due to a high seed oil-content. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of ultra-dry seed storage and its effects on seedling growth. We used the silica gel method to prepare ultra-dry seeds with different moisture contents to find an optimal moisture content range (2.54%–4.77%). Ultra-dry treatment improved storability of H. bodinieri seeds. Furthermore, seeds with a moisture content of 4.77% stored at room temperature, and seeds with a moisture content of 3.97% stored at 4 °C yielded the best results. Priming with an appropriate concentration of polyethylene glycol had a certain repairing effect on ultra-dry stored seeds and improved seed vigor, with a two-day priming treatment with 20% polyethylene glycol having the best effect. Finally, compared with sand storage at 4 °C, ultra-dry storage promoted seedling growth and root development; furthermore, it alleviated storage damage to H. bodinieri seeds, promoted soluble sugar and soluble protein accumulation, and increased seedling nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium uptake. Therefore, ultra-dry storage can be effectively used to preserve H. bodinieri seeds. Specifically, low-temperature storage of ultra-dry seeds with a moisture content of 3.97% enhanced H. bodinieri seed vigor, and seedling growth and development.

  • Xie, Forestry College, Guangxi University, Daxue E Rd., Xiangtang District, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China; Huanggang forestry research institute, Huanggang 438000, Hubei, China ORCID ID:E-mail: sherman99c@163.com
  • Liu, Forestry College, Guangxi University, Daxue E Rd., Xiangtang District, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China ORCID ID:E-mail: ltfltfll@163.com
  • Guo, Forestry College, Guangxi University, Daxue E Rd., Xiangtang District, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China ORCID ID:E-mail: guosong@gxu.edu.cn
  • Peng, Sanmengjiang forest farm of Guangxi, Liuzhou 545001, Guangxi, China ORCID ID:E-mail: pj75481425@126.com
  • Li, Forestry College, Guangxi University, Daxue E Rd., Xiangtang District, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China ORCID ID:E-mail: lizailiu666@163.com (email)
article id 10506, category Research article
Mikko Tikkinen, Terhi Latvala, Tuija Aronen. (2021). Interest in vegetatively propagated Norway spruce materials – a survey among Finnish forest owners and professionals. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10506. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10506
Highlights: Survey among forest owners and professionals’ perceptions towards tree breeding and vegetative propagation yielded over 3000 responses; Most valued features in reforestation material were: improved resilience in changing climate, improved pest and pathogen resistance, and securing the species’ gene pool; Majority of respondents accepted reforestation with vegetatively propagated material to some extent; Willingness to pay for improved features was indicated.

Forests and forestry will encounter several changes of unknown magnitude within the coming decades. In the Nordic, long rotations complicate any anticipation to the upcoming changes. Tree breeding can contribute to coping with these changes. The time span of implementing breeding results in practice may be shortened through vegetative propagation. Introducing vegetative propagation to forest regeneration may phase several challenges before adopted by the industry, some of which are related to perceptions about new technology. Firstly, private forest owners are in a key role in implementing the technology in practice; although they do not represent the overall public, they are the decision makers in their own estates regarding forestry and forest regeneration. Secondly, the professionals related to the production of forest regeneration material and plants from forest species are in a key role when it comes to practically introducing the new technology to the forest owners. In this survey, perceptions of forest owners and professionals towards tree breeding and vegetative propagation were investigated. Additionally, the respondents were asked which traits they considered important to be improved by breeding, and their willingness to pay for these improved traits. The respondents valued the most: improved pest and pathogen resistance, improved resilience of forest in changing climate, and securing the species’ gene pool. Responses indicated that forest owners would be willing to pay more for the improved traits in forest regeneration material. The current novel study provides a foundation to concern public awareness regarding tree breeding and vegetative propagation in the future.

  • Tikkinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2368-8042 E-mail: mikko.tikkinen@luke.fi (email)
  • Latvala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: terhi.latvala@luke.fi
  • Aronen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Vipusenkuja 5, FI-57200 Savonlinna, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuija.aronen@luke.fi
article id 10494, category Research article
Hannu Hökkä, Ari Laurén, Leena Stenberg, Samuli Launiainen, Kersti Leppä, Mika Nieminen. (2021). Defining guidelines for ditch depth in drained Scots pine dominated peatland forests. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10494. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10494
Highlights: Process-based hydrological model was applied to drained peatland forests representing a wide range of conditions in Finland; Ditch depth keeping the median July–August water table below 0.35 m was defined; Ditch depth depended on climatic conditions, stand volume, peat properties, and ditch spacing; Shallower ditches than recommended in practice proved to be sufficient in most situations.

We used a process-based hydrological model SUSI to improve guidelines for ditch network maintenance (DNM) operations on drained peatland forests. SUSI takes daily weather data, ditch depth, strip width, peat properties, and forest stand characteristics as input and calculates daily water table depth (WTD) at different distances from ditch. The study focuses on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated stands which are the most common subjects of DNM. Based on a literature survey, and consideration of the tradeoffs between forest growth and detrimental environmental impacts, long term median July–August WTD of 0.35 m was chosen as a target WTD. The results showed that ditch depths required to reach such WTD depends strongly on climatic locations, stand volume, ditch spacing, and peat thickness and type. In typical ditch cleaning areas in Finland with parallel ditches placed about 40 m apart and tree stand volumes exceeding 45 m3 ha–1, 0.3–0.8 m deep ditches were generally sufficient to lower WTD to the targeted depth of 0.35 m. These are significantly shallower ditch depths than generally recommended in operational forestry. The main collector ditch should be naturally somewhat deeper to permit water outflow. Our study brings a firmer basis on environmentally sound forestry on drained peatlands.

  • Hökkä, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@luke.fi (email)
  • Laurén, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.lauren@uef.fi
  • Stenberg, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: leena.stenberg@luke.fi
  • Launiainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: samuli.launiainen@luke.fi
  • Leppä, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kersti.leppa@luke.fi
  • Nieminen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mika.nieminen@luke.fi
article id 10468, category Research article
Arto Haara, Juho Matala, Markus Melin, Janne Miettinen, Kari T. Korhonen, Tuula Packalen, Jari Varjo. (2021). Economic effects of grouse-friendly forest management. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10468. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10468
Highlights: The economic effects of grouse friendly forest management were evaluated by simulating alternative forest management approaches on four large forest holdings in different parts of Finland; The grouse-friendly management of forest holdings was possible with minor effects on the economics in most cases: only in one case was the reduction of NPV more than 5% during a 30-year simulation period; The interest rates had an impact on the differences between the economic effects of the forest management approaches.

Traditional timber production may have negative effects on other ecosystem services. Therefore, new forest management guidelines have been developed in order to enhance a habitat suitable for wildlife. In Finland, a recent example of this is grouse-friendly forest management (GFFM) which emphasises the preservation of grouse species (Tetronidae) habitats. This study aimed to analyse the economic effects of these guidelines. An analysis was made on how the application of GFFM affected the Net Present Value (NPV) in a 30-year simulation of forest management of four large forest holdings located from south to north in Finland. In the simulations, traditional forest management practices were compared to two levels of GFFM. Five levels of interest rate were used, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%. In most of the simulations, the NPV was reduced by about 1% or less due to the application of GFFM in comparison to the traditional reference forest management. Only in one case with more intensive GFFM, was the reduction of NPV more than 5%. The interest rates had an impact on the differences between the management approaches. For example, a low interest rate resulted in a higher thinning intensity in GFFM in comparison to traditional forest management, which lead to a higher NPV in GFFM. To sum up, it seems that it would be possible to manage forest holdings in a grouse-friendly manner with minor effects on the economics.

  • Haara, LUKE ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6895-5300 E-mail: arto.haara@luke.fi (email)
  • Matala, Natural Resources Institute Finland, (Luke), Natural resources, Yliopistokatu 6B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.matala@luke.fi
  • Melin, Natural Resources Institute Finland, (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yli opistokatu 6B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markus.melin@luke.fi
  • Miettinen, Finnish Wildlife Agency, Ratatie 41, FI-91501 Muhos, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.miettinen@riista.fi
  • Korhonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yli opistokatu 6B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.t.korhonen@luke.fi
  • Packalen, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, P.O. Box 30, FI-00023 GOVERNMENT, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuula.packalen@mmm.fi
  • Varjo, Finnish Wildlife Agency, Sompiontie 1, FI-00730 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.varjo@riista.fi
article id 10462, category Research article
Yrjö Nuutinen, Jari Miina, Timo Saksa, Dan Bergström, Johanna Routa. (2021). Comparing the characteristics of boom-corridor and selectively thinned stands of Scots pine and birch. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10462. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10462
Highlights: After boom-corridor thinning (BCT), the number of stems per hectare was higher than that after selective thinning. The number of future crop trees was at the same level; The removal of the simulated intermediate thinnings and clearcutting in BCT treatments was 10–18% higher than in selective thinning. The saw log volumes were at the same level in both treatments.

Young, dense forest in Finland and Sweden urgently need to receive first thinning. In such stands, conventional selective thinning methods make the harvester work time consuming and, thus, costly. To make small-sized trees economically competitive as raw material for bioenergy and biorefining, new harvesting technologies and/or thinning methods need to be developed. A potential solution is boom-corridor thinning (BCT), rendering effective cutting work. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the stand structure of two Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestris L.) and one birch-dominated (Betula pendula Roth with natural downy birch, B. pubescens Ehrh.) stand after BCT and selective thinning at the first thinning phase. Furthermore, simulations were conducted to predict the future stand development after the first thinning treatments. The density of the growing stock was 16–46% higher after BCT treatment than after selective thinning because BCT stands included more small and supressed trees with a dbh < 100 mm. However, the numbers of future crop trees with a dbh > 140 mm per hectare were at the same level in both treatments. The stem volume removal per hectare did not differ between treatments. However, simulation of stand development and intermediate thinning and clearcutting revealed that the total removal volume was 10–18% higher in BCT stands compared to selectively thinned ones. The saw log volumes harvested did, however, not differ between treatments. This study shows that BCT generates stands with higher biodiversity compared to conventional thinning as higher levels of biomass removal can be reached throughout stand rotations.

  • Nuutinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: yrjo.nuutinen@luke.fi (email)
  • Miina, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.miina@luke.fi
  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@luke.fi
  • Bergström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Dept of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Section of Forest Operations, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: dan.bergstrom@slu.se
  • Routa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: johanna.routa@luke.fi

Category: Review article

article id 10516, category Review article
Faujiah N. Ritonga, Jacob N. Ngatia, Run X. Song, Umar Farooq, Sonia Somadona, Andi T. Lestari, Su Chen. (2021). Abiotic stresses induced physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes in Betula platyphylla: a review. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10516
Highlights: Abiotic stress influence Betula platyphylla growth, development, and yield production by impairing physiological, biochemical, and molecular functions; Overexpression or RNAi line of transcription factors enhance the abiotic stress tolerance of B. platyphylla; MYB and AP2/ERF are the most frequently transcription factor family that has been explored over the last two decades in B. platyphylla under abiotic stress.

Abiotic stress is one of the major factors in reducing plant growth, development, and yield production by interfering with various physiological, biochemical, and molecular functions. In particular, abiotic stress such as salt, low temperature, heat, drought, UV-radiation, elevated CO2, ozone, and heavy metals stress is the most frequent study in Betula platyphylla Sukaczev. Betula platyphylla is one of the most valuable tree species in East Asia facing abiotic stress during its life cycle. Using transgenic plants is a powerful tool to increase the B. platyphylla abiotic stress tolerance. Generally, abiotic stress reduces leaves water content, plant height, fresh and dry weight, and enhances shed leaves as well. In the physiological aspect, salt, heavy metal, and osmotic stress disturbs seed germination, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and photosynthesis. In the biochemical aspect, salt, drought, cold, heat, osmotic, UV-B radiation, and heavy metal stress increases the ROS production of B. platyphylla cells, resulting in the enhancement of enzymatic antioxidant (SOD and POD) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (proline and AsA) to reduce the ROS accumulation. Meanwhile, B. platyphylla upregulates various genes, as well as proteins to participate in abiotic stress tolerance. Based on recent studies, several transcription factors contribute to increasing abiotic stress tolerance in B. platyphylla, including BplMYB46, BpMYB102, BpERF13, BpERF2, BpHOX2, BpHMG6, BpHSP9, BpUVR8, BpBZR1, BplERD15, and BpNACs. These transcription factors bind to different cis-acting elements to upregulate abiotic stress-related genes, resulting in the enhancement of salt, drought, cold, heat, osmotic, UV-B radiation, and heavy metal tolerance. These genes along with phytohormones mitigate the abiotic stress. This review also highlights the candidate genes from another Betulacea family member that might be contributing to increasing B. platyphylla abiotic stress tolerance.

  • Ritonga, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Forestry College, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China ORCID ID:E-mail: ritongafaujiah@ymail.com
  • Ngatia, College of Wildlife and Protected Areas, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China ORCID ID:E-mail: jacob.ngatia3@gmail.com
  • Song, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Forestry College, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China ORCID ID:E-mail: 13359850710@163.com
  • Farooq, College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Somadona, College of Agriculture, Riau University, Pekanbaru 28293, Indonesia ORCID ID:E-mail: sonia_hut@yahoo.co.id
  • Lestari, Forestry Major, College of Agriculture, Mataram University, Mataram 83125, Indonesia ORCID ID:E-mail: atlestari@unram.ac.id
  • Chen, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Forestry College, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China ORCID ID:E-mail: chensu@nefu.edu.cn (email)

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