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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
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1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 2 no. 4 | 1968

Category: Article

article id 4782, category Article
Heikki Juslin. (1968). Metsä- ja puutalouden markkinointitutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4782. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14567
English title: Book review: Marktforschung und Gemeinschaftwerbung für die Forst- und Holzirtschaft.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’Marktforschung und Gemeinschaftwerbung für die Forst- und Holzirtschaft. Methoden, Vorschläge udn Beispiele’ by Michel Becker.

  • Juslin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4781, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1968). Uusi norjalainen taimitarhakäsikirja. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4781. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14566
English title: Book review: Produksjon av skogspanter.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’Produksjon av skogspanter’ by Rusten, Arne and Landmark, Leif.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4780, category Article
Matti Keltikangas. (1968). Maailman paperipuuvarat. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4780. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14565
English title: Book review: World pulpwood.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’World pulpwood’ by Thorsten Streyffert.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4779, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Sisäisen korkokannan käsite metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4779. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14564
English title: Internal rate of return in forestry.

The concept of the internal rate can be defined as the rate of interest, which if applied to expenditures incurred at different times, gives a compounded sum equal to revenues compounded at the same rate for the same time. This concept has long been used in forestry, particularly concerning the development of a stand, because in this case there is a time difference between many items of expenditure and revenue. Several terms have been used or the notions derived on this basis. The term internal rate of return has begun to appear only recently. This article explains different variations of the concept and its different names, together with some related concepts and terms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4778, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1968). Teeri (Lyrurus tetrix L.) männyn taimien tuholaisena taimitarhassa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4778. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14563
English title: Feeding of terminal shoots of Scots pine seedlings by the black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) in nursery.
Original keywords: taimitarha; taimituhot; mänty; versot; teeri

In early spring 1968 it was noticed that the black grouses (Lyrurus tetris L.) was eating terminal shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in a tree nursery in Luumäki, Southern Finland. The terminal shoots were picked 1–4 cm from the top of the seedlings. In total some thousands of two-year-old seedlings were damaged. The depth of the snow was 10–15 cm deep and only the tops of the seedlings could be seen above the surface of the snow.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4777, category Article
Jouko Mäkelä. (1968). Näkökohtia monimuuttujamenetelmistä metsäekonomisessa tutkimuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4777. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14562
English title: Aspects of multivariate methods in the research of forest economy.

The article is a lectio praecursoria held on May 18, 1968 at the University of Helsinki. It deals with some aspects connected with the adaptation of mathematic-statistical methods and in particular with multivariate methods. Among these regression, factor, and principal-component analysis are mostly used by the Finnish forest economists.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4776, category Article
K. Stern. (1968). Überlegungen zur optimalen Teilstückgrösse in Feldversuchen mit Waldbäumen. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4776. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14561
English title: Some considerations on optimal plot size in field experiments with forest trees.

18 permanent sample subplots of the Swedish and the Hassian Forestry Institute, each measured in equal intervals for several decades, were divided into subplots of different size. An analysis of variance was calculated for every set of subplot size. The development of intraclass-correlations over years and over different sizes of subplots could be explained if three different correlations were assumed: soil-correlation, correlations from irregular distribution of the trees, and correlation resulting from competition. Intraclass-correlations were positive or negative depending on dominance of one or two of these correlations.

An explanatory simultation study of competitional variance showed the effect of the degree of competitional correlations on the variance of means of subplots of different sizes. If this coefficient was small, all variances of subplots means within the range investigated became larger than expected in experiments without competition, with larger coefficients the variances of means of the smaller subplots became smaller, those of larger subplots larger than expected.

Plots of medium or large size are probably optimal for long term experiments with forest trees, if all sources of costs in such experiments are taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in English and Finnish.

  • Stern, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4775, category Article
Erkki Pulliainen, Kalevi Loisa, Tauno Pohjalainen. (1968). Hirven talvisesta ravinnosta Itä-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4775. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14560
English title: Winter food of the moose (Alces alces) in eastern Lapland.

The winter food of moose (Alces alces L.) was examined in 1967-68 in the Saariselkä fell area in the communes of Inari and Sodankylä, in the northern parts of the communes of Salla and Savukoski, and in the central part of the commune of Salla in eastern Lapland in Finland.

In northern parts of Salla and Savukoski 25 moose were followed during 3.-13.4.1968. This area is typical wintering terrain of moose in north-east Lapland. According to the estimate, 45% food taken by the moose was Scots pine shoots and needles, 28% birch, 17% juniper sprigs and needles, 9% willow, and 1.5% bear moss. According to observations of the researchers in 26.1.-16.5.1968, moose seemed to avoid birch, even if it was available in the area, and eat Scots pine shoots and needles and juniper.

Moose seemed to prefer willow in as a winter feed in the southern part of the area studied, where it accounts according to the present and earlier studies 50-90% of the winter food. In the northern wintering areas of moose, where willow is not as common, willow seemed to account for less than 10% of the winter food. There Scots pine is the most important winter food for moose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pulliainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Loisa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4774, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1968). Some economic aspects of growing forest stands. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4774. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14559

The aim of this paper was that of studying the optimum growing schedules of forest stands, with the classic Faustmann formula as starting point. The study is mainly theoretical in nature. The study shows that the net present-value of the future revenues from a forest stand can be calculated, not only by means of the harvesting revenues, but also by a more theoretical concept, here termed the current gross soil rent. The current gross soil rent represents the difference between the current value growth and the rent of the growing stock.

By use of the concepts described here, it is theoretically possible to find the growing schedule for the stand which maximizes the net present-value of the stand. To make the formulae simpler, a one-year period has been adopted for discussion of the concepts involved in determination of the optimum structure and density of the growing stock, and the financial maturity. However, these concepts can be extended to cover periods of any length.

The method for determination of the optimum growing schedule for a forest stand can be summarized as follows: Thin the stand as the internal rate of return on the marginal increase in ’timber capital’ falls below the guiding rate of interest. Clear-cut and regenerate the stand as the internal rate of return on the sum of the ’timber and soil capital’ falls below the guiding rate of interest.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4773, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Totte Vadén. (1968). Ammattitietous ja sen leviäminen maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4773. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14558
English title: Professional insight and its diffusion within farm forestry.

The aim of the present study was to describe the diffusion of the professional insight in forestry taking place among forest owners and as factors attached thereto. The material is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forest.

Mass media (papers, radio and television) was an important source of information for the forest owners. Forest educational events are specially planned to spread information on forestry to forest owners, but 40% told that they had never participated any such event. Only 8% had got professional forest education. Knowledge concerning forests and forest management may also be inherited from the forest owner’s parents, or in discussions with professional forest officers or neighbours. About 73% of the forest owners had been in touch with professional foresters at least once during the last three years.

A third of the forest owners regarded professional insight their most important source of information on forestry, a little smaller group considered instruction in forestry questions the most important source. The third largest group had achieved their knowledge on forestry on own experience and inherited knowledge. Forest owners favouring mass media, own experience and inherited knowledge were often owners of a small forest holding.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vadén, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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