Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 1 | 1967

Category: Article

article id 4759, category Article
Olavi Laiho. (1967). Puu ja organismit. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4759. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14543
English title: Book Review: Holz und Organismen.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’Holz und Organismen’ by von G. Becker and W. Liese.

  • Laiho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4758, category Article
Eero Paavilainen. (1967). Vesi tuottotekijänä kasvun eri vaiheissa. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4758. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14542
English title: Book review: Crop Responses to Water at Different Stages of Growth .
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’Crop Responses to Water at Different Stages of Growth’ by P.J. Salter and J.E. Goode. 

  • Paavilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4757, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1967). Suomen metsäntutkimus ja sen kehittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4757. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14541
English title: Forestry research in Finland and its further development.

In 1965, the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) appointed five working groups representing various fields of forestry to get a general view of the present stage and future need of development of forestry research. The present paper gives a summary of the reports prepared by the working groups and presents some suggestions concerning improvement of the general condition for forestry research.

First, an account is given of the present stage of forestry research; this is done in the form of a list including the institutes where forestry research is practiced. The most important of these institutes are the University of Helsinki, which in 1966 employed 42 research workers, and the Finnish Forest Research Institute which employed 52 investigators. The total number of research workers was 114. The funds available and the financial sources are also dealt with, as well a as the aftergrowth of research workers and the publishing activity.

In addition, a review is presented of the most important tasks of research according to the reports of the working groups. Finally, an account is given of the program of development. According to the program, the number of new researcher’s positions required has been estimated as being rather large. Development of the research activity organization presupposes establishment of some new departments at the Finnish Forest Research Institute and at the University of Helsinki; moreover, a common laboratory as well as a forest-machine station are required. The funds needed at the most important state institutions will be about 90% higher in 1970 and 190% higher in 1980 than at present. The aftergrowth of research workers should be essentially increased and its distribution of the fields of forestry should be more even. No new series of publication have been considered necessary.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4756, category Article
Bo Eklund. (1967). Om tillväxtens årliga variation hos tall och gran jämte betydelsen av hänsynstaganden härtil. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4756. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14540
English title: Annual variation of increment in Scots pine and Norway spruce in Sweden.

This lecture discusses the problem of the annual variation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), and its significance. A newly constructed instrument for field measurements of diameter growth is described, also the latest of the Royal College of Forestry’s series of machines for annual ring measurement. The method of constructing an annual ring index is also mentioned.

Examination of material from undisturbed stands in Northern Sweden has shown that the annual ring index series for pine are characterised by a relatively marked autocorrelation, which increases with latitude, implying that the annual ring index for a given calendar year is positively correlated with that for the year immediately preceding it. However, this seems not to be so in spruce, in which the annual ring index series is marked by the effect of the changes in cone production from the year to year. The annual ring index for spruce may be expressed in the form of climatic functions, according to which the index can be approximately calculated or known values of the meteorological variables contained in the function, in association with numerical expressions for the cone production. By means of a number of examples illustrating annual ring series from thinned stands. It is shown finally how the response to thinning can be presented in a more essential form from the variation in the annual rings, and how climatically corrected increment can be determined.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Eklund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4755, category Article
Unto Väisänen. (1967). Puun korjuu. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4755. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14539
English title: Book review: Harvesting Timber Crops.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a textbook ’Harvesting Timber Crops’ by A.E. Wackerman, W.D. Hagenstein and A.S. Mitchell.

  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4754, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1967). Havaintoja erään hoidetun männikön tuulisuhteista. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4754. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14538
English title: Observations on wind conditions in a managed Scots pine stand.

An explorative study on wind conditions in a well-managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand was made in Southern Finland. The wind velocity was recorded continually with two cup anomometers from April to August, 1964. The two levels used were 2 m and 9 m. The wind velocity was lower at 2 m than within the canopy at 9 m. The dependence on the absolute wind velocity at 9 metres was logarithmic. The wind velocity did affect the difference between daily minimum temperatures at the two levels; the difference in the maximum temperatures was affected only in May and August.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4753, category Article
Helge Johnsson. (1967). Olika vägar för rasmässig förbättring av vårt skogsodlingsmaterial. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4753. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14537
English title: Different ways of genetic improvement of forest trees in Scandinavia.

Transfer of southern provenances of trees to the north leads to an increased growth until the limit of hardiness is exceeded, which may be utilized in practical forestry. Selection from certain local provenances are important both for the immediate supply of seed and on a somewhat longer view. A certain degree of improvement can be achieved by avoiding minus regions and concentrating seed collection on better areas. Also, seeds can be collected from the best stands only, and by accepting only seed from the best trees of such stands. The selection can be strengthened considerably by production of seed orchards. The seed production is based on a small number of trees of particular superiority that are reproduced vegetatively. The clones are planted in an orchard, which pollinate each other.

Hybridization of two different provenances might result in an increased capacity of production. Such hybridized seed can be produced in orchards established, for instance, as a combination of selection and hybridization orchards. As regards the major Scandinavian tree species there are only small prospects of advancement through species hybridization. The method available at present for efficient racial improvement of our forest trees is individual selection in connection with seed production in orchards. In special cases, however, other methods such as transfer of provenances, provenance hybridization, species hybridization, and polyploidization will result in considerable progress.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Johnsson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4752, category Article
T. T. Kozlowski, S. Sasaki, J. H. Torrie. (1967). Effects of temperature on phytotoxicity of monuron, picloram, CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone to young pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4752. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14536

The apparent toxicity of soil-incorporated monuron, picloram, CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone to young Pinus resinosa Ait. seedlings was studied over a temperature range of 10–30 °C in growth chambers. The herbicides were first applied to the surface of autoclaved soil at 1 1b/A and later mixed into the soil. Thereafter pine seeds were planted and subsequent seedling development was studied. The effect of CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone were also studied at dosages of 2 and 3 1b/A (soil surface basis).

Under the conditions of this study, picloram and monuron were persistent in the soil and toxic to pine seedlings, whereas CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone appeared to be non-toxic. However, the apparent lack of phytotoxicity of the latter group apparently was caused largely by lack of activation of sesone by autoclaving soil and large losses from the soil of CDEC, EPTC, and CDAA even before seeds were planted.

High toxicity of picloram and monuron was showed by reductions in seedling survival, total dry weight increment of plants, and dry weight increment of surviving seedlings. Various temperature regimes greatly affected growth of herbicide treated plants and controls. In control plants both high and low temperatures adversely affected seedling survival and dry weight more than shoot growth. Temperature extremes generally inhibited root growth more than shoot growth. The high temperatures, 25 and 30 °C, markedly enhanced phytotoxicity of picloram and muron.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kozlowski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sasaki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Torrie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4751, category Article
Ilmari Schalin. (1967). On the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the bacteria and microfungi in humus layer. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4751. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14535

During the summer and fall of 1966 changes brought about by urea, calcium ammonium nitrate, nitrate of lime, and ammonium sulphate were observed. Application of the fertilizers corresponded to 100 kg/N per hectare.

The effect of urea was immediate. The pH rose and the bacterial density increased to 20–30 times more than determined in the spring, while the microfungal density decreased to one third of the spring density. In the ammonium sulphate plot opposite changes occurred almost as rapidly as in the previous case. A gradually increasing biological activity observed after application of calcium ammonium nitrate and of lime fertilizers seemed almost the same for bacteria and microfungi. Both microbe groups displayed consistent quantitative growth. pH 4.3 was the limit of acidity below which the bacteria showed a tendency to decline and the microfungi to increase, while the opposite was true above this limit.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Schalin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4750, category Article
Max. Hagman. (1967). Havupuiden viljely. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4750. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14460
English title: Book review: A fenyök termesztése.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’A fenyök termesztése’ (havupuiden viljely) by Béla Kesesztesi.

  • Hagman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4749, category Article
Max. Hagman. (1967). Metsäpuitten resistenssijalostus. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4749. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14459
English title: Book review: Breeding Pest-Resistant Trees.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’Breeding Pest-Resistant Trees’, Proceedings of a NATO and NSF Advanced Study Instituten on Genetic Improvement for Disease and Insect Resistance of Forest Trees.

  • Hagman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4748, category Article
Lalli Laine. (1967). Puun lahottajasienten biologia. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4748. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14458
English title: Book review: Biologie holzzerstörender Pilze.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’Biologie holzzerstörender Pilze’ written by Vladimir Rypáček.

  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4747, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1967). Metsänkäytön perusteet. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4747. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14457
English title: Book review: Grundriss der Forstbenuzung. Entstehung, Eigenschaften, Verwertung und Verwendung des Holzes und anderer Forstprodukte.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a textbook ’Grundriss der Forstbenuzung. Entstehung, Eigenschaften, Verwertung und Verwendung des Holzes und anderer Forstprodukte’ by Volfgang Knigge and Horst Schulz.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4746, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1967). Tikaskuoriaisesta (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv., Col., Scolytidae) kuorellisen havupuutavaran pilaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4746. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14456
English title: Damages caused to timber with bark by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum) in Finland.

The paper studied the effect of felling time and conditions in the forest depot of timber to damages caused by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv.) to coniferous timber with bark, both experimentally and observing forest depots in Finland. Effects of fellings was studied by studying the abundance of the beetles in logging residue.

The results show that the spruce ambrosia beetles favour timber felled during the late autumn and winter, stored in a shaded place in the forest. In addition, new spruce stumps maintain and increase the beetle population. Fellings in the forest will increase population during the next year and cause damages in forest depot of timber nearby, because the insect breeds in the stumps. The experiments showed that it is possible to diminish the damages caused by the beetle to timber with bark by spraying with insecticides, and timing the fellings and transport of timber so that there is no timber in the forest in the spring during the time when the insect swarms.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4745, category Article
Ilmari Schalin. (1967). Microfungi in the humus layer of pine, spruce and birch stands in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4745. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14455

This study elucidates the composition of the microfungal populations of the humus layer of tree forest types – Vaccinium type with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Myrtillus type with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Oxalis-Myrtillus type with birch (Betula sp.). The results indicate that the microfungi encountered in these sites bear close resemblances. The number of species increased but little towards the more fertile sites from VT to OMT. The main difference was limited to the quantitative relationships between the species.

The microfungal density in the humus layer was greatest in VT, and only slightly less in MT and OMT, in this order. In all the sampling areas, occurrence of the microfungi reached a maximum in the middle of summer, at a time when the maximum temperatures were registered in the humus. The quantitative abundance during the early autumn bears a relation to the yield of litter.

The microfungi most commonly encountered in all sampling areas were those of rapid growth, Mucor, Morierella and Penicillium species, along with Trichoderma, a little slower in growth, and actively decomposing cellulose. Mucor fungi, favouring moisture, were most abundant in the early summer and in the autumn. The Mortierella and Penicillium species, which survive dryness, were most abundant in the middle of the summer. The former is twice as common in MT and OMT than in VT, and the latter twice as common in VT as in OMT.

Scopulariopsis and Verticillium species were found regularly in MT and OMT. One Acremonium species was found almost exclusively in VT, and some Aspergillus and Mycogene in OMT alone. Sterilia mycelia was relatively abundant in MT and OMT in particular. Different kinds of yeast fungi were encountered generally in MT and OMT.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Schalin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4744, category Article
Pekka Tiililä. (1967). Tutkimuksia eräiden ulkomaisten puulajien siemensadon laadusta Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4744. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14454
English title: Studies on the quality of seed yields in some foreign tree species in Finland.

The aim of this present study was to elucidate the quality of seed of foreign tree species grown in Finland, and the factors which have affected the quality of the seed yields. Due to the smallness of the material, however, no far-fetching conclusions can be drawn. The bulk of the seeds were collected in the fall of 1964. The samples of seeds were X-rayed and their classification to empty seeds and full seeds of four quality classes was done on the basis of the anatomical structures. The species studied (a total of 34 species) belonged to the following genera: Abies, Chamaecyparis, Larix, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Thuja and Tsuga.

The percentage of empty seeds was throughout quite high. The reasons for the generation of empty seeds probably originate from the special nature of the stands from which the seeds were collected. As a rule, the stands were young and small in area, which may have caused weak pollination and self-pollination leading to embryo mortality. Also, insect damages were observed.

Seeds with albumen still discernible, although the embryo had died, occurred to some extent. In some Larix species, even the bulk of the seeds recorded as full belonged in this group.

The ripening of seeds with embryos was quite successful in spite of the fact that the temperature sum of the year of ripening was slightly below the average in Finland. For instance, all Abies species ripened almost completely.

According to the results, it can be expected that the tree species examined in this study are able to produce rich yields of good-quality seed in Finland, provided that the ovules are well pollinated and self-pollination does not take place to a large extent.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tiililä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4743, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1967). Metsämaaston luokittelun yhtenäistämispyrkimyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4743. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14453
English title: Attempts to unify the classification of forest terrain.

The article is a report from the meeting of the Section 32 of the IUFRO in Canada on September 15.–25. 1964, which three Finnish forestry experts participated. The theme of the meeting was classification of forest terrain.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4742, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1967). Akateemikko V. Sukatšev in memoriam. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4742. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14452
English title: Academic V. Sukatšev in memoriam.
Original keywords: nekrologit
English keywords: necrology

The paper is necrology of the known Russian botanist and scientist V. Sukatšev (1881 –1967), who was in Finland well-known for his interest in the forest type theory and his work on plant communities. He published books, for example, on dendrology and the doctrine of plant communities.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4741, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1967). Metsäsanakirjoja - onko niitä? Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4741. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14451
English title: Forest dictionaries - do they exist?

This article is an overview on the assortment of forest dictionaries available around the world in 1967, related to the preparation of a new edition of ‘Metsäsanakirja’ (forest dictionary) by the Finnish Society of Forest Science.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4740, category Article
Pentti Räsänen. (1967). Metsänviljelyksessä käytettävien taimien luokitteluperusteet. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4740. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14450
English title: Book review: ’Wachstum und Qualität von Forstpflanzen'.

This article is a book review of a book ’Wachstum und Qualität von Forstpflanzen. Zweite Erweitrte Auflage von Die Gütebeurteilung von Forstpflanzen’ written by Helmut Scmidt-Vogt.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4739, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1967). Vuonna 1966 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4739. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14449
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1966 .

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1966 in alphabetic order by the different scientific series, Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports. It also includes book reviews on forest literature. 

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4738, category Article
Sakari Lilja. (1967). Tuomen merkityksestä kuusen tuomiruostesienen, Pucciniastrum padi (Kunze & Schm.) Diet., esiintymiselle kuusessa. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4738. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14448
English title: Significance of the bird-cherry (Prunus padus L.) for the occurrence of the rust, Puccinastrum padi (Kunze & Schm.) in spruce.

The present study deals with the occurrence of the rust, Pucciniastrum padi (Kunze & Schm.) Diet., in the shoots and cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in the forest area of the training and experimental farm of Helsinki University at Viikki (60’10’ N; 25’ E). The most important task was to clarify the correlation between the occurrences of the disease in spruce and the abundance of the alternative host of the disease, bird-sherry (Prunus padus L.).

Infected shoots were encountered in a 17-year-old planted seedling stand of spruce. In this stand 8.4% of the seedlings were infected. The density of bird-cherry trees was in the stand higher than in the surrounding areas. The number of infected shoots was the greatest in those places where the density of bird-cherries was highest and already at a distance of some ten metres form the bird-cherry stands the degree of infection decreased considerably. The portion of infected cones in the whole material of this study was 19.5%.

The dependence of the frequency of disease on the abundance of bird-cherries at different distances from the spruce stand was studied by means of regression analysis. For this reason, the percentage infected cones were determined by sample plots and the abundance of bird-cherry trees from six zones (0–50, 50–100, 100–150, 150–200, 200–300, and 300–500 m) around each sample plot. The results showed that the dependence between the degree of infection of cones and the abundance of bird-cherry in the surroundings only reached the closest zone. There were also infected cones at greater distance, for instance, 200–300 m from the bird-cherries about 10% of the cones could be infected. Both the infected cones and shoots were longer than the healthy ones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4737, category Article
S. A. Wilde. (1967). Production of energy material by forest stands as related to supply of soil water. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4737. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14447

This study estimates the supply of soil water required for the annual and total production of energy material by the biomass of 32-year-old plantation of red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait. in Wisconsin, the United States.

The supply of transpiration water was determined as the sum of summer precipitation, winter stored water, and condensed vapor, minus gravitational discharge and evaporation of intercepted rainfall. On the average, the 1,20 m root zone of coarse sandy soils of central Wisconsin receives 2,750 M.T. of water per hectare. During the 32nd year of plantation growth, the increment biomass, including 43% of merchantable timber, was 10,100 kg/ha, or 162 x 105 kcal/g. At this time of the culminating growth, the production of 1 kg of wood material consumed 272 kg of water. The corresponding transpiration coefficient 0,37% is near the maximum for the ecosystem of hard pines – sandy soils of glacial outwash with field capacity between 7 and 9%. On the weight basis, the annual leaf fall constituted 32% of the biomass and over 80% of merchantable timber.

The entire supply of water of 96,000 M.T./ha produces in 32 years 211,112 kg of total dry matter at a rate of 1 kg of wood per 455 kg of water, with corresponding transpiration coefficient of 0,22%. The evapogravitational losses during the early stages of the stand’s growth decreased the water utilization efficiency of trees about 40%.

The information obtained permitted to outline several hydrological relationships pertinent to forest culture, namely: maximum rate of forest growth as delineated by the supply of available transpiration water; content of available moisture in soils of high tension capacity; contribution to soil water rendered by natural subirrigation and condensation of athmospehric vapor; growth depressing effect of weeds.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Wilde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4736, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1967). Hakkuutähteissä elävien hyönteisten käyttömahdollisuuksista hakkuun ajankohdan määrittämisessä. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4736. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14446
English title: Potential in using determination of insect species breeding in the logging residue to estimate the time of the logging.

Degree of decomposition of logging residue, and decay in stumps have been used in forest inventories to estimate the time of the felling. In this paper, a method was developed to use insects breeding in the logging residue to determine how long ago the felling took place. The method is based on the arrival and rate of development of the different species of bark beetles that breed in the logging residue.

The most suitable insect species to be used in the purpose of timing the age of logging residue were defined, and their occurrence in different tree species and fellings performed at different times of the year were described. The species can be easily identified by gallery systems characteristic to the species.

It is concluded that the method does not suit for broadleaved species, because there is no common insects suitable for this purpose. Also, the time of swarming of the insects depends on the weather conditions in the spring, which makes it difficult to give definite dateshe progress of the spring has to be taken into account when the occurrence of the insects is used in the determination of the time of the felling. In addition, local conditions, such as shading, affect drying of the branches, and can influence the occurrence of the insects. For Scots pine and Norway spruce the age of the logging residue can be determined precisely only at most two years back.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4735, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1967). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran julkaisutoiminta. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4735. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14445
English title: Publishing activity of the Society of Forestry in Finland.

The paper includes a short description on the publishing activity of the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science), founded in 1909, and describes the changes in the publishing of the series Acta forestalia fennica and Silva Fennica in 1967. The series Silva Fennica was changed into a quarterly starting from the beginning of 1967, at the same time, the principles of publishing was changed at least in part in favour of short reports.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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