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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 12 | 1978

Category: Article

article id 5012, category Article
Jyrki Hari, Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen. (1978). An electronic auxanometer for field use. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5012. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14866

This paper describes the design and functioning of an electronic auxanometer designed for field use, and some results obtained with it. The changes in stem radius are monitored with a micrometer screw turned by an electirc motor. A potentiometer transforms the position of the screw into an electronic signal, which is recorded. The accuracy of the device is approximately 1–2 μm. Field experiments with the auxanometer are described and discussed. The accuracy of the device was found to be sufficient for measuring hourly changes in stem radius.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5011, category Article
Kullervo Etholén. (1978). Kokemuksia visakoivun kasvatuksesta Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5011. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14865
English title: Experimental growing of curly birch in Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: visakoivu; Lappi; puunkasvatus

The aim of the present study was to register the curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) plantations established in Lapland and to determine their location and present condition. The information was obtained by means of interviews and visual observations.

In Lapland, the growing of curly birch started in 1950’s and the early 1960’s. During this period, in the different supervisory areas of Lapland, the National Board of Forestry established curly birch stands totalling approximately 30 ha, including about 34,000 seedlings. The bulk of the plantations have been destroyed by animals. On the other hand, the curly birch experimental stands established by the Finnish Forest Research Institute have thrived. The private sector of Forest Management has been engaged in the production of seedlings on a large scale and, as a result of this, curly birch trees are frequently seen as ornamentals in Rovaniemi and in other localities in Lapland. When taken care of, curly birch thrives in Lapland and produces I-class curly wood.

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  • Etholén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5010, category Article
Jyrki Raulo, Reino Saarnio, Timo Ylitalo. (1978). Visakoivun karsittujen oksien kyljestyminen ja värivian leviäminen niistä runkoon. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5010. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14864
English title: Sealing-off of pruned branch stumps in curly birch and subsequent spread of discoloration into the stemwood.

The material used in this study was collected in 1975 from a 41-years old curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) stand in Southern Finland, which had been pruned 12 years earlier. While the stand was thinned, 26 felled trees were selected for further study to study occurrence of discoloration originating from of pruned branches.

The study material included 35 pruned branch stumps and 38 naturally pruned branch stumps of curly birch. The mean diameter of the former was 31 mm and of the latter, only 15 mm. Of the pruned branch stumps, 23% had become completely sealed-off within 12 years. The discoloration had spread into the stem as little from pruned branch stumps as from naturally pruned ones even though the former were greater in diameter. Advanced rot was not found in any of the samples studied.

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  • Raulo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saarnio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ylitalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5009, category Article
Risto-Veikko Pätiälä, Kari Blomberg, Juhani Paakkanen, Sulo Piepponen. (1978). Havaintoja raudus- ja visakoivun mahlan sokeripitoisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5009. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14863
English title: Carbohydrates in the sap of silver birch and its curly grained form.
Original keywords: rauduskoivu; visakoivu; sokerit; mahla

Carbohydrates of the sap of six curly and four silver birches (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok. and B. pendula Roth) were analysed by gas chromatography as trimethylsilyl derivates both from hydrolysed and unhydrolyzed samples. Sorbitol was identified from silver birch sap only. In each of the two groups there were glucose and fructose. No other carbohydrates were discovered. The hydrolysis had no influence on the results.

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  • Pätiälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Blomberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Paakkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Piepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5008, category Article
Jyrki Raulo, Gustaf Sirén. (1978). Neljän visakoivikon päätehakkuun tuotos ja tuotto. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5008. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14862
English title: Yield in volume and money of final cutting in four curly birch stands.
Original keywords: visakoivu; tuotos; laatu

Curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) is characterized by large variations in stem form and the internal structure of the wood, and is generally divided in to four types on the basis of visible external stem characteristics. First plantation experiments in Finland in the 1920’s in experimental areas of the Finnish Forest Institute, had become ripe for cutting and were felled. The study material of this study consists of one 52-year old and three 42–43 -year old stands of curly birch.

The yield suitable for plywood manufacture from the oldest stand was 34,777 kg/ha and that of curly grained branch wood 39,452 kg/ha. The corresponding figures of the other stands were, on average 24,219 and 57,271 kg/ha. The yield from the stands were sold at the present-day price. The result was economically better than from any other forest tree species grown in Finland. The younger stands were obviously cut too early. It was concluded that the genetic quality of the seedlings used in the plantations in the 1920’s and 1930’s was not very high.

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  • Raulo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5007, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1978). Visaseura. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5007. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14861
English title: Curly Birch Society.
Original keywords: Visaseura; visakoivu; järjestöt

Curly birch, a curly grained variety of birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.), has fetched a higher price than any other Finnish tree species on account of its rarity and decorativeness. Curly graininess has been found in Finland in addition to silver birch, also in Alnus glutinosa and Sorbus aucuparia.

The Curly Birch Society was founded in Finland in 1956. Its purpose is to promote the cultivation and use of curly birch, and to coordinate the activities of curly birch cultivators, forest industry and research. The society has made excursions and held informative meetings every year. Furthermore, the society has arranged exhibitions and participated in more extensive agricultural and forestry fairs.

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  • Huuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5006, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1978). Typpilannoituksen vaikutus havupuiden fotosynteesikapasiteettiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5006. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14860
English title: Effects of nitrogen fertilization on photosynthetic capacity of coniferous trees.

The effect of nitrogen fertilizers on the photosynthetic capacity of conifers is assessed on the basis of literature. The review emphasizes the role of changes of needle mass as a factor affecting the result of nutrient application. In particular, the increase in needle mass results in a considerable increase in photosynthetic capacity. The effect of fertilization on the photosynthetic rate seems to be of minor importance. The effect on the photosynthetic rate is, however, poorly documented as is the case for the effect of fertilization on the respiration rate. There is evidence that proper application of nitrogen fertilizers may double the photosynthetic capacity of conifers, mainly as a result of increase in needle mass.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5005, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Kuorinnan vaikutus pinon tiiviyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5005. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14859
English title: The effect of barking on the pile density.

According to the available literature, the times when pulpwood limbing was made by axe and barking by hand tools, barking either had no effect on the pile density (if limbing quality was good) or increased pile density (if limbing was bad). When rotary barking machines are used, the branch stumps remain intact during barking. Therefore, if there are branch stumps in the pulpwood, barking decreases the pile density. Nowadays, when power saw limbing is a common practice in Finland, barking presumably greatly decreases the pile density, due to the fact that in power saw limbing branch stumps are numerous and high. Therefore, the method to estimate the solid volume of a pile of unbarked pulpwood are not applicable to barked pulpwood without modification.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5004, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Haapatukkien lahoisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5004. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14858
English title: Occurrence of decay in aspen logs.
Original keywords: haapa; tukki; laho; tyvitukit
English keywords: aspen; Populus tremula; logs; decay; butt logs

At three Finnish match factories 1,629 aspen logs were measured (see Kärkkäinen and Salmi 1978). When the estimation was based on the condition of the butt cross section of a log, less than half of the logs were sound without any discoloration or decay. Based on the condition of the top cross-section, the corresponding figure was a little higher than 50%. The logs with decay were bigger than those without it. There were relatively more butt logs among the logs with decay than among the totally sound logs.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5003, category Article
Hannu Saarenmaa. (1978). Kaarnakuoriaisten (Col., Scolytidae) esiintyminen eräässä kanadanmajavan (Castor canadensis Kuhl) aiheuttaman tulvan seurauksena kuolleessa metsikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5003. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14857
English title: The occurrence of bark beetles (Col., Scolytidae) in a dead spruce stand flooded by beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl.) .

 

The aim of the study was to determine which kinds of insects had infected the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in different stands killed by flooding caused by beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl), and if there was any danger that they would subsequently cause damage in the surrounding forests. The effect of tree diameter and certain stand characteristics on the fauna of dead trees are discussed. The occurrence of different insect combinations and qualifications for their coexistence were studied.

Pityogenes chalcographus L., Trypodendron lineatum O., Hylurgops palliatus Gyll. and Dryocetes autographus Ratz. occurred most abundantly. 20 phloem or wood boring species were observed in 5 regular succession types. Secondary species occurred in a virgin stand while Ips typographus L. was found at the edge of a felling area. Owing to the flooding, species preferring moist conditions were abundant. In this case damages had not spread to the surrounding forests which, however, might be possible under certain conditions.

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  • Saarenmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5002, category Article
Antti Haapanen, Pertti Siitonen. (1978). Kulojen esiintyminen Ulvinsalon luonnonpuistossa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5002. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14856
English title: Forest fires in Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve in Northern Finland.

The study is the first report of a larger project concerning fire ecology in the Finnish boreal forests. Modern forestry has never been practiced in the Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve (2,500 ha) in Northern Finland in the county of Kuhmo. Forest fires have been uncommon because of mosaic of mineral and peat soils. The forests are mostly Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) often as the oldest trees of a stand. Forest fires were dated by counting annual rings from cambium to the fire scar in pines. 73 stands covering 1,207 ha were surveyed, over 80% of which was on mineral soil.

50% of the area had burned at least once during the life time of the present pine trees. 48 different forest fires were found, the first being from the year 1712 and the latest from 1969. The average time elapsed between the fires was about 82±43 years, and range 18–219 years. It was assumed that the stands where no fire scars were found, had, however, regenerated after fires but no fires have occurred since after that. In latter part of the 19th century 21 forest fires were dated, in the other half centuries only 4–9. This may have been caused by the increased human activity in the late 1800’s. The fire rotation of the area is 280 years, and spruce is almost the only tree species, which can regenerate in the present situation.

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  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5001, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1978). Recreational potential of a forest stand. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5001. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14855

The aim of the paper was to investigate the recreational potential of successional stand based on the suitability of the stands for different recreational activities and the trampling tolerance of ground cover. The relationship between selected recreational activities and the volume of the stands under study has been determined. These functions have been utilized in determining the potential of the successional stand for different recreational activities. Combining this information with trampling tolerance gave criteria for determining the recreational potential of a stand. The results emphasize the importance of varying the distribution of development stages in a recreational area and in its management.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5000, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1978). Säteilymittarin m/Frankfurt soveltuvuus energiatasemittauksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5000. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14854
English title: Use of chemical totalizer of radiation in energy balance measurements.

The investigation is concerned with testing chemical totalizer of radiation (Frankfurt radiometer) for use in measuring the components of a simple energy balance (latent heat = net radiation – sensible heat) so as to gain an estimate for evaporation. The meter is based on the temperature dependence of the inversion rate of sugar solution. The relationship is exponential. It was found that radiation sums for 2–6-day periods can be reliably determined with this meter when global radiation is below 20 MJ·m-2d-1. Determining sensible heat is noticeably inaccurate, and hence the calculation of evaporation values, too. In comparing evaporation from different types of ground and plant cover one thus has to be content with drawing conclusions on the basis of net radiation values. The totalizer is therefore only suited to describing radiation conditions.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4999, category Article
Tapio Klen, Veikko Louhevaara. (1978). Metsurin suojavarusteiden aiheuttama lisäkuormitus. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 4999. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14853
English title: The additional physical strain caused by safety equipment in logging work.

The safety clothing, rubber safety boots, belt with lifting hooks and personal protectors can weight about 3 kg more than the normal work clothing including rubber boots. In order to evaluate the increase off the physical strain in logging work due to them, laboratory tests performed on tread mill were made. The physical strain increased 3–11% as estimated from heart rate and 4–8% as estimated from oxygen consumption measurements.

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  • Klen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Louhevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4998, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1978). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran kunnianosoitukset. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4998. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14852
English title: Awards of the Finnish Society of Forest Science.

This paper describes the principals of the awards given by the Finnish Society of Forest Science, and lists the different acknowledgements conferred by the society.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4997, category Article
Pasi Jartti. (1978). Tyvilahon määritysmenetelmistä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4997. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14851
English title: Measurement of internal decay in living trees.

The physical methods currently available for measuring the internal decay of living trees is examined in this study. Although this is mainly a review, it can be concluded that some measurements shed more light on the problem. Examination of ultrasonic methods reveals that the coupling of ultrasonic energy from the transducer to the tree is not efficient. Both impulse and ultrasonic testing work best with decayed and hollow trees. The electrical resistance measurements of stumps gave resistance values for sound wood 300–400 kΩ, for decayed and discoloured wood about 12 kΩ and for cambium about 12 kΩ. The neutron activation gives good results, and in particular it reveals nicely the increasing concentration of potassium in decayed wood. The internal decay of living trees was not examined.

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  • Jartti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4996, category Article
Mikko Raatikainen. (1978). Puolukan sato, poiminta ja markkinointi Pihtiputaan kunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4996. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14850
English title: The berry yield, picking, and marketing of Vaccinium vitis-idaea in the commune of Pihtipudas, Central Finland.

A study on the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) was made in 1976. The berry yield was studied by picking along 17 lines, each 1,000 m long. The picking and use of lingonberry were studied by an inquiry addressed to the families engaged in such an occupation. The marketing of the lingonberry was investigated by interviewing purchasers, and by means of reports based on purchasing certificates of the purchacers. The total yield of lingonberry in Pihtipudas was 1.2 million kg or 18 kg per hectare of productive forest. Only 7% of the total yield of the berry was picked. 47% of the lingonberries picked were used by the families themselves, 48% were sold and 5% were used for other purposes. The families who sold lingonberries earned, on an average, 350 Fmk.

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  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4995, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Matti Saramäki, Martti Varmola. (1978). A simultaneous equation model to determine taper curve. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4995. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14849

A simultaneous equation model to determine taper curve for Scots pine is presented. The diameters at relative heights are endogenous variables and height an exogenous variable. Any equations may be substituted by the measured value of diameter. Solution of the system of equations yields 11 diameters at relative heights. Intermediate values are obtained by interpolation. Interpolation allows the use of diameters measured at absolute heights, too.

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  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saramäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varmola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4994, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1978). Seismisten luotausmenetelmien soveltuvuus metsäautoteiden pohjatutkimuksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4994. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14848
English title: Seismic survey methods in forest road construction.

The aim of the study was to find out the technical and economical applicability of seismic survey methods of sub-surface earth investigations in forest road planning. Two seismographs, SOIL-TEST MD 1 and BISON 1570, were tested in studyin 31 cuts and 3 gravel areas. The devices proved to be usable in field conditions. Sounding one spot costs about 75 Fmk and methods’ rentability is greatly based on the ration between expected and unexpected events, which depends on the areal geology. It is profitable to purchase the device especially if digging out of unexpected bedrock causes high costs.

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  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4993, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1978). Yliopistollisten metsänhoidon harjoitustöiden siirtäminen Evolta Hyytiälään. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4993. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14847
English title: Transfer of the field courses in silviculture of the University of Helsinki, Finland, from Evo to Hyytiälä.

The article describes the series of events and the decisions which in the years 1908–1911 resulted in transfer of the field courses in silviculture of the University of Helsinki from the old training region of the Evo Forest Institute in Central Finland, where higher education in forestry had been given since 1860. The establishment of the new training region of Siikakangas and the building of the new Forest Training Station Hyytiälä in 1911–1912 are also described, as well as the arguments behind these decisions and the motives of the forestry faculty of the University of Helsinki.

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  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4992, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi, Raimo Hiltunen. (1978). Monoterpenes in Scots pine in relation to browsing preference by moose (Alces alces L.). Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4992. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14846

Monoterpene hydrocarbon contents of needles in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plants both damaged and untouched by the moose (Alces alces L.) were compared in the study. The material was collected in an 8-year-old plantation in Central Finland. Needle samples were taken from the topmost shoot whorl of the plants in the middle of April, 1976. Only minor differences were found between the plant groups. Thus, terpenes in pine presumably play no important role in the browsing preference by moose.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hiltunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4991, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Leo Tervo. (1978). Taimikkopuun korjuumenetelmien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4991. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14845
English title: Comparison of methods for harvesting in sapling stand.

A theoretical nomogram was made for estimating the costs of fully mechanized thinning and the driving speed of the machine. Based on this nomogram and the previous studies three harvesting methods were compared; systematic fully mechanized harvesting, selective fully mechanized harvesting, and manual felling combined with whole-tree chipping.

The third method was cheaper than the fully mechanized methods in a pole-stage stand. The choice of the most advantageous chipping station depended on conditions, but the smaller tree size and possibly the reduced damage on the remaining stand favour chipping on the strip road rather than chipping on the intermediate landing or at the mill.

Mechanized systematic thinning was the cheapest method for harvesting in the sapling stand. The required driving speed were so low that ergonomic factors should not hinder its use. Factors related to the future production of the stand do, however, limit its use. Mechanized selective thinning does not seem to be an economic method for harvesting in a sapling or pole-stage stand.

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  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tervo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4990, category Article
Michael Starr, Carl Johan Westman. (1978). Easily extractable nutrients in the surface peat layer of virgin sedge-pine swamps. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4990. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14844

The paper deals with the nutrient status of surface peat layer from virgin sedge-pine swamps and its relationship to peatland types. When the nutrients are expressed in mg/100 g peat, only easily extractable Ca and Mg correspond to the productivity status of the peatland type. N, P, and K levels in the herb rich sedge-pine swamp are generally lower than in the small sedge-pine swamps, which are the least productive ones. The differences between the site types in all the five nutrients become much clearer when the results are expressed in kg/ha. P, K, and Ca are significantly different between the site types, and correspond to the productivity of the site type. For N and Mg the same tendency can be seen. The organically bound nutrients N, and to a lesser extent, P appear to comply with the hypothesis of an increase in nutrient availability in Southern Finland.

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  • Starr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4989, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Havaintoja iän vaikutuksesta lehtikuusen puuaineen tiheyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4989. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14843
English title: Observations on the effect of age on the basic density of larch wood.

About 100 years old larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. And L. decidua Mill.) trees were felled and the basic density samples taken from the stump level were determined. The number of trees was 21 and number of samples 378. The maximum basic density was reached at the age of 40–60 years, as counted from the pith. The basic density decreased as the width of the growth rings increased or the amount of heartwood decreased. The average basic density of the whole disc was 543 kg/m3 in L. sibirica and 497 kg/m3 in L. decidua. The basic densities of bark were 328 kg/m3 and 286 kg/m3, respectively. 

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4988, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1978). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4988. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14842
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand: IV The amount of phytomass and nutrients.

The distribution of the dry matter and nutrients in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stock growing on a Vaccinium type site, ground vegetation, and humus were determined in the study. The greatest part of the dry matter in the tree was found in the stemwood. The living branches, roots, bark, needles and dead branches decreasing order of magnitude made up the rest of the biomass. The trees contained over 90%, the field layer vegetation 3% and the bottom layer vegetation 2% of the dry matter in the tree stand. The tree stock contained 86–95% of the total amount nutrients in the stand. The field layer vegetation contained less nutrients than the bottom layer vegetation. Nitrogen, however, was an exception, the amount being approximately the same in both vegetation layers. 

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  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4987, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Havaintoja kokopuuhakkeen tiheyden laskemisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4987. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14841
English title: Observations on the calculations of the basic density of total tree chips.
Original keywords: kokopuuhake; hake; menetelmät
English keywords: chips; basic density; methods

In this study two methods of determining the basic density of total tree chips are compared. The method of Mäkelä (1977) is based on the volumes of Scots pine, Norway spruce, birch, and alder in a logging area, and the age of the trees. In the other method the basic density of total tree chips is measured by the common displacement method. The correlation was 0,730 in the material of 22 logging areas. Besides this it was found that the basic density of chips increases as the size of the chip particles increases with the exception of the smallest particles.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4986, category Article
John E. Høsteland. (1978). Raakapuun hintasopimukset Norjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4986. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14840
English title: Collective timber price agreements in Norway.

In this paper the system of collective timber price agreement in Norway is described. The history of »collective behaviour» in the roundwood market can be tracked far back in history, with different degrees of importance, and it has totally dominated the price-formation of roundwood from the 1950’s until the present. In trying to answer the question »What has been the effect of the collective price agreements» a few theoretical market models are used and the empirical data are also employed. Both the theoretical discussion and the empirical data seem to indicate that the forest owners are better off with collective price agreements than with a situation where there are no organized price-negotiations.

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  • Høsteland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4985, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1978). Metsätyön kuormittavuuden määrittelyä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4985. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14839
English title: Definition of the amount of strain caused by forest work.

The concepts central to ergonomic research connected with the amount of strain caused by work was studied. A model was made to describe the process of strain. The model includes the following concepts: load or stress, human input, worker, strain, renewal of human resources, output and their hierarchical units. Based on the quality of human input, the forest work was roughly divided into two categories: (1) work demanding primarily muscle activity and (2) neuro-sensory work. In the first group, especially in cutting work, the main part of the human input is intensive consumption of muscle energy. In addition, work load causes accidents, wear of skeletal and muscular systems and processes by noise, vibrations, and climate. Correspondingly, when operating forest machines, the human input is mainly neuro-sensory functions of the central nervous system. Work load causes directly the effects of low frequency vibration and of other work conditions. The model was tested on data from research of forest work.

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  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4984, category Article
Jyrki Raulo. (1978). Forestation chain for birch (Betula pendula Roth) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4984. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14838

During the 1970’s an average of 4 million Betula pendula (Roth) seedlings have been planted annually in Finland. The activities connected with the planting of this tree species, the selection of forestation sites, site preparation, planting out the seedlings and follow-up work on the forestation sites are briefly reviewed in the article. The manuscript is based on the studies into the breeding, seedling production and planting techniques of B. pendula started by the Finnish Forest Research Institute already in 1960’s, as well as on practical observations made at the planting sites. A list of some of the Finnish studies concerning B. pendula which have been published in English and studies with a summary in English is included.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Raulo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4983, category Article
Satu Huttunen. (1978). The effects of air pollution on provenances of Scots pine and Norway spruce in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4983. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14837

The success of certain Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) provenances from Northern Finland was studied in a tree damage area occasioned by air pollution in the town of Oulu over the period of 1972-76. The pine strains from more northerly and easterly areas and the spruce strains from the immediate vicinity of the site itself were being observed to thrive best. The results point in a similar direction to those of other comparable experiments, except that the mortality rate amongst the saplings was exceptionally high and the proportion of healthy saplings in good condition was found to be unusually low. Structural properties suggestive of resistance to pollution were observable selectively in certain provenances, these including the xeromorphy of needles or thickness of the epidermis. The chief cause of mortality amongst the saplings was found to be the damage inflicted by pollution during the winter, while that arising in the summer months was relatively slight.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Huttunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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