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Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 13 | 1979

Category: Article

article id 5055, category Article
Eino Mälkönen. (1979). Uusi opas tutkimusraportin laatijoille. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5055. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14912
English title: Book review: Tutkimusraportin laadinnan perusteita.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review on the Finnish book ’Tutkimusraportin laadinnan perusteita’ by professor Matti Kärkkäinen. The book handles on priciples on writing a research report.

  • Mälkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5054, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1979). Outline for a data processing system in forest mensuration. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5054. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14911

This paper presents the principles of a unified data processing system suitable for derivation of the most variables of interest in forest mensuration. The precedence (succedence) relations between the tree and forest stand variables are analysed and a block-wise simultaneous recursive multi-equation model is suggested to describe these relations. Regression analysis is used in the estimation of the model parameters and Taylor’s series and Monte Carlo simulation are available in the derivation of the unbiased results.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5053, category Article
Matti Häkkilä. (1979). Maatilatalouden tuloveroasetuksen muuttamisen vaikutus verokuutiometrin kunnittaisiin hintoihin. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5053. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14910
English title: Effects of the revision of the forest taxation laws in local values for the taxable cubic metre.

The paper evaluates the effect of the change in the forest taxation laws which came into force in January 1977 on the value of the taxable cubic metre in each commune, a measure of the mean timber price. The taxable cubic metre is taken into include timber assortments corresponding to the mean planned cut for the area, which are then assessment at their mean local stumpage prices. Account is also taken of the mean costs involved in forestry, which increase from the south of Finland to the north.

The new principles of taxation, based on data from the V and VI National Forest Inventories, give higher values for the taxable cubic metre, and thus heavier taxation, in the Southern Finland, largely by allowing for a higher proportion of saw logs than previously, and lower values, an easing of taxation, in the north.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Häkkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5052, category Article
Markku Nylund, Antti Haapanen, Seppo Kellomäki, Liisa Nylund. (1979). Deterioration of forest ground vegetation and decrease of radial growth of trees on camping sites. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5052. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14909

The ground cover vegetation and tree growth at several camping sites in Southern Finland were investigated. The deterioration of ground vegetation appeared to be unavoidable in these areas, and only a few grass species were tolerant to heavy trampling. Only moderate deterioration was, however, detected when the trampling level was lower than 10,00015,000 user days. On the other hand, the ground cover was completely destroyed when the trampling level exceeded 100,000 user days. A considerable decrease in radial growth appeared to be associated with destruction of the ground vegetation. The decrease was abrupt and was found to continue throughout the whole period of use. After ten years’ use the growth in the trampled areas was 35% lower than that that of the untrampled areas. A further decrease in radial growth is expected in the future. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5051, category Article
Aili Tuimala. (1979). Kuusen lahon aiheuttamista puutavaralajisiirtymistä ja kantohintamenetyksistä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5051. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14908
English title: Changes in timber assortments and loss in stumpage prices caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber.

Material for this study was collected from 26 stands marked for clear cutting in Southern Finland. The volume of decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber and pulpwood was determined by deducting the volumes of these assortments (as recorded on the measurement certificate) from the volume of the standing trees. To obtain the economic loss, the volume of decayed wood was multiplied by the difference in stumpage prices between spruce timber of pulpwood and pine pulpwood. In the 17 stands of Buyer A the loss in timber volume caused by decay was 5.84% and the loss in stumpage price 2.84 Fmk/m3 (means weighted by volume). The corresponding figures in the 9 stands of Buyer B were 10.87% and 5.50 Fmk/m3, respectively.

At the mean stumpage price level for the felling season 1977-78 the losses in the stands m.f.c. mentioned above were 2.87% per unit price in the stands of Buyer A and 5.75% in the stands of Buyer B.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tuimala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5050, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1979). Suomen metsäntutkimuksen ulkomaiset yhteydet. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5050. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14907
English title: International contacts of Finnish forest research.

The article describes various forms of international contacts in the Finnish forestry research and emphasizes the importance of this cooperation. The relatively small additional resources required to maintain contacts should be safeguarded. When considering the ways in which international contacts could be strengthened, coordination with the aims of the public and private sectors is needed.

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  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5049, category Article
Pirkko Ilonen, Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). On distribution of growth in crown system of young Scots pine stands. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5049. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14906

Branching and terminal growth of lateral shoots and needle growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is investigated as a function of the whorl’s position and age and prevailing light climate. Number of buds per whorl was linearly and positively related to the whorl’s position and prevailing light climate. The growing whorl’s number counting from the apex was associated with declining bud number. The terminal growth of lateral shoots increased exponentially within the values 0.6–1.0 of the whorls position. Under these values the terminal growth was negligible. The growing whorl’s number indicated curvlinear decrease in shoot growth respectively, and only negligible growth occurred when the whorl’s age exceeded 10 years. The shoot growth was linearly related to the prevailing light climate but differences between dominating and dominated trees were apparent. The distribution of needle growth in the crown system was similar to that of shoot growth.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ilonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5048, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). The effect of solar radiation and air temperature on basic density of Scots pine wood. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5048. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14905

The effect of solar radiation and air temperature on the basic density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood has been investigated on the basis of material obtained from the literature. Solar radiation seemed to affect basic density during earlywood formation. Temperature had the greatest effect on basic density  in late summer. The varying effects of radiation and temperature seemed to be associated with the dynamics of the crown system of trees. Especially the capacity of the crown system to produce the amount of photosynthesis needed in tracheid growth is assumed to be of importance in controlling the variation in the basic density of Scots pine wood. Growth of thracheids from the point of view of photosynthate supply is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5047, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Martti Varmola. (1979). A nonlinear simultaneous equation model to determine taper curve. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5047. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14904

In the original set of equations derived by regression analysis, relative-height diameters (endogenous variables) are presented as nonlinear functions of the other relative-height diameters and of the height of the tree (an exogenous variable). Any of the original equations can be replaced by an interpolation formula which links a measured diameter to the four closest relative-height diameters. The solution of the simultaneous equation model yields 10 relative-height diameters. Intermediate values are obtained to avoid biases due to the nonlinearity of the simultaneous model equations.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varmola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5046, category Article
Fernando Saravia. (1979). Small-scale sawmills in industrial and social development of backward forestry areas. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5046. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14903

This paper analyses the potential of utilizing a previously existing infrastructure of small sawmills in a backward area to enhance planned social development, considering at the same time both social and economic objectives. The paper presents the case of a rural forest region of 352,000 ha in Southern Chile in the period 1970–73. It is concluded that meaningful contributions can be made by this traditional industry to such development.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saravia, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5045, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1979). Assessment of forest resources for forest management. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5045. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14902

The general requirements for forest information required in forest management include the availability of quantitative data concerning forest areas and timber volume, data describing that structure and quality of the forest by classes, data dealing with the forest dynamics such as increment and mortality, stand-wise data tied to on-the-ground locations, and the timelines of all this information.

A review of the present inventory systems reveals variations in the information used to manage forests. In many cases, there appears to be an inadequacy of information. There may be no inventory system, or sampling may concern only overall features of the forest. The general trend has been towards a more common use of delineation of stands and the estimation of stands characteristics. In European countries, survey techniques have been improved by, for instance, trying to avoid subjective features in stand-wise assessments and through the use of index sub-compartments which are remeasure. In North America, a new approach was recently introduced to generate stand tables which seems to have significant inventory capabilities. In some cases, the advanced inventory systems may simultaneously employ three kinds of inventories.

In designing an inventory and management information system experiences gained elsewhere should be utilized with studies of sampling methods, remote sensing techniques, new instrumentation and computer services. Improved decision making makes it possible to introduce cheaper methods for periodic inventories. The information system should be only as elaborate as is required to do the job. The costs of acquisition of inventory information correlates with a degree of sophistication of the system, but rarely exceeds one percent of the stumpage of the timber cut. Also, the increase in wood production more than compensates the costs of planning on the basis of inventories.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5044, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1979). Forest balance on the national level. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5044. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14901

Forest balance is a comparison between the growing stock volume at the beginning and end of a balance period and the gross increment and drain during that period. The forest balance of Finland during that period 1967-1973 and the increment and drain balance during the period 1953-1977 are used as examples in the paper. Forest balance is a check of the accuracy of basic estimates. If the discrepancy between the calculated growing stock at the end of the balance period and the growing stock estimated by an inventory is great, it calls for improvements in forest inventory methods and timber utilization statistics.

Balance may reveal possibilities for improving the utilization of forest resources. If natural losses are great, increased thinnings and regeneration cuttings of mature and over-mature tree stands increase the supply of timber. If logging losses are great, the efficiency of harvesting should be improved. An overcutting situation calls forth efforts to increase timber production or to decrease the uses of timber in order to avoid overexploitation. If gross increment is greater than the drain there are possibilities to increase harvesting, forest industrial expansion etc.

Forest balance is a way to check and improve the basic estimates of forestry production, to increase the effective use of timber grown in the forest, to commerce policies and measures concerning increment and to control timber utilization on the basis of sustained yield.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5043, category Article
V. J. Palosuo, M. Heikinheimo, S. Kaurinkoski. (1979). Role of education and professionalism in the developing of forest policies. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5043. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14900

To what extend can the services of forestry fulfil the needs of a nation? The answer depends not only on the natural resources or the stage of development of a country and its forestry, but also on its base of knowledge and know-how. The question is how to maximize the knowledge of forests and its role in human life, how to analyse this knowledge and in due course forward the result to the decision makers.

As an organic part of economy and culture, forest policy must incorporate a balanced and up-to-date program of education which will cover the needs of all forest-based services to the public. This program ought to guarantee a sufficient number of qualified professionals, technicians and workers who for their part should share their knowledge and especially field experiences for the development of the nation’s forest policy.

The forest management must be turned into a profession that will have its permanent role in the general planning of the nation’s economy and welfare. Depending on the structure of the country’s administration, there are different ways to make the professional voice heard by the responsible politicians. In any case a close and continual discussion and cooperation between politicians and professionals will be essential. Discussions must take place in the early phases of the planning in order to minimize erroneous planning caused by eventual lack of factual knowledge among the politicians. Information must be given in clear and uncomplicated terms, understood also by the public which must be well informed about the aims and duties of the professionals as well.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Palosuo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaurinkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5042, category Article
Lasse Hellman. (1979). Social promotion of forest workers. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5042. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14899

The social circumstances of forest workers may be considered from the viewpoint of incomes and standard of living. The committee appointed by the U.N. did, however, define in 1961 the standard of living using the following partial factors: health, housing, working conditions, security, human rights, education, recreation, clothing and nutrition.

Research has given a rather gloomy picture of forest workers’ health conditions. The living of a forest worker is cramped and long distances to the work sites often compel him to live in working site accommodations, separated from the family. Transport to the working site and building of family quarters for forest workers in densely populated rural areas and villages can improve the worker’s living. The fall of worker’s income in contract work due to deterioration of his physical capacity of performance starts already at the age of 35. In forest work a man’s energy consumption may be higher than 20,000 kJ (4,800 kcal) per day; it is one of the most strenuous occupations. In addition, there is a high accident risk in the work. The heavy work and the working conditions should be taken into account in determining the correct nutrition. Being those who make objections and are primarily responsible for the forest workers’ conditions, forest technicians and forestry officers should – both in their capacity as forest authorities and as the employer’s representatives – see to the improvement of forest workers’ working conditions and social position.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hellman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5041, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1979). The development of simple tools for forestry work in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5041. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14898

The paper deals with the development of hand tools and their maintenance methods, and the improvement of working techniques in Finland in the era when forest work was mostly done by muscular power. The development was carried out in a close connection with professional training, permitting the results to be distributed widely throughout the country at short duration courses, and simultaneously collecting new information.

The phases of the entire development cycle is described from founding of the development and training organization to standardization of the tools and comparisons to similar foreign and Finnish tools. On the basis of this, along with analyses and synthesis performed, new hand-made prototypes were created and then tested on forest work sites. The knowledge was used to produce test series in a tool factory, and feedback was gathered from skilled workers. On experience gained, best tools selected could be put into manufacturing. This work gave a natural basis to investigate even working techniques. Good results were achieved through cooperation between researchers, users, manufacturing industry and trade, as well as vocational training.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5040, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1979). Social promotion of forest workers. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5040. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14897

Alongside the extent of forest production, the demand for labour input in forestry depends on the development of the structure of production and of the productivity of the work. In this, mechanization of harvesting will have long-lasting influence. Despite the growth in forestry production, the number of forestry workers has decreased considerably in many countries, but at the same time the share of professional forest workers has increased. The permanence of work fundamentally affects the life of a forest worker. It has influence on the income level, on the social position of the worker and on the standard of living.

The appreciation of the occupation of a forest worker will be increased mainly within the increasing mechanization of the work. It requires vocational training, and it will improve wages, competition of skilled workers and social appreciation of the vocation. In order to influence their benefits forest workers have organized themselves into trade unions. They activate their members in to helping the unions to attain their aims. Trade unions try to influence the policies of forestry and forest labour. In this respect they are in contact with political parties. The questions of labour policy occupy a central position in the mutual relations of the labour market organizations. Within mutual cooperation much promotion has been achieved concerning wages, working conditions, rationalization, improvement of housing facilities and other living conditions. Especially in some East-European countries attention is being paid to the motivation of forest workers.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5039, category Article
Pertti Elovirta. (1979). Forestry as an employer in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5039. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14896

The article describes the significance of forestry as a source of employment in the rural areas of Finland. The historical perspective of the presentation dates from the 1860’s. This period includes all the relevant stages in the development of the theme in question, the preindustrial age up to the 1890’s, the period of the creation of the forest industries to the end of 1920’s, the period of the forest industries’ expansion to the end of 1950’s and the period of mechanization from the beginning of 1960’s. The long perspective is possible because of the existence of time series data.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Elovirta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5038, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1979). The role of forestry in the fight against desertification. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5038. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14895

This paper reviews the background documents and the final report of the United Nations Conference on Desertification, held in Nairobi, Kenya, in August/September of 1977. Deforestation for grazing or agriculture has often been the initial step towards desertification. Consequently, tree planting plays a central role in the reclamation of desertified areas. Shelterbelts and other tree plantations protect agricultural land, settlements and communications.

Tree plantations in arid zones need effective protection against grazing and other improper land use. This must be explained to political leaders and local people. As a long-term investment, it requires a high level of education to understand its ultimate usefulness, and also research to choose the best species and techniques for different climatic and soil conditions is needed. In addition, afforestation will contribute to the solution of energy problems. Fast growing trees, even with artificial irrigation, can be the most efficient and economical way to cover energy needs of rural people. To accomplish the task of reclamation of decertified areas, international cooperation and technical and economic support from industrial countries to developing countries is needed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5037, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1979). Environmental content of forestry education in Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5037. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14894

Traditionally, European forest education has emphasized environmental conservation. Forest education reflects the needs of society. After the industrial revolution, rapidly growing forest industries needed an increasing amount of wood, and the emphasis of forestry education was on timber production on the basis of sustained yield, and on efforts for progressively raising yields.

The technical and economic development of the recent decades introduced two themes in the environmental content of forest education: 1) The changing role of forests in society increase importance of protection and recreational functions of forests, and 2) modern technology has caused great changes in the forestry itself. These changes have to be taken into account also in the forest education. The environmental content of forest education can be divided into two broad fields, the ecological basis and environmental influences of various forest operations, and forest management for non-production uses. In both fields university curricula include a) basic courses, obligatory for all forestry students, b) optional courses, and c) advanced courses for higher degrees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5036, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Päiviö Riihinen. (1979). Forestry and rural development. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5036. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14893

The development of a society often involves deep-going changes in its economic and social structure. According to the theory of cumulative growth, the economic changes attached to industrialization and modernisation of a society are characterized by the regional differentiation of economic activities. Expansive growth centres, areas with spreading effects, and back-wash areas will develop due to the dynamic forces of cumulative development.

The impact of industrialization and modernization on society as a whole usually manifests itself in an achievement of many of the welfare objectives considered desirable. There are, however, differences between the industries or other economic activities in respect to their effect on the economic or social life of a society or a region. The special feature of forestry and forest industry is that they are more concerned with rural districts than most other economic pursuits. The differentiation effect of forestry and forest industries is not as pronounced as that of certain other industries. Especially the back-wash effects remain rather weak.

In traditional, non-industrialized society the establishment of forestry activities may have an important role in the beginning of economic and social development which is rational from the point of view of the local communities as well as of the society as a whole. However, forestry may also have influences which one can see as socially undesirable. As far as traditional rural societies are concerned, one basic problem is that the establishment of forestry activities may advance the disintegration of ancient social institutions and structures. On the other hand, in a modern, industrialized society one primary function of forestry seems to be to maintain and strengthen the rural social structures and to equalize the regional differences caused by cumulative development. However, the role of forestry in rural development is likely to decrease when the industrialization and modernization progresses, for instance, because the increasing urban population will use forests for purposes other than forestry, such as recreation and nature conservation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5035, category Article
V. J. Palosuo. (1979). Kehitysmaiden ongelmat metsäkongressin polttopisteessä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5035. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14892
English title: Forests for people - World Forestry Congress.

The article is a description of the 8th World Forestry Congress held in October 1978. It gives background information for the papers published in the Silva Fennica issue 13, which includes the Finnish papers sent in the congress from Finland. The paper underlines forest and socio-economic problems of the developing countries, especially in the tropics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palosuo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5034, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1979). Pinotilavuusmääräinen kuorintahäviö koneellisesti ladotuissa pinoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5034. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14891
English title: Barking loss of mechanically loaded piles.

In this study the loose volume of 58 piles of pulpwood were measured before and after barking by rotary ring barker. The volume was 2,121 m3. A recommendation is made, based on the results of the study, concerning the barking loss from piled wood: for green Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood, 8.8% of the stacked volume; for seasoned pine pulpwood, 6.1% of the stacked volume; and 8.0% for birch (Betula sp.) pulpwood, green and seasoned. The amount of bark left on bolts was small for pine bolts, namely 0.33%, but quite large for birch bolts, 2.84% of the green weight.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5033, category Article
Tapani Haapanen, Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). Effect of fertilization and thinning on radial growth of Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5033. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14890

The radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands at the age 30–40 years was measured retrospectively five years after the fertilizing and thinning of the stands. The abrupt effect of fertilizing was culminated 3–4 years after the treatment. The effect of thinning increased throughout the monitoring period. In stands that had been both thinned and fertilized, the effect of thinning was covered almost entirely by the effect of fertilizing, but fertilizing and thinning gave greater response than applying fertilizer or thinning only. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5032, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Heikki Wuorenrinne. (1979). Kaupunkimetsien vaurioitumiseen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5032. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14889
English title: Factors affecting deterioration of urban forests.

The objective of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the deterioration of urban forests based on literature. Regression analysis is applied to the material obtained from unpublished material of the latter author. The size of forest stand, and its fertility proved to exercise the greater effect on the deterioration of urban forests. A model based on these factors has been developed and its area of applying is discussed.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wuorenrinne, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5031, category Article
Tom Simons. (1979). Arkkitehdit ja metsänhoitajat Suomen metsäisen maiseman muotoilijoina. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5031. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14888
English title: The role of architects and foresters in shaping the forest landscape of Finland.

The article describes the two approaches which are evident in planning and management of nature and landscape. One is based on traditional architectural thinking, emphasizing the significance of subjective intuition and practical creative work. The other has evolved from the study of the economic utilization of natural resources, emphasizing the significance of rational thinking and scientific analysis.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Simons, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5030, category Article
Camilla Rosengren. (1979). Luonnonkasvillisuus asuntoalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5030. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14886
English title: Natural vegetation within housing areas.

The article describes the results of the studies made in 24 Finnish housing areas. They show that the building density is not as important as the way of building and the site planning, in the view of preserving natural vegetation in the site. Building on slopes was difficult with modern building techniques because of the extensive earthwork required. 

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki. 

The PDF includes a summary in English. 

  • Rosengren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5029, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). Metsän tarjoamat fyysiset hyödyt yhdyskuntasuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5029. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14885
English title: Benefits of forests in urban environment .

The potentials of forests in abatement of urban noise and air impurities are discussed based on literature and calculations. Excess attenuation of 6–7 dB seems to be possible in noise abatement applying Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) plantations. The potential in dust sedimentation is of 10,000–20,000 kg/ha/year and absorbtion to 7 kg/ha/yr. Forests seem also have considerable potential for control of climatic conditions in urban areas. Management of forests in urban environment is discussed. 

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki. 

The PDF includes a summary in English. 

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5028, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). MAB 2-projekti metsäbiologisen tutkimustyön tulosten hyödyntäjänä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5028. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14884
English title: Benefits of MAB Project 2 by the research work on forest biology in Finland.

MAB Project 2 concentrates on the influences of man’s activities on forests with no special consideration to any particular research field. At the same time as the swift development of research methods has brought the natural sciences and forest biology very near to each other, the circle of users of research results in forest biology has widened to include area and city planners etc. In Finland, the main role of MAB Project 2 is to promote mutual exchange between the users and producers of research results in forest biology and to facilitate both national and international co-operation between all research workers and organizations interested in this field.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5027, category Article
Ossi Eskelinen. (1979). Pyynikin ulkoilualue. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5027. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14883
English title: The natural environmental welfare factors of forested outdoor recreation area Pyynikki.

The article examines the outdoor recreation area of Pyynikki in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland from the viewpoint of social sciences. It was demonstrated that sociological factors are connected with the physical environmental factors by the welfare factors.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Eskelinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5026, category Article
Alpo Enivaara. (1979). Pyynikin harjumännikön uudistaminen ja elvyttäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5026. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14881
English title: Regeneration and improvement of the Scots pine forest of Pyynikki esker in Southern Finland.

Pyynikki is a unique natural park in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland. Currently, the forest of Pyynikki is losing its vigour because of aging and environmental factors. In 1977 a policy was designed for the regrowth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest and improvement of the condition of the trees to avoid the situation that the whole pine forest (34 ha) would be regrown at one time. The period of regrowth of pine forest is 60 years. It is accomplished by cutting small openings, on which 4-year old potted pine saplings are planted. Birch will be planted only on two spots. The aim is that the forest scenery will be maintained as undamaged as possible. The condition of the growing forest will be improved by fertilization and thinning.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Enivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5025, category Article
Eero Paavilainen. (1979). MAB 2 -projekti Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5025. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14879
English title: MAB 2 project in Finland.

The article examines the problems of interdisciplinary research and the Finnish participation in MAB Project 2, which concentrates on the influences of man’s activities on forests. From the Finnish point of view, the main research areas are the effects of forestry activities which affect large areas, multiple use of forests, forests and environmental pollution, and the effects of energy economy.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Paavilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5024, category Article
Ossi V. Lindqvist. (1979). Pelastaako luonnon moninaiskäyttö luonnon? Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5024. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14878
English title: Will the multiple use of nature save nature?

The term ’multiple use’ was introduced in Finland in the late 1960’s as a planning principle for the use of natural resources. It was hoped that multiple use, in contrast to ’single use’, would be less destructive and more amenable to multiple interests and to more efficient planning. However, the term ’multiple use’ carries several hidden assumptions which superficially at least seem easy to handle but which may, at the very end, prove equally destructive to the planned object. This term generally lacks the dimensions of time and place. In reality, different uses follow in a definite sequence and in definite place. As a planning strategy, multiple use may lead, if carelessly applied, to quite unexpected results that run contrary to the intended purposes.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lindqvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5023, category Article
Anu Pärnänen. (1979). Erilaisten maankäyttötapojen ja hoitotoimenpiteiden ekologiset vaikutukset metsiin. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5023. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14877
English title: Ecological effects of different land uses and management practices on boreal landscapes – Man and the Biosphere Programme, seminar of Project 2.

Man and the Biosphere (MAB) programme of UNESCO was launched in 1970. This interdisciplinary programme represents a new integrated approach to research, training and action aimed at improving man’s partnership with the environment. It consists of 14 project areas.

The Academy of Finland and the Finnish Committee for the MAB, in cooperation with the University of Helsinki and the city of Tampere organized a seminar with an aim of reviewing the execution of the Finnish participation in the MAB project No. 2. The seminar took place at Hyytiälä, a forest research station of the University of Helsinki, on August 24–25 1978.

During the seminar, an excursion was made to Pyynikki esker, a unique natural park close to the centre of the city of Tamper. Eight papers were presented and discussed in the seminar. The papers are published in this issue of Silva Fennica.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pärnänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5022, category Article
Jukka Selander, Paavo Kalo. (1979). Männyn taimen pihkan monoterpeenien vaikutuksista tuhonkestävyyteen tukkimiehentäitä, Hylobius abietis L. ( Coleoptera, Curculionidae) vastaan. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5022. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14876
English title: Evaluation of resistance of Scots pine seedlings against the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. in relation to their monoterpene composition.

The development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and damage caused by Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) were studied during a three-year period. Olfactory responses of H. abietis was studied in laboratory with several volatile oils isolated from different kinds of P. sylvestris seedlings. Resistance of seedlings against H. Abietis was evaluated in terms of their monoterpene composition. Three aspects of resistance (preference, antibiosis and tolerance) were evaluated separately. Seedling chemotype was found to be associated with these aspects of host resistance on only minor scale. Discussion was attached to a further search for host resistance arising from other properties and constituents of oleoresin. Height growth of the seedlings recovering from weevil damage was 86–91% compared to healthy seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5013, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). Tutkimustoiminta Lapin metsien hoidon ja käytön suuntaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1A article id 5013. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14867
English title: The role of forestry in guiding forest policy and management in Finnish Lapland.

The part played by research work in guiding the management and utilization of Lapland’s forests is examined in this publication. The review has been written to mark the 70th anniversary of the Finnish Forestry Society (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science).

The climate in Lapland is very severe and, owing to the lack of experience abroad, forestry has been forced to follow the guidelines set by domestic research activity in Finland. Research work was very active in Lapland the 1910’s, 1920’s and 1950’s, and the main outlines for forestry utilisation were soon established. In the 1950’s, there was a strong trend prevailing to develop forestry, with the result that a change took place in favour of clear-cutting. The cool climate period in the 1960’s caused considerable damage to young plantations. In order to find means to rectifying the situation and to devise new guidelines for forest management, The Finnish Forest Research Institute established a number of research stations in Lapland.

Research activity has had a pronounced effect on the management and utilization of forests in Lapland. Present-day problems have been caused more by the international situation than by difficulties in the management of forests in Lapland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5021, category Article
Antti Koskimäki, Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). Inherent growth rythm of some Larix-species grown in a plastic greenhouse. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5021. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14875

The daily height growth rate of several larch species and progenies (Larix decidua, Larix sibirica, Larix laricina, Larix leptolepis) grown in a plastic greenhouse and in the open was measured. The growth pattern indoors was completely different compared with the normal outdoor growth pattern. The onset of growth took place in the greenhouse much earlier than outdoors and the phase of increasing growth was much shorter, as was expected. However, the phase of maximum growth was unexpectedly long. This fact suggests that there is great potential for using greenhouse cultivation to change the growth pattern of cultivated plants in order to obtain more complete utilization of the potential growing season.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koskimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5020, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen. (1979). Valaistun hiihtoreitin käytön ajallinen vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5020. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14874
English title: Time patterns in the use of an urban skiing route.

Temporal variations in use of an illuminated skiing route located near a town was examined. Three time-patterns (monthly, daily, hourly) were determined on the basis of empirical data. Preliminary data about the participation rates on Sundays of population living near the route was given. More than four thousand people reside within 0.5 km of the route. It can be supposed that on the best Sunday about 18% of the population participated in skiing. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5019, category Article
Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki, Olavi Luukkanen, Paavo Pelkonen, Raimo Salminen, Heikki Smolander. (1979). An automatic system for measurements of gas exchange and environmental factors in a forest stand, with special reference to measuring principles. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5019. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14873

A system for measuring the net photosynthesis, transpiration and environmental factors within the canopy and ground cover vegetation is described. The system operates continuously throughout the growing season in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. A data-logging unit controls the system and carries out the measurements on the readings of the sensors of photosynthesis, transpiration, light intensity outside the canopy, light climate inside the assimilation chambers, and dry and wet temperatures from selected points. These measurements are shown digitally and automatically punched onto paper tape.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pelkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5018, category Article
Pertti Laakso, Olli Saikku. (1979). Havaintoja karsituista männyistä sorvatun viilun laadusta. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5018. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14872
English title: Observations on the quality of veneer from pruned Scots pine stems.
Original keywords: mänty; pystykarsinta; vaneri; laatu; viilu

The material was obtained from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems which were pruned 27 years earlier up to the height of 5–6 m. Rotary cutting was made from 16 pruned stems and 3 unpruned ones. The length of bolts was 70 cm and the thickness of veneer 1.5 mm. The proportion of good quality veneer was 46% in pruned stems and 14% in the others. Veneer with exellent quality was obtained from pruned stems up to the height of tree meters, that is to say a little under the pruning line.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laakso, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saikku, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5017, category Article
T. Raunemaa, A. Hautojärvi, P. Jartti, J. Laurén, V. Lindfors, J. Räisänen. (1979). Trace element analysis of sound and decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies) by XRF and NAA methods. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5017. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14871

Ashed tree samples from sound and decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were studied by means of fast neutron activation analysis, and for comparison, also by X-ray fluorescence analysis. In fast neutron activation analysis, the following elements were detected: (Na), Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Mn, Rb, Sr and Ba, and according to the results of the X-ray fluorescence method the elements present in the wood samples were: K, Ca, Mn, Rb, Sr and Ba. A general diminishing was revealed by both methods in most elemental concentrations studied, with exception of K and Rb, when going from a sound tree to a decayed one. The use of the ratio of the amounts of potassium to calcium as an indication of the degree of decay is therefore proposed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Raunemaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hautojärvi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jartti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laurén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5016, category Article
H. Vasander, A. Mäkinen, P. Pakarinen. (1979). Kangaskorpimaannosten hivenainejakautumista ja -määristä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5016. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14870
English title: Trace elements in soil profiles of paludified spruce forests.

Gleysol profiles of five southern Finnish sites dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were described according to the Canadian system of soil classification, and the total contents of five metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) were analysed in each soil profile. Lead, zinc and manganese showed highest concentrations in the organic surface horizons with a decrease towards mineral soil horizons. Vopper distribution was somewhat irregular. Iron had maximum values in the mineral soil: in A-horizon of Rego Gleysols and in B-horizon of Fera Gleysols. A preliminary comparison of metal pools in soil (root layer) with annual atmospheric input shows that the role of atmospheric deposition is relatively greater in the case of Cu, Zn and Pb than for Fe or Mn.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pakarinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5015, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). On geoclimatic variation in basic density of Scots pine wood. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5015. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14869

The effect of temperature and water supply in the basic density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood was studied on the basis of material obtained from the literature. On a monthly basis, the basic density increased with increasing mean temperature for June, July and August. The rainfall in these months had no detectable effect on the basic density except through the difference between rainfall and evaporation in July. On a yearly basis, the basic density increased with increasing mean temperature, temperature sum and length of growth period. The effect of water supply on the basic density was evident, and a linear relationship between basic density and annual rainfall was detected. The variation in basic density was, however, explained only partly by the chosen factors. Possible reasons for the poor explanatory power have been discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5014, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1979). Punapuiden suojeluongelmia Kaliforniassa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5014. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14868
English title: Preservation problems of redwoods in California.

The paper deals with the problems of the preservation of the redwood groves (Sequioia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. and Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) J. Buchholz) in California. The activity to protect these groves from flood and fire may finally lead to dying of these long-lived trees. A program to use prescribed burning as a tool for the management of natural ecosystem has been started.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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