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Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 19 | 1985

Category: Article

article id 5255, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Jukka Pietilä, Raili Vihola. (1985). Suomalaisten puulajien iskutaivutuslujuus tuoreena. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5255. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15434
English title: Impact bending strength of Finnish tree species in green condition.

There are great impact forces in mechanized harvesting and wood yard in the mills which can cause breaks in timber. The impact strength of timber in green condition was tested in temperatures of +18°C and -18°C using sawn pieces (20 x 20 x 300 mm) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.), grey alder (Alnus incana L.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.). In addition, unbarked naturally round sticks (length 300 mm, diameter 15 and 35 mm) of the same species were tested.

The impact strength of round sticks was 1.5–4.4 times as great as that of sawn pieces. The reasons are possibly the avoidance of cell breaks at the surface as well as growth stresses. The frozen samples were clearly weaker than the unfrozen ones. As a rule, the impact bending strength increased with increased density of the species. However, the correlation varied greatly between species. If density was kept constant, an increase in the growth ring width decreased the impact strength. The reason may lie in the fracture mechanism.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pietilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vihola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5254, category Article
Kristina Palmgren, Anna Saarsalmi, Assi Weber. (1985). Eräiden leppäkloonien typensidonta ja biomassan tuotos. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5254. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15433
English title: Nitrogen fixation and biomass production in some alder clones.

In a greenhouse experiment that lasted for two years, nitrogenase activity, height growth and biomass production was compared in six clones of alder of which four were clones of Alnus incana and two A. incana x A. glutinos hybrids. In addition, the effect of a fertilizer nitrogen gradient was tested on one of the clones.

Clonal differences in height growth and nitrogenase activity were recorded at the end of the first growing season. The growth rhythm of some of the clones changed markedly during the second growing season but differences in nitrogenase activity between clones levelled out. Nitrogen fertilization suppressed nodulation during the first growing season, and also the following year the nitrogenase activity was significantly higher in alders grown without nitrogen supplement. Height growth and total biomass production was also depressed at rather low nitrogen levels.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Palmgren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saarsalmi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Weber, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5253, category Article
Carl Johan Westman, Matti Leikola, Tapio Nummi. (1985). Käytännön typpilannoituksen vaikutus varttuneiden kuusikoiden kasvuun ja tuotokseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5253. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15432
English title: The effect of large-scale nitrogen fertilization on growth and yield of mature Norway spruce stands in south-western Finland.

A method for calculation of the effect of practical fertilization for economic evaluation is presented and discussed. 55 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus type sites were surveyed five to eight years after fertilization with nitrogen (90-170 kg/ha). The relationships between the fertilization effect and various stand characteristics were discussed. Fertilization increased the growth of the stands on an average by 2.2 m3/ha/year. In total the increase of tree growth during the research period was 17.5 m3/ha. This corresponds to a yield of 525–659 FIM/ha.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nummi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5252, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1985). Männyntaimien toistuvasta hirvivioituksesta. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5252. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15431
English title: On repeated browsing of Scots pine saplings by moose (Alces alces).
Original keywords: mänty; hirvi; hirvituhot; taimituhot; taimikko

The size, nutrient contents and terpene composition of needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings untouched and repeatedly browsed by the moose (Alces alces L.) were compared. Material was collected from a 14-years old and 2.5 m high pine stand in Bromarv, Southern Finland. The average length and fresh and dry weight of the needles were measured, and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu) was determined.

The needles of repeatedly browsed pines became long and robust. There was, however, no difference between the dry matter percentage between the needles. The average nitrogen content was higher in the rebrowsed trees. Nitrogen content is, however, not directly correlated with the palatability of pine needles. Even phosphorus and boron content were higher in the damaged trees. No difference was found in Ca, K, Mg and Cu contents of the browsed and control pine saplings.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5251, category Article
Markku Halinen. (1985). Männyn nuoruusvaiheen kasvunopeuden vaikutus sahatavaran laatuun. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5251. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15430
English title: The effect of the growth rate of young Scots pine on the quality of sawn goods.

Totally 653 battens and planks sawn from butt logsof Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were chosen from 3 saw mills. The sawn goods were sorted according to normal sorting principles. In order to determine growth rate in the youth, the mean value of the average ring width was measured at the butt end at various distances from the pith.

The average ring width increased as the quality of the sawn goods decreased. The difference between the quality classes in ring width was measured between 2 and 4 cm from the pith. As the size of sawn goods, and, simultaneously, the log size increased, the average ring width increased in a given quality class. Research reinforced previous results, in which slow diameter growth of young Scots pines has been shown to reflect the good quality of sawn goods.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5250, category Article
P. A. Harou. (1985). Yksityismetsiin kohdistuvien avustusohjelmien evaluointimenetelmä. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5250. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15429
English title: Comparison of methodologies to evaluate aid programs to nonindustrial private forests.

A methodology to evaluate forestry programs aimed at increasing timber supply from nonindustrial private forests is presented that aggregates the marginal social cost and marginal social benefit of a sample program participants and compares them in a benefit-cost efficiency ratio. The paper exposes a methodology followed to evaluate several forestry programs in Massachusetts, USA, and discusses its advantages and inconveniences compared to the other methodologies that have been used for the same purpose. The marginal analysis is based on detailed property and landowner behaviour surveys which are costly but represent a good standard to compare the performance of other approaches. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Harou, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5249, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1985). Istuttamalla perustetun nuoren männikön, kuusikon, siperianlehtikuusikon ja rauduskoivikon kasvu. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5249. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15428
English title: Growth of young Scots pine, Norway spruce, siberian larch and silver birch plantations.

Early growth of four different tree species (Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Larix sibirica Ledeb and Betula pendula Roth) 16–23 years after planting were compared in a field experiment of 16 square plots established on a stony, grove-like upland (Oxalis-Myrtillus forest type) in Southern Finland. This study gives additional results to the publication Folia Forestalia 386/1979.

At this early stage, the growth of the spruce stand was clearly slower than that of the other species for all parameters to be measured (height, diameter, and volume growth). Height growth was most rapid in the silver birch stand and diameter growth in the larch stand. No clear differences were found in the mean volume of the 100 thickest trees in the stand between the larch and silver birch.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Parviainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5248, category Article
Markku Simula. (1985). Metsätalous ja kehitys – globaali näkökulma. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5248. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15427
English title: Forestry and development - a global viewpoint.

The area of world forests is gradually declining because of various human activities, such as shifting cultivation, uncontrolled logging and industrial pollution. Continuation of the trends would have detrimental ecological, economic and social effects on global scale. The diversity of the problem is wide. The situation in the tropical developing countries differs from that in the industrialized world. With the present rates of population growth and unchanged forest policies, the fuelwood shortage in developing countries is rapidly aggravating. The need for more agricultural land tends to prejudice conscious efforts to increase wood production.

The industrialized countries are experiencing problems in introducing forest policy means to maintain sufficient timber supply. Rapidly increasing pollution problem cause a serious hazard to the existence of the whole forest ecosystem. Forestry has primarily been a national issue of relatively low priority in political decision-making, which has resulted in insufficient action to remedy the situation at national and international level.

The renewability of forest resources represents a strategic asset, the importance of which is bound to increase in the long-run potential for badly needed economic and social change in the world’s poor rural areas will be lost.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Simula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5247, category Article
Eeva-Liisa Jukola-Sulonen, Maija Salemaa. (1985). Kvantitatiivisessa kasvillisuusanalyysissä käytettyjen näytteenottomenetelmien vertailu. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5247. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15426
English title: A comparison of different sampling methods of quantitative vegetation analysis.

Different sampling methods (the percentage cover scale, the graphical method, two-point quadrat methods, the five-, nine- and twelve-class cover scales, and the biomass harvesting) were used in estimating abundance of ground vegetation in clear-cut areas and on an abandoned field in Southern and Central Finland. The results are examined with the help of DCA ordinations. In addition, the species numbers and diversity indices obtained by different sampling methods are compared.

There were no large differences in DCA configurations between the sampling methods. According to all the sampling methods, a complex soil fertility-moisture gradient (a forest site type) was interpreted as the main ordination gradient in the vegetation data for clear-cut areas. However, different sampling methods did not give similar estimates of species numbers and diversity indices.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jukola-Sulonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salemaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5246, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Markku Halinen. (1985). Mäntysahatukkien minimivaatimusten täsmentäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5246. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15425
English title: Reappraisal of minimum requirements of Scots pine saw logs.

A test sawing was made of 807 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs of varying size and quality. The most important knot characteristic affecting the value of sawn goods was the diameter of the thickest dry knot. The new minimum requirements for pine logs were proposed on the basis of top diameter of the log and the diameter of the thickest dry and living knot.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Halinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5245, category Article
Pekka Helle, Jyrki Muona. (1985). Selkärangattomien runsaussuhteista avohakkuualueiden ja metsien reuna-alueilla Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5245. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15424
English title: Invertebrate numbers in edges between clearfellings and mature forests in Northern Finland.

The abundance of main invertebrate groups was studied in clear-fellings, forests and in edges between them in Northern Finland in June-August 1983. Five trapping transects were used. Each transect had 48 pitfall traps and 16 window traps on the ground and 4-6 window traps in bushes or trees.

Invertebrate groups Homoptera, Diptera, Formicidae, Coleoptera and Gastropoda were more abundant in forest than in clear-cuts according to the pitfall data. In window traps the catches of all the main groups were larger in the forest side. Six out of the eight most important groups preferred the edge in pitfall data. Formicidae, other Hymenoptera, Arachnida and Gastropoda were more numerous in the edges than in the interior habitats in both sides of the edge. In window trap material no consistent edge preference was found in clear-fellings, but in the forest side it was evident. Coleoptera and Arachnida preferred the edge on both sides of it.

The variations in the catches of the invertebrate groups were studied by regression analyses. Independent variables used were the distance to the edge, the coverage of mosses, litter, mineral soil, grasses and sedges, herbs and the density of saplings. The percentage of variance explained in multiple regression analyses were highest for the group of other Hymenoptera and Arachnida and lowest for Coleoptera and Homoptera. As regards the explanation power of the independent variables the distance to the edge and the density of saplings clearly exceeded the others.

The results support the assumption that the breeding bird densities at forest edges, which is often high, may depend on high prey density there.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Helle, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Muona, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5244, category Article
Juha Lappi, Markku Siitonen. (1985). Säästö- ja lainakorkoon perustuva puuntuotannon hyötymalli. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5244. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15423
English title: A utility model for timber production based on different interest rates for loans and savings.

The paper discusses the evaluation of timber production policies with different income (timber drain) schedules. Special attention is given to the temporal smoothness of the income flow. A utility model is formulated in which the objective is to maximize a fixed consumption pattern, and money can be saved and borrowed at different interest rates. We thus have smoothness requirements only for consumption, the capital market then determines the smoothness of the optimal income flow. Present discounted value and maximization of even income flow criteria are special cases of the utility model. Consumption can be maximized by linear programming. A sample problem is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5243, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1985). Maan kunnostus männyn viljelyssä Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5243. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15422
English title: Soil preparation in reforestation of Scots pine in Lapland.

The study deals with the interaction of various soil preparation and reforestation methods. The most favourable time of the year for broadcast sowing and the effect of stabilization after soil preparation on restocking were studied as special problems.

Prescribed burning, scalping and disc ploughing made a better combination with sowing than planting, and ploughing better combination with planting than sowing. The longer the period was between sowing and germination the fewer seedlings emerged. The best stocking was clearly resulted with sowing in June. Stabilization of soil after preparation had a negative effect on reforestation results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5242, category Article
Suomen tilastoseura, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1985). Metsien inventoinnin tilastolliset menetelmät. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5242. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15421
English title: Statistical methods in forest inventory.

At a joint meeting of the Finnish Statistical Society and the Society of Forestry in Finland on 17.10.1984, papers were presented on the history and mathematical foundations of statistical methods used in forest inventory in Finland. The advantages and applicability of Bayresian methods and methods of spatial statistics were also discussed. In two papers, forest inventories were examined as part of a forest information system and the information demands of the user were discussed.

This article includes eight presentation held in the meeting. The papers have each a summary in English.

  • Suomen tilastoseura, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5241, category Article
Mikko Raatikainen, Esko Rossi, Irene Vänninen. (1985). Kotipihlajan marjasadon määritysmenetelmät ja marjasato. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5241. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15420
English title: Methods of estimation of berry yield and berry yield of rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia).

Berry yield of rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia L.) was studied by picking and weighing the berries in a tree, counting the number of clusters by the eye, estimating the number of clusters by samples of 0.5 m2, and by counting the dropped berries. In the last tree methods average weight of berries in a cluster was assessed by weighing a sample of clusters. The size of the tree and the abundance of the berries influenced the choice of method. The first two methods suited for small trees, the third for a tall tree with berries in abundance, and the fourth for those cases where birds had eaten a large portion of the berries.

The berry yields of 88 rowan trees were studied in Central Finland in 1983, a year of exceptionally high berry yield. The yield of berries averaged 23 kg per tree, the number of clusters 1,249 per tree and the number of berries 42,500 per tree.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rossi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5240, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Kimmo Piirainen. (1985). Koko kehon tärinän ja metsäkonesimulaattoriajon vaikutus eräisiin fysiologisiin muuttujiin. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5240. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15419
English title: Effect of whole-body vibration and driving a forest machine simulator on some physiological variables of the operator.

The influence of horizontal whole-body vibration of fairly low intensity alone and combined with the mental load and motor action typical for the forest machine drive on heart rate variability (HRV), respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) was studied by testing five subjects. Horizontal vibration had an influence on HR, HRV and RR. ’Control activities’ had the most influence on RR and HRV, but some influence on HR, too. ’Moving the control devices’ (motor action) gave the same response in HR as ’control activities’, but not in HRV and RR. ’Control activities’ together with ’vibration’ had a more effect on HRV and RR than these two factors singly, but not on HR. The possibilities of using these variables in field studies are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Piirainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5239, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1985). Puustotunnusten käytöstä metsikön valaistusolojen estimointiin. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5239. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15418
English title: On the use of tree stand parameters in estimating light conditions below the canopy.

Especially in forest vegetation studies, the light climate below the canopy is of great interest. In extensive forest inventories, direct measurement of the light conditions is too time-consuming. Often only the standard tree stand parameters are available. The present study was undertaken with the aim to develop methods for estimation of the light climate on the basis of readily measurable tree stand characteristics. The study material includes 40 sample plots representing different kinds of more or less mature forest stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.).

In each forest stand, a set of hemipherical photographs was taken and standard tree stand measurements were performed. A regression approach was applied in order to elaborate linear models for predicting the canopy coverage. The total basal area of the stand explained 63% of variance in the canopy coverage computed from hemipherical photographs. A coefficient representing the relative proportion of Norway spruce in the stand increased the explanatory power into 75%. When either the stand density (stems/unit area) or dominant age of the stand was included into the model, increment of the explanatory power into 80% was achieved. By incorporating both of the preceding predictors, an explanatory power of 85% was reached.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5238, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1985). Suomalaisen kuusen puuaineen vertailua Keski-Euroopassa kasvaneiden kuusi- ja jalokuusilajien puuaineeseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5238. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15417
English title: Norway spruce wood grown in Finland compared with spruce and fir wood grown in Central Europe.

The aim of this literature review was to compare Finnish Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) sawn goods to Central European spruce sawn goods which contain fir in some amount. However, it was found that no statistically valid comparisons have been made. Therefore, conclusions have been based mainly on the relationship between various properties and growth rate. According to this analysis, most properties of Finnish spruce are better, although small in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5237, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine. (1985). NPK-lannoitusvaikutuksen kestoaika karujen rämeiden taimikoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5237. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15416
English title: Duration of the height growth response of young pine stands to NPK-fertilization on oligotrophic pine bogs in Finland.

This is the latest report in a series of publications from an on-going investigation which is concerned with the influence of different fertilization treatments and ditch spacings on the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and transplants growing on nutrient drained poor bogs in different parts of Finland. This paper concentrates on duration of the growth response to NPK-fertilization on the experimental plots. The experiment was established and the treatments performed in 1965–66.

The results show that climate, expressed as effective temperature sum (dd°C, threshold +5°C) has a clear influence on the duration of the fertilization effect. In Southern Finland (>1,200 dd°C), the duration was at least 15 years. In Central Finland (1,200–1,000 dd°C), it appears to be almost 10 years, and in Northern Finland (<1,000 dd°C), slightly shorter. The amount of fertilizer applied clearly influenced the duration of the fertilization effect. The dosage of 500 kg/ha (N 14, P 7.8, K 8.3 per cent) had, on average, a shorter duration than the greater dosages of 1,000 and 1,500 kg/ha. However, there was no clear difference between the latter two dosages.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5236, category Article
Pirkko Romakkaniemi-Niemelä. (1985). Rauduskoivun runkosolukon RC-arvo talveentumisasteen osoittajana. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5236. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15415
English title: RC-value of stem tissue of silver birch as an indicator of cold acclimation.

The aim of this study was to examine the development of the cold acclimation of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings. The effect of fertilization was also studied. The seedlings were two-year-old. As a comparison stump sprouts from the near-by forest were used. The seedlings were treated in temperatures of +5°C (= control), –5°C and –15°C four times with conductivity measurements and with ocular inspection.

There were no significant differences in cold acclimation between different fertilization treatments or between the fertilized seedlings and stump sprouts. This may have been due to the rapid cooling rate. The cold acclimation of the seedlings was registered well by the changes in the relative conductivity values. The differences between the relative conductivity values of different temperature treatments in August and the beginning of September were significant. However, in the end of September and especially October the values no longer differed significantly. Correlation proved good between the relative electrical conductivity tests and the ocular inspections of the damages.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Romakkaniemi-Niemelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5235, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Tapani Pohjola, Eljas Pohtila. (1985). Puiden ryhmittäisyyden huomioonottaminen harvennusmalleissa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5235. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15414
English title: Use of the spatial distribution of trees in thinning models.

Thinning models are generally based on the density of the stand measured by the average basal area per hectare, for instance. These models are handicapped by the uneven structure of the stands. In uneven stands the averages are inadequate indicators for the need and amount of thinnings.

Small relascope plots were tested in the measurement of the spatial distribution of trees and in the determination of the need and amount of thinnings. The thinning quantity was determined as the difference between the actual distribution of the relascope plots into basal area classes and the ideal distribution after thinning. Sequential sampling was used in the derivation of the decision equations. A respective BASIC-program for a programmable pocket calculator is given.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5234, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Eero Paavilainen. (1985). Hydrological amelioration and forest practice on drained peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5234. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15413

This bibliography consists of monographs, papers published in periodicals and journals and collections of scientific papers from research and educational institutes, and transactions from scientific congresses, seminars, symposia and meetings.

The publications have been divided into three basic sections. In each section the publications are listed in alphabetical order by the author(s) or title. The total number of the titles in this bibliography is 465.

  • Mälkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Paavilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5233, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1985). Verhopuuston vaikutus kuusitaimikon kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15412
English title: The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubescens) on the growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling stands on drained peatlands.

Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are susceptible to early summer frost damage. Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) naturally colonize rich or fairly rich drained peatlands after clear cutting, and can provide protection for developing seedlings. The report describes the development of spruce stands after various types of handing of the birch nurse crops.

Different proportions of birch and spruces did not have any influence on the spruce stand production. In cases where the nurse crop stand is removed when the spruce stand age was 20 years and height 4 m the spruce suffered badly but recovered with time, reaching the spruce stand growing under a nurse stand within the next 20 years. The height growth of spruce depends on the density of the nurse stand, especially on fertile sites. The development of diameter growth also depends on the density of the nurse trees. Removal of the nurse stand in spruce stands on the sites concerned should be done when the spruce stand is 20 years old and at the height of 4 m.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5232, category Article
Carl Johan Westman, Jukka Laine, Michael Starr. (1985). Gravimetrisesti ja volumetrisesti ilmaistujen maan ominaisuuksien vuorosuhteita turve- ja kangasmailla. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5232. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15411
English title: A comparison of gravimetric and volumetric soil properties in peatland and upland sites.

Transects from upland to peatland sites were laid out so as to encounter a wide range of nutritional and hydrological conditions and volumetric soil samples were taken at 20 m intervals. For organic material, in particular peats, the correlation of ignition loss with CEC and total N were clearly higher when the variables were expressed volumetrically. The volumetric expression of variables made comparison of soils with varying organic matter contents possible. In preliminary analyses of the relationships between soil variables and dominant height of the tree stand on mineral soil sites volumetric exchangeable bases, pH and C/N -ratio in the raw humus layer showed a significant correlation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Starr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5231, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Michel Marcus. (1985). Kuusen puuaineen kutistuminen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5231. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15410
English title: Shrinkage properties of Norway spruce wood.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) boards sawn from outer layers of logs were sampled from a sawmill in Northern Finland and another in Southern Finland. Test pieces 20 mm x 20 mm x 20 mm were selected according to maximum variation in growth ring width. Volumetric and longitudinal shrinkage from a soaked to a dry condition were measured. It was found that wood density correlated positively with the volumetric shrinkage but negatively with the longitudinal shrinkage. Dry density was a better predictor than basic density. With constant density and an increase in growth ring width, there was increased shrinkage, especially in samples from Northern Finland. Besides this, when density was kept constant, the shrinkage was higher in the spruce wood from Southern Finland than from Northern Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Marcus, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5230, category Article
Erkki Kaila. (1985). Havaintojen käsittely ja aineiston muodostus metsäntutkimuksen tiedonhallinnan näkökulmasta. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5230. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15409
English title: Observation manipulation and data matrix derivation from the viewpoint of data management.

Data management is pointed out as a phase of research process. It covers research activities from observation recording to data matrix derivation. Some concepts of logical and physical database implementation are introduced.

The TUTKA -software system is introduced and observed as an instrument of research data management. Attention is paid to TUTKA’s five design criteria. Database implementation and use with TUTKA are observed precisely. Three different phases of implementing a data base are specified. Finally, some aspects to the data management of forest research are presented.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kaila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5229, category Article
Maija-Liisa Juntunen, Jan Engsås, Lennart Gustafsson, Pekka Mäkinen, Frans Theilby, Tore Vik. (1985). Skogsarbetsledarna i Norden. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5229. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15408
English title: Supervisors in the forestry of the Nordic countries.

The goal of this research was to study the position of forest supervisors, their education, number, pay system, professional organizations and work situations in Nordic countries. The study belonged to a joint Nordic project of the Nordic Research Council on Forest Operations. Participating in the actual work the number of forest supervisors were Denmark (year 1978) 715, Finland (1980) 8,000, Norway (1967) 1,055, and Sweden (1975) 6,400. In Denmark, 87% of the supervisors worked in forestry, in Finland 91%, in Norway 98% and in Sweden 86%.

Forest supervisor education started at the end of the last century. In the 1950s and 1960s the forest supervisors’ education has been renewed in all four countries. Supervisors have a special 1 to 4.5 years’ training, but many have a forest technician’s education, too. In Finland and Sweden forest supervisor education was reformed at the end of the 1970s. Supervisors work in functional as well as in regional organizations. In Nordic countries, supervisors are paid monthly salaries. Salaries are a little higher in private than in public sector companies. In 1981 the start salary in Finland was 3,107 FIM and in Sweden in 1980 about 4,425 FIM. Most supervisors in the Nordic countries belong to some union.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Juntunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Engsås, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gustafsson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Theilby, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5228, category Article
Pekka Saranpää. (1985). Kontortamännyn runkopuun trakeidien pituuden, halkaisijan ja soluseinän paksuuden vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5228. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15407
English title: Length, diameter and cell wall thickness of tracheids in mature lodgepole pine bole wood.

Variation in tracheid morphology were examined for the bole wood of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) grown in Southern and Central Finland. Tracheid lengths were examined in a fast-grown and in slow-grown trees from three stands. Tracheid length increased with increasing height to 4–8 metres and decreased after that, and increased also with increasing age from the pith. The variation between stems was high. The shortest tracheids were about 1.11 mm near the piths and the longest about 4.10 mm near the bark.

Tracheid diameter and cell wall thickness were measured for the total number of 16 stems from Southern and Central Finland. Tracheid diameter increased with increasing distance from pith and the largest tracheids were at a height of 4–8 metres. Cell wall thickness varied independently of height in the stem. Summerwood cell wall thickness was twice that of springwood. There was a difference of 0.6 μm in springwood and 1.0 μm in summerwood double cell wall thickness between the two stands. Cell wall percentage was 29±4.7 in springwood and 69±7.3 in summerwood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saranpää, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5227, category Article
Harri Vasander, Tapio Lindholm. (1985). Tulen voimakkuus ja maanpinnan lämpötila kulotuksen aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5227. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15406
English title: Fire intensities and surface temperatures during prescribed burning.

Surface temperature during two prescribed burnings were measured in 1983 in Evo, Southern Finland. Surface temperatures in relation to the amount of slash burned, energy released during the fires, and the fire intensities were studied. The fire intensity was also measured during a third burn. The Lake Nimetön site was burned int the end of May. Due to the uneven distribution of slash, colonization by Calamagrostis arundinacea and the spring moisture, the burning was very uneven. Surface temperatures varied between 410–809°C and the intensity of fire was low (range 0–900 kW/m).

The fire intensity on the other sites burned in May was also low (880 kW/m). During the burn in August the surface temperatures varied between 701–869°C and the intensity of fire was moderate (1,170 kW/m). Slash was burned more evenly and more thoroughly due to the dryness of the site and slash and the fact that grasses and other herbs were not abundant.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5226, category Article
Antti Uotila. (1985). Männynversosyövän leviämisestä tautipesäkettä ympäröiviin terveisiin mäntyihin. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5226. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15405
English title: The spreading of Ascocalyx abietina to healthy Scots pines in the vicinity of diseased trees.

Ascocalyx abietina (now Gremmeniella abietina Lagerb.) infects Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by means of ascospores or conidia. Ascospores are dispersed by the wind, while the conidia are splash dispersed. The infection rate is positively correlated with the number of inocula. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which G. abietina spreads to the trees surrounding the diseased trees and to find the correct time to perform sanitation cutting.

The results were obtained from Ascocalyx-inventory carried out in a Scots pine progeny test at Loppi, Southern Finland. Three Siberian provenances were totally destroyed, while the Finnish progenies remained relatively healthy. The two rows adjacent to the destroyed plots were inventoried separately.

There were 29.7% more diseased or dead trees in the two adjacent rows than in the rest of the same plots. The difference was statistically significant. The trees had probably been infected by conidia, because the effect of the destroyed plot only extended to the adjacent two rows. Furthermore, pycnidia had mainly developed on the dead shoots.

On the basis of the life cycle of the fungus and the results, the correct time to carry out sanitation cutting is the first winter after the disease symptoms have appeared. If it is done later, the disease could be spread and bark beetles (Tomicus spp.) could propagate in dying trees. Susceptible provenances may spread the disease to surrounding resistant trees owing to the increasing number of spores.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Uotila, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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