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Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 3 | 1969

Category: Article

article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

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  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4808, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Antti Oksanen. (1969). Morfologiset, gravimetriset ja fotometriset tunnukset männyn taimien juuristojen kuvaajina. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4808. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14596
English title: Morphological, gravimetric, and photometric characteristics in describing of the root systems of pine transplants.

This project studied the value of various shoot and root-system characteristics as indicators of plantability of transplants. Correlation and regression analysis was used to compare these characteristics. The study material consisted of two-year Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants that had grown in a plastic greenhouse for the first year and then been transplanted in the open. The seedlings had been transplanted in the field without treatment or with the roots cut to a length of 8 cm. A part was transplanted without treatment into plastic pails. A gravimetric and photometric method was used to obtain a description of the surface area of the root systems.

The results show that the photometric value gives a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The greatest advantage offered by the method is the simplicity and rapidity of measurement. The gravimetric, and especially the titrimetric, measurement takes much more time per plant. Photometric measurement affects plantability little, and measured and planted transplants can be followed up in the field. In gravimetric measurements, it was found that fresh and dry weight of the plants were closely correlated.

Mycorrhizal frequency in the root systems gave a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The number of living roots-tips was also rather closely correlated with the surface area of the root system. The other morphological characteristics failed to serve as a satisfactory index for the surface area of root systems. The one closest correlated was the annual leader growth. The second best was stem diameter; the height of the plant, on the contrary, was rather poorly correlated with the other characteristics.

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  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Oksanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4807, category Article
J. G. Iyer, G. Chesters, S. A. Wilde. (1969). Recovery of growth potential of nursery stock produced on biocide-treated soils. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4807. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14595

Certain biocides used in production of tree nursery stock exterminate undesirable organisms but cause an abnormal growth stimulation of plants. The reforestation material has decreased survival potential because of high degree of succulence, top:root and height:diameter ratios, and low specific gravity and root surface area. Some fumigants impede mycorrhizae development and arrest phosphorus uptake. Recovery of growth potential was achieved by aluminium sulphate and/or fermented compost inoculated with mycorrhiza-forming fungi.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Iyer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Chesters, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wilde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4806, category Article
Esko Leinonen, Pentti Rikkonen. (1969). Puutavaran kuorma- ja kuormaotantamittaus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4806. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14594
English title: Load and load sampling measurement of timber.

Measurement of timber in a vehicle load or in a bundle is best performed at the mill where the measuring of large quantities can be mechanized and sampling is possible. Load measurement methods include calculation of the number of units, measurement of pile volume, weight scaling and determination of solid content in accordance with Archimedes principle by immersion in water. For some timber assortments, load measurement is sufficiently accurate and suitable unit of measure. The accuracy of load measurement can be increased or the result can be converted by sampling to a more appropriate unit of measure.

In load sampling measurement, a sample is taken from the population, and the desired more accurate measurement is made from the sample. The basic measurement for the whole population can be converted into the more accurate measuring unit by means of the ratio between it and the basic measure. Unit, pile and weight sampling can be used. The aim for pulpwood is to calculate the dry matter content without bark, which means that the amount of bark and the dry weight of wood must be determined by sampling.

The size of the sample depends on size of the population, variation of the ratio between the loads, and the accuracy required. As the quantity of wood to be measured decreases, sampling measurement will reduce the measuring costs by up to 80%. In addition, there is saving in costs by rationalization.

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  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4805, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1969). Etelä-afrikkalaista taimitarhatekniikkaa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4805. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14593
English title: Article review: Fundamental studies to improve production of Pinus radiata and other pines.
Keywords: article review

This article is a review of an article ’Fundamental studies to improve production of Pinus radiata and other pines’ by Donald, D.G.M.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4804, category Article
Max. Hagman. (1969). Uusi metsäsarja Tshekkoslovakiassa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4804. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14592
English title: Book review: Acta Instituti Forestalis Zvolenensis.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’Acta Instituti Forestalis Zvolenensis, tomus I’ edited by Dušan Sachar.

  • Hagman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4803, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Männyn ja kuusen siemenien esikäsittelyn vaikutuksesta itämiseen ja taimien alkukehitykseen kasvihuoneoloissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4803. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14591
English title: The effect of treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce seeds on their germination and the early development of the seedlings.

The aim of this study was to establish the need of treatment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds to be sown in greenhouse. 3 x 100 seeds of each treatment (soaking in water, treatment with Pb3O4, treatment with tiram-containing coating substance) were sown in a glasshouse on a fertilized garden peat, and covered with peat layer of 6 mm thickness. The development of seedlings was followed for 100 days before the final measurement.

Soaking the seeds with water made germination somewhat faster. In spruce the germination percentage increased, but the opposite was observed in pine. No difference could be observed between the results from soaking with acid water from peat soil and lake water. Drying the soaked seeds for a week before sowing had no harmful influence on the germination or the early development of the seedlings. Treatment with Pb3O4 did not affect the germination speed or the seedling percentage of pine or spruce, but increased the germination percentage of spruce. Coating decreased germination and seedling percentages in pine. However, the differences between the treatments were so small that their practical significance is negligible.

Germination of both the species initiated on an average in 8 days, and 16 days after sowing 80% of the seeds had germinated. Seedling mortality was about 10% of the total number of seedlings, the most common reason being damping-off.

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  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4802, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Äkämäpunkkilaji (Nalepella haarlovi var. piceae-abietis Löyttyniemi, Acarina, Eriophyidae) kuusen taimien tuholaisena taimitarhoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4802. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14590
English title: An Eriophyidae species damaging Norway spruce seedlings in nurseries in Finland.

In Finland the mite Nalepella is found in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in forests practically in every tree, and even in the nurseries. The paper reports on the occurrence of Nalepella Haarlovi var. picea-abietis Löyttyniemi in Finland in tree nurseries in Finland. The study is based on a large material, collected in connection with an investigation into spruce spider mites.

Nalepella lives vagrantly on the needles. Due to the sucking of the mites, the needles turn yellow, become dry an die. Single patches from sucking cannot be seen by the naked eye. They occur on all sides of the needles. The worst damage to spruce seedlings in nurseries is caused to the needles located in the top of the seedling. Sometimes the terminal bud dryes and the whole terminal shoot can die. However, the whole seedlings seldom die in consequence of the Nalepella mite alone. Subsequent damage to the injured needles is often caused by fungus Cladosporium herbarum.

The study shows that the mite causes economically significant damages only in the nurseries. In forests no such damages were observed in seedlings or in older trees. In 1965–68, significant damages occurred in 16 nurseries in Finland. About 600,000 four-year-old seedlings were destroyed in 1967. The damages were economically important only in the 4-year-old seedlings.

According to the study, seedlings damaged by Nalepella can be used for planting as they recover rather well after planting in the forest. Moreover, the damages end after planting, and density of the mite population decreases during the first summer.

The mite overwinters as egg on needles. The eggs hatch in Southern Finland in the end of April and in the beginning of May.

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  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

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  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4800, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1969). Metsänhoidolliset mielipiteet ja metsänhoidollinen toiminta maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4800. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14588
English title: Opinions about silviculture in farm forestry in Finland, and practical steps taken.

The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.

The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).

However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.

In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.

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  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4799, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1969). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran 60-vuotisjuhlallisuudet 29.4.1969. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4799. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14586
English title: The 60th anniversary of the Society of Forestry in Finland April 29, 1968.

This article describes the 60th anniversary of the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science). The reception addresses, donations and paying of homages to its members are listed. Also, some of the speeches are published.
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  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4798, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1969). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran jäsenet 31.12.1968. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4798. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14584
English title: Members of the Society of Forestry in Finland in December 31, 1968.

This paper includes a list of all members of the Finnish Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) in December 31, 1968.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4797, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1969). Pohjoismaiden yhteistyö metsäntutkimuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4797. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14583
English title: Inter-Scandinavian research in forestry.

Nordiska skogsarbetsstudiernas råd (NSR, Council for Inter-Scandinavian Research in Forest Work Science) is the most developed organization in this field. It has only research institute members. The council started in 1953 and has since then had meetings and working groups. Among the latter, an Inter-Scandinavian and British wood nomenclature was created. In 1969 the organization will start a number of joint investigations, two of them in Finland, concerning utilization of waste wood and transport difficulties in forest terrain. Sweden will study branching, Norway relations between men and machines and Denmark broadleaved tree cutting and hauling.

Economists have since 1958 had an Inter-Scandinavian Seminar for Forest Economists (Nordiskt skogsekonomiskt Seminar, NSS), which has only personal members. Also, Inter-Scandinavian forest congresses have been held every fourth year since 1923, in which also research results have been presented.

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  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4796, category Article
Eino Saari. (1969). Kansainvälinen yhteistoiminta metsäntutkimuksen alalla. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4796. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14582
English title: International co-operation in forest research work.

This paper gives an overview on international organizations involved with forestry and forest research. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFFRO) was named in a congress in Stockholm in 1929, but the organization has its roots in a German association of forest experiment stations founded in 1872. IUFRO is a non-governmental organization with research institutes as members. As it has no permanent centre, and no own research institutes, its opportunities for carrying out actual research work are limited. A reorganization is being planned.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), established in 1945, has a division for forestry and forest industries. FAO is a governmental organization for international policy in agriculture, fisheries, nutrition, and forestry, and not meant for research work. It has nevertheless been compelled to carry out a great deal of research work, particularly in projects that have proved impossible for other organs. The Timber Trend Studies are the best known in the field of forestry.

World Forestry Congresses are occasions where all kinds of forestry problems can be discussed, and they have also stimulated research work. The first International Forestry Congress was held in 1926 in Rome, but several other international forestry congresses have been arranged since 1873.

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  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4795, category Article
Martti Takala. (1969). Suomen tiedepolitiikan lähiajan tavoitteita. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4795. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14581
English title: Objectives for short-range science policy of Finland.

The paper describes the aims of the policy of science from three different viewpoints: 1) financing research activity, 2) organizing research activity, and 3) listing and prioritizing research program.

In 1968 about 0.6–0.8% of the gross national product was used for research. In the basis of investigations, aims are set up for the increase of the research activity; this gives more emphasis to the research serving economy and industry. The influence of different systems of financing research is examined with special attention to the anticipated productivity of industrial research and development and the economic risks included therein.

The tasks of independent research institutes and universities should not be kept clearly apart. Research work in a small country can be productive only when concentrated to a sufficient degree. Cooperation between various institutes might be the most important means from the viewpoint of productivity of research. The State Commissions representing the main branches of science and the expert committees appointed by them can best carry out listing of large research programs and fields of special research and put them in order of priority.

  • Takala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4794, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1969). Valtion laitosten ulkopuolella tapahtuvan metsäntutkimuksen kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4794. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14580
English title: Development of forest research outside the state-owned institutes.

In addition to the research carried out by the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Forest Research Institute, and the State Committee for Agriculture and Forestry, applied forest research is performed in Finland by the Forest department of the Work Efficiency Association, Metsäteho, the Forest Work Study Section of the Central Association of Finnish Woodworking Industries, the Logging Technical Office of the State Board of Forestry (today the Development Section of the Organization Bureau), and Uittoteho, research body for floating questions in Northern Finland.

These establishments are concerned chiefly with the development of and experimentation with working methods, tools and machines in wood harvesting and with the analysis of wage and payment bases for timber preparation and haulage jobs.

An endeavour has been made to coordinate the forest technological research in these institutes and the University of Helsinki and the Forest Research Institute. Each institute is presented in a cooperation organ formed by the Society of Forestry in Finland. This organ also functions as the Finnish section of Nordiska Skogsarbetsstudiernas Råd (NSR). These bodies agree about the division of the research tasks and discuss the research programmes jointly.

In addition, some foundations give notable support to forest research, in particular the Foundation for Forest Tree Breeding, Foundation for Research of Natural Resources in Finland, and SITRA, the Fund for the Jubilee Year 1967 of Finland’s Independence.

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  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4793, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1969). Valtion maatalous-metsätieteellinen toimikunta ja metsäntutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4793. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14579
English title: Forest research and the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry.

The special act passed in 1961 provides for the tasks of the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry. The Commission finances and supervises the activities of the research workers employed by the Commission. In addition, it gives special grants for specific purposes and endeavours to promote progress in research in accordance with the above-mentioned act.

Despite the formal requirement for progress, the real value of the grants given to forest research does not exhibit a rising trend. There seems to be a need for increasing funds both for research and publishing purposes.

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  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4792, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1969). Yliopiston ja metsäntutkimuslaitoksen tutkijain yhteistoiminta. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4792. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14578
English title: Co-operation between research workers at the university and Forest Research Institute.

The paper discusses the cooperation between the research workers of the Forestry Departments, University of Helsinki, and of the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Although the fusion of these institutes might even seem to be justified in order to guarantee a coordination of the research work, no drawbacks exist in the present organization which could not be removed with cooperation.

In fact, cooperation has hitherto taken place in many forms both in teaching and research: working groups in the various branches of research have recently prepared a program for the development of research (Silva Fennica 1:4; 1967), leading scientists of the Institute act as lecturers at the University and some university teachers as associate researchers at the Institute.

On the other hand, in some cases lack of cooperation may have led to uncertainty and inconvenience of practical forestry. Therefore, a better system of information between scientists should be created and the continuity of cooperation strengthened. In conferences between the university and institute people, development work within the various fields of research should be cleared up with a long-range aim. The conference day of the scientists in the beginning of each year is mentioned as one possibility to start the cooperation.

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  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4791, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1969). Metsäntutkimuslaitos tehostuvan metsätalouden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4791. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14577
English title: The Finnish Forest Research Institute in the present period of increasing intensity of forestry.

Foundation of the Finnish Forest Research Institute in 1917 was one step in the plans of A.K. Cajander to organize Finnish forestry research. Already earlier the highest forestry education had been incorporated into the University of Helsinki (1908) and the Finnish Society of Forestry founded (1909). In conformity with statute of 1962, the task of the Forest Research Institute is “to perform studies and experiments in order to develop Finnish forestry in a manner adapted to the purpose”. Consequently, the task of the institute is to carry out studies explicitly serving practical forestry.

The article describes the actual and required development of the Forest Research Institute. Concerning the most recent steps of development, for instance, four new professorships has been created: Forest Zoology, Tree Breeding, Forest Yield Science and Mathematics. In addition, a few regional research and experimental stations were established.

Strengthening the Forest Research Institute, i.e. increasing its staff of research workers and its funds, must still be continued to make it possible for the Institute to satisfy the great demand for research work of present-day practical forestry. The article also gives attention to the internal scientific development of the institute. Particularly, there is reason to stimulate the extended studies of young research workers as well as international exchange.
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  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4790, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1969). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran kuudes vuosikymmen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4790. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14576
English title: The sixth decade of the Society of Forestry in Finland.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences) was founded in 1909. A comprehensive history of the society has been published earlier (Acta Forestalia Fennica 40) which covers the first 50 years of is activity. The tasks of the Society are to work for the development of forestry research in Finland and to be a link between research workers in the field of forestry.

This article summarises the activity with regards of the meetings during the 60th year of the Society, and the two scientific series, Acta Forestalia Fennica and Silva Fennica, it publishes. The characteristics of the development of the publishing activity has been its’ becoming livelier and a shortening of the studies published. In 1960s funds have been granted for the execution of even larger projects. The Society has also treated many questions within the field of policy of science.
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  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4789, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1969). Metsäntutkimus Suomessa ennen ja nyt. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4789. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14575
English title: Earlier and present forestry research in Finland.

The article gives an account of the organization of research work, which was started in the 18th century at the Academy of Turku. It was later developed in the times of the Forest Institute at Evo, founded in 1862, but it was not until the highest forestry education was transferred to the University of Helsinki in 1908 that it got a more compact form. In 1909 the Finnish Society of Forestry was founded and in 1918, the Finnish Forest Research Institute. In addition, a number of special institutes and organizations have been established.

At first the number of different branches was small, but the number of fields has multiplied until the present day. The article describes development that has taken place within the fields of forest biology, silviculture, forest protection, soil science, peatland forestry, forest mensuration, forest management, forest technology, forest economics, and multiple-use forestry.

Development was promoted by the organization of research work and its division into branches. Improvement of vehicles used in collection of study material as well as of the equipment used for this purpose and for handling the material have been important for the development. Funds for research have increased. Contacts with other fields of science and participation in international research work, especially through IUFRO, team work and schooling new scientists, have been influential. In 1960 a State committee appointed for further development of forestry research presented a plan to this end.
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  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4788, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1969). Venäläinen metsäekologian käsikirja. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4788. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14574
English title: Book review: Fundamentals of forest biogeocoenology.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’Fundamentals of forest biogeocoenology’ by V. Sukatšev.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4787, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1969). Vuonna 1968 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4787. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14573
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1968.

The paper lists the articles of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1968 in the following scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports, included are also recensions on forest literature.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4786, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1969). Havaintoja männyn paksuuskasvun loppumisesta ja puiden keloutumisesta Inarin Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4786. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14572
English title: Termination of diameter growth of Scots pine in old age in northernmost Finnish Lapland.

The purpose of the present study is to throw light on the termination of diameter growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in old age in northernmost Finnish Lapland. The material consists of thirty over-mature, dying or already dead standing trees grown in natural state. In 1907 the stand was marked for cutting, but the harvest was never carried through. Now the old labels served as a means for cross-dating the year of the final termination of growth.
It was found that as pine becomes senile its annual ring formation becomes incomplete. At first diameter growth stops in the middle part of the stem, then at the butt end, and at last on the canopy level. No correlation between the mean temperature of July and the dying of the tree was found. The average age for dying for the pine in the stand was 420–450 years. After the tree has died it takes about 35–40 years before it has become a silvery, branchless dead bole.

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  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4785, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1969). Maannousemasieni yleismaailmallisena ongelmana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4785. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14571
English title: Fomes annosus – A universal problem. A review in recent literature.

Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke. (now Heterobasidion annosum (s.str.)) has proved highly adaptable to varying conditions. Thus, the fungus is able to alter the pH as well as in alkalic as acid direction according to the original pH-grade. The fungus spreads mainly by basidiospores or by the sterile mycelium, but maybe also by the conidiospores. The fungus has spread through the temperate zone; in the tropical and sub-tropical zone it is found sporadically. There is a mention in the literature of at least 136 species in which it has been found. It is found in hardwoods but is most disastrous in conifers. The economic losses are considered biggest in England, Germany and Scandinavia.

The research has not been able to find a safe way to protect the trees growing on an infected site. The only way to limit the damage seems to be the use of mixed stands. Stump-protection has proved to be a relatively effective way to prevent the spread of the fungus to uninfected sites. The formerly used creosote has been mainly substituted by new chemicals, such as sodium nitrite. They act by altering the stump in a way that is favourable for antagonists to Fomes annosus, such as Trichoderma viride and Penicillium sp., or the recently presented Peniophora gigantea.

Although the fungus is found in many tree species, there is a difference in the relative resistance of different species. Among the conifers, the Abies-species (with exception of Abies grandis, A. alba and A. sachalienensis) are considered comparatively resistant. The species of Larix and Pseudotsuga are more resistant than those of Picea and Pinus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4784, category Article
Matti Leikola, Pentti Pylkkö. (1969). Verhopuuston tiheyden vaikutus metsikön minimilämpötiloihin hallaöinä. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4784. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14570
English title: Influence of stand density on the minimum temperatures during frost nights.

The objective of this investigation was to study the influence of stand density of white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrl.) on the minimum temperatures in the stand during the growing season, and the actual minimum temperatures of the leading shoot of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings growing in the open. The 40-year-old uniform white birch stand was situated in 142 m above the sea level in Southern Finland. The stand was treated with thinnings of three different densities in 1961.

Air temperature was recorded in four sample plots at heights of 0.1 m, 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 2 m and 4 m. In the stand of moderate density, temperatures were measured at heights of 6.0 m, and in the stand of full density at 6.0 m, 8.0 m and 10.0 m.

The temperature differences between stands of various densities proved to be rather small. Especially the thinnest stand differed very little from the open area. The soil surface has in all cases been warm compared with the higher air layers indicating meadow-fog-type by Geier (1965). On cloudy or windy weather all the temperature profiles in the various stands resembled each other. The difference between the air temperature and temperature of the spruce shoot was greatest at midnight and decreased steadily thereafter.

The problem in using shelter stands for spruce regeneration areas is that optimum shelter stand density is difficult to define. Already a thin shelter stand causes drawbacks to the young seedlings, but in order to be effective enough against early frosts, the shelter stand should be comparatively dense.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pylkkö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4783, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1969). The bulk density of peat and its determination. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4783. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14569

This study determined the correlation between the bulk density, humification degree and laboratory volume weight of the surface peat of virgin and drained peatlands. The material consists of 316 peat samples 250 cc in volume.

The correlation between bulk density and the laboratory volume weight was found to be close. Eliminating the ash and moisture content of air-dry samples did not improve the correlation. There were distinct level differences among peat types; difference between bulk density and laboratory volume weight was the greatest for Sphagnum and the smallest for woody peats. The Carex peats were intermediate. The water content at sampling may partly determine these differences. When the data were treated as a whole, the difference between bulk density and laboratory volume weight seemed to increase, as the water content increased.

The correlation was also close between bulk density and the degree of humification. For all data, multivariable correlation analysis revealed that bulk density was determined for the largest part by the degree of humification, least by the water content at sampling, laboratory volume weight being intermediate. Thus, already the determination of the degree of humification provides a clear picture of the bulk density for each peat type. It can be also determined by fair accuracy on the basis of the laboratory volume weight. The bulk density is required for e.g. water regime studies, to convert the water content of peat measured in weight units into volume percentages.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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