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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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1970-1979
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 6 | 1972

Category: Article

article id 4873, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1972). Sisällysluettelo sarjoihin. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 4 article id 4873. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14680
English title: Indices to series Acta Forestalia Fennica 1913–1972 and Silva Fennica 1926–1972.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now The Finnish Society of Forest Science) publishes two series: Acta Forestalia Fennica and Silva Fennica. Outside these publications there are even other publications: the bibliography of Finnish forestry literature until 1933, Bibliographia Universalis Silviculturae, Paris I–II, 1967–70, and Research in Forestry and Wood Science in Finland. This paper is a bibliography of the publications, the issues of Acta Forestalia Fennica in 1913–1972 and Silva Fennica 1926–1972.

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  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4872, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Kuusen ja männyn sydänpuuosuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4872. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14679
English title: The proportion of heartwood in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; sydänpuu; kuitupuu; läpimitta

The study deals with the variation in the proportion of heartwood  in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) both within and between stems as examined on the basis of literature. Special attention is paid to an application, in which on the basis of the diameter of pulpwood bolts, efforts are made to predict the proportion of heartwood in the total volume of bolts. It is shown that the method, even when based on homogenous material of 564 Norway spruce and Scots pine bolts, easily leads to wrong conclusions concerning the proportion of heartwood.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4871, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1972). Hybridihaavikoiden hyönteistuhoista. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4871. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14678
English title: Insect damages in hybrid aspen stands.
Original keywords: hybridihaapa; hyönteistuhot

Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx.) has been grown in Finland for about 20 years, and the area of the stands is currently about 400 ha. Growing is planned to be greatly expanded to grow raw material for match industry. The aim of this investigation was to study susceptibility of hybrid aspen to insect damages. Insect damages in hybrid aspen, growing in Southern Finland, were examined in 15 stands in 1972. Saperda species were observed to be the most numerous and harmful insect species. Saperda carcharias L. occurred in 26% and Saperda populnea L. in 36% off trees inspected. Mass occurrence of Chionaspis salicis L. was observed in some sample areas.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4870, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1972). Tumamonisärmiöviruksen käytöstä ruskean mäntypistiäisen (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffr.) torjunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4870. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14676
English title: Use of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus in the control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.).

Experimental applications of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Borrelinavirus diprionis) to control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.) was carried out during the last outbreak of this sawfly in in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland in 1963. Quantities of polyhedrosis virus preparation, collected and purified in Finland were available as concentrations packed in capsules. Spraying took place in three localities in southwestern Finland when the larvae were in I–III instars.

When Finnish and Swedish preparations were used 83–96% of larval colonies were completely destroyed within 14 days. In addition, an attempt was made to change the virus in latent stage, present already in the area, to acute stage by application of substrates which are probably harmless to pine, but were expected to stress the larvae. Ground quarts as spray had the best lethal effect upon larvae.

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  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4869, category Article
Ole Oskarsson, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1972). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet II. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4869. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14672
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding II. Selection differences and genetic gains in selected seed stands of Scots pine.

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) selected seed stands. To obtain highest possible accuracy, the estimations are based on a large statistical material comprising 197 separate seed stands. It is concluded that the genetic gain of volume growth ranges between 7.4–15.0%. Unwanted pollen contaminations may, however, in the worst case halve this genetic gain.

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  • Oskarsson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4868, category Article
Mikko Tormilainen. (1972). Havaintoja Oitin siemenviljelyksen mäntykloonien kukinnasta ja käpysadosta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4868. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14671
English title: Studies of flowering and cone crop in a seed orchard of Scots pine.

Male and female flowering, cone crop, and some vegetative characteristics were studied in grafts 10 to 16 years of age in a clonal seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Genetic variation was found between clones in flowering as well as in cone production. Clone evaluation resulted in similar classifications of clones in different years. A regression analysis showed that crown size clearly increased but previous height growth slightly decreased flowering and cone production. The percentage of pollinated female strobili did not differ between clones.

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  • Tormilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4867, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Näkökohta keskimääräisestä tuotoksesta metsätyötieteessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4867. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14670
English title: A point of view on the average output in forest work science.

The paper deals with the concepts of time consumption and output in forest work science. When output is defined as the inverse of time consumption and vice versa, it is possible to show the important consequences in probability functions. For instance, it is not the same if the dependent variable in a regression analysis is output or time consumption. Also, the average differ depending on if they are based on the time consumption figures or on the average output.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4866, category Article
Pertti Hari, Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1972). Lämpötilan ja itämisalustan kosteuden vaikutus kuusen (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) siementen idäntään ja CO2-eritykseen laboratoriossa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4866. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14669
English title: The effect of temperature and moisture on germination and CO2-output of spruce (Picea abies) seeds in a controlled environment.

The study was an attempt to assess, from a theoretical viewpoint and with the techniques of measurement in mind, the usability respiration and cumulative respiration in the observation of the progress of seed germination in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), as well as the influence of air temperature substrate moisture and the stage of physiological development of seeds on respiration. Furthermore, the reserve nutrient consumption and the possible uptake of mineral nutrients were kept under observation during the 9–11 days after seeding.

The results showed that the stage of physiological development of the seeds can be rather well described by the means of cumulative CO2 release. There was a strong interaction in the CO2 release between the moisture of the substrate and the air temperature. It seems to be to great extent due to differences in the rate of development in the early phases of germination. The CO2 release from seeds showed a close correlation with percentage germinated seeds.

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  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4865, category Article
Tauno Kallio. (1972). Esimerkki kuusikon lahovikaisuuden Etelä-Suomessa aiheuttamasta taloudellisesta menetyksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4865. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14668
English title: An example on the economic loss caused by decay in growing Norway spruce timber in Southern Finland.

A growing stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) marked for cutting was investigated in the winter of 1971–72 in Helsinki in Southern Finland in order to determine the economic loss caused by decay. Taking a sample from growing spruce trees with increment borer is not a reliable method of determining the frequency of decay. The decayed stems were twice measured for assortment cutting into lengths; the first time disregarding the decay and the second time doing the actual assortment cutting according to the grade of timber. The direct economic loss caused by decay was 13% of the price for standing timber. The indirect loss may be as great as the direct loss.

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  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4864, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Havaintoja kuusen oksaisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4864. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14667
English title: Observations on the branchiness of Norway spruce.

The material comprised 12 Norway spruces (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) from Central Finland, with 2,118 branches. The exact location of the branches on the stems, their diameter at the thick end, their length, and the green weight of all the branches was measured on two-metre lengths of the stem.

According to the results, the diameter of a branch can be estimated very accurately from its length. The variation of branch diameter along the stem was also very regular, although there were considerable differences from one tree to another. The greatest work requirement for trimming was in the middle and upper parts of the green crown. Branch variables per tree, such as the number and cross-section area o the branches, could be satisfactorily estimated from the volume or breast-height diameter of the stem.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4863, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1972). Metsäpuiden fotosynteesin geneettinen vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4863. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14666
English title: Genetic variation of photosynthesis in forest trees.

In the literature review the current status of information on the genetic variation of CO2 exchange and some reviews and investigations on this subject are listed. Photorespiration is separately discussed and unpublished data of an electron microscope study of poplar leaf microbodies are presented.

Considerable genetic inter- and intraspecific variation is found in several characteristics that affect CO2 exchange in trees. Photosynthesis in young trees does not correlate well with growth through the whole rotation cycle. A special interest has been shown to marginal environmental conditions (e.g. water deficit, low temperature, and low light intensity), as opposed to optimal conditions often employed in laboratory studies of CO2 exchange in trees.

In an unpublished poplar studies by the author et.al. a preliminary experiment with poplar clones showed variation in the CO2 competition point. This variation was negatively correlated with the photosynthesis efficiency of these clones.

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  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4862, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1972). Vuonna 1971 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4862. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14665
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1971.

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1971 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4861, category Article
Tauno Kallio, Yrjö Norokorpi. (1972). Kuusikon tyvilahoisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4861. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14664
English title: Butt rot in a Norway spruce stand.

The study was carried out in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand in Southern Finland which was to be clear-cut due to decay. The species composition and incidence of decay fungi were investigated from the cut surfaces of the stumps. In addition, the colour and size of the decayed spot was observed.

About 28% of the total number of trees were decayed. Fomes annosus (Heterobasidion annosum) was the most common decay fungus. It was identified from 75% of the decayed trees, and was the sole agent in 43% of these trees. Armillaria mellea was the second commonest decay fungus. It decayed trees mostly in combination with Fomes annosus. The most common colours of the decay produced by F. annosus were reddish or yellowish brown. The decay caused by A. mellea was blackish brown. The causative agent cannot be reliably identified on the basis of the colour of the decayed part.

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  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Norokorpi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4860, category Article
Pentti Erjala, Jussi Saramäki. (1972). Astiakoemenetelmä suotyyppien lannoitustarpeen määrityksessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4860. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14663
English title: Determination of the need for fertilizer application of drained peat soils with the pot method.

The possibilities of using a pot method to determine the need for fertilizer application were studied. Seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were grown in peat samples that had cylindrical shape with a diameter of 25 cm and height of 35 cm. The samples represented three different peatland types, and were fertilized with two levels of phosphorus, potash and nitrogen. Two transplants were planted per pot. The development of the seedlings was followed for three years.

Phosphorus seemed to be of greatest importance for the growth of the seedlings, but nitrogen was also required in the poorest peatland type. Potash did not give statistically significant results. NPK application gave the best response. The usability of the method was studied by following the development of the roots. It seemed that the diameter of the pots was too small and restricted the growth of the root systems.

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  • Erjala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saramäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4859, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1972). Istutuskuoppaan annetun kuparihienofosfaatin vaikutus männyn ja kuusen taimien elossapysymiseen ja pituuskasvuun eräällä kulotetulla ja auratulla uudistusalalla Koillis-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4859. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14662
English title: Effect of fine-grounded copper rock phosphate placed in the planting hole on the survival and height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce in a burnt and furrowed reforestation are in northeast Finland.

The paper describes the results of a fertilization experiment, in which transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were fertilized with various doses of fine-ground copper rock phosphate (33% P2O5, 4% Cu) placed direct in the planting hole. The experiment was made in northeast Finland on a clear-cut, burnt-over and furrowed moraine heath. The fertilization increased especially the survival and condition of the Scots pines and increased to some extent also the height growth of the plants. The spruce survived better than the pines.

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  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4858, category Article
Tauno Kallio. (1972). Erään 10-vuotiaan hybridihaapametsikön lahovikaisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4858. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14661
English title: Decay in a ten-year old stand of hybrid aspen.
Original keywords: hybridihaapa; sienitaudit; laho; bakteerit

A ten-year old stand of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides), growing in Southern Finland on about 1.5 ha of Oxalis-Myrtillus type (OMT) soil and affected by crown blight, was examined in 1971. The study revealed that almost all trees, both those removed by thinning and the remaining growing stock, were decayed. A number of bacteria, Fungi imperfecti species and ascomycetous fungi were isolated from the discoloured heartwood of the affected trees. No fungus of the Bacidiomycetes was found in the discoloured wood material.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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