Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 8 | 1974

Category: Article

article id 4911, category Article
Leo J. Salo. (1974). Wilderness-alueet Yhdysvaltain kansallispuistoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4911. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14755
English title: Wilderness areas in American national parks.

The paper deals with the establishment and present situation of the national parks in USA. The aim of the establishment of national parks was, on the one hand, to preserve part of the natural environment, and on the other hand, to reserve areas suitable for recreation. In addition to the national parks, or rather within them, so-called wilderness areas have been established since 1964. In these areas even such measures as fire and insect control are avoided to the greatest extent possible. The use of the wilderness areas for recreation is restricted to foot and horse trails as well as watercourses, all motorized transportation being prohibited. Campgrounds are provided with only the most primitive comforts. So far only a few wilderness areas have been established in the national parks, but there are tens of suitable areas that have been reserved for this purpose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Salo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4910, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Katri Pahkala. (1974). Havupuiden siemenen kehitys ja itäminen kirjallisuuden valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4910. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14754
English title: Development and germination of the seeds of conifers according to literature.

The aim of the present study was to collect information presented in literature concerning the development and germination of the seeds of coniferous trees with special reference to those species which thrive in the conditions prevailing in Finland. Along with the increase in the importance of direct seeding as a silvicultural means in Northern Finland, there is a growing demand for methods by means of which the germination of seeds could be promoted. According to the results obtained from previous studies, such a method can be found, provided that a practically usable and reliable pre-germination method is developed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pahkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4909, category Article
Jari Hurskainen, Aarne Reunala. (1974). Metsätalousaluetoiminnan kehitys ja kehittymisen edellytykset Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4909. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14753
English title: Development of regional cooperation of private forest owners in Finland.

Since the end of 1960s some 350 voluntary forestry cooperation areas covering about 10% of Finland’s total private forest area have been established in the country in order to avoid drawbacks of small individual units. The aim of the study was to find out why most of these cooperative areas have been established in the area of northern Karelia forestry board district in Eastern Finland, whereas elsewhere establishing has advanced very slowly. »Soft» research techniques based on free interviews was used to gather the data. Attitudes of the interest organizations of forest owners and forest industry companies, question of organizer of cooperation, and resources for regional forestry planning were found as most important factors to explain the differences in development of cooperation in different areas.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hurskainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Reunala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4908, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1974). Sarkaleveyden ja naveroinnin vaikutus pohjavesipinnan syvyyteen ja männyntaimiston kehitykseen lyhytkortisella nevalla. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4908. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14752
English title: The effect of ditch spacing and furrowing on depth of ground water table and on development of a Scots pine plantation on small-sedge bog.

The paper describes the results obtained from an investigation into the effect of ditch spacing, ditch depth and furrowing on ground water table and on development of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantation on open small-sedge bog in Central Finland (60° 50’ N; 24° 20’ E), drained in 1967. The area was planted in 1968 with 2+1 Scots pine transplants, and fertilized with Y fertilizer for peat soils. The seedlings were measured in 1972.

The depth of the ground water table was greater, the narrower the ditch spacing. The water furrows shortened the duration of the high ground water and lowered the ground water table particularly in the case of ineffective drainage. The narrower the ditch spacing within the blocks, the higher were the young trees. On the other hand, the differences in the height of the trees between the ditch spacings were eliminated by the effect of the furrows.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4907, category Article
Heikki Wuorenrinne. (1974). Suomen kekomuurahaisten (Formica rufa coll.) ekologiasta ja levinneisyydestä. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4907. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14751
English title: About the distribution and ecology of Formica rufa -group in Finland.

The paper describes the systematics, distribution, abundance and nest sites of Formica rufa -group in different Finnish forest types. In addition, it has been estimated the availability of Finnish ants in the biological competition.

F. polyctena, F. aquilonia and F. lugubris are distributed over whole Finland. F. rufa and F. nigricans to Southern Finland only. The relative abundace of ant nests diminish to Northern Finland. F. rufa -group prefer most forest on moist land (Myrtillus and Oxalis-Myrtillus types), mixed forests of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karsts), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.), and the silvicultural density 0.6–0.7 (good or satisfactory density), but they avoid broadleaved and pure one-tree species forests. For the biological competition the most competitive ant species seem to be F. polyctena and F. aquilonia.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Wuorenrinne, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4906, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1974). Maisemanhoitomallien käyttö metsätalouden maan aluevaraussuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4906. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14750
English title: Regional landscape planning of forest areas.

The study deals with economic significance of forest landscape planning models used in regional planning in Finland. The »judge»-method is used among professional foresters working on private forestry boards in Southern Finland to define their view of what would be moderate level of costs of landscape management for private forest owners. A sample of 154 forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland was sent a sociological questionnaire.

It was possible to form three hierarchical moderation classes by statistical grouping of judgement distributions. Prolongations in rotation ages and restrictions concerning ditching of forested bogs, forest read building and clear-cutting were considered the most immoderate models. Rather or wholly insignificant were evaluated such management models, which mean restrictions in »old fashioned» methods or which are already used in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4905, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1974). Kesän vesitaseen vaikutus metsä- ja suokasvillisuuteen ja linnustoon sekä lämpöolojen välityksellä maatalouden toimintaedellytyksiin Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4905. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14749
English title: The influence of water balance in summer on forest and peatland vegetation and bird fauna and through the temperature on agricultural conditions in Finland.

The significance of water budget in June and July for forest and peatland vegetation, and consequent effects on fauna, climate and agriculture has been studied.

In June, the difference between evaporation and precipitation is greater than it is later in the summer. North of the line zero difference of evaporation and precipitation, coinciding with a line of sharp change in forest vegetation, the uppermost part of podsol remains wet throughout the summer. During July, the line of zero difference moves from north to south over the greater part of Finland, run-off being minute and podsol at the driest in this month. This line, indicating the length of the period with evaporation greater than precipitation and causing a sharp change in forest vegetation, in frequency of peatlands, amount of growing stock productive capacity of forests etc. This line is significant also for cultivation: because of the lower evaporation north of this line, night temperature below the freezing point often appear in summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4904, category Article
Sirkka Kupila-Ahvenniemi, Sirkka Hankonen, Seppo Sivonen. (1974). Kokeita röntgenmikroanalyysimenetelmän käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden alkuaineiden määrityksessä männyn silmuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4904. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14748
English title: Experiments on the determination of certain elements in the buds of Scots pine by means of the electron probe x-ray microanalysis.

An electron probe X-ray microanalyser was used to study the occurrence of phosphorus, sulphur and calcium in the bud apices of dormant Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The material was collected during the winter months (November–February), fixed in Carnoy’s fluid, dehydrated, and mounted in paraffin wax. Of the 10 μm longitudinal section, the ones containing the middle portion of the apices were glued to the specimen supports and vacuum coated with aluminium. Three parallel line analysis were run over the corpus and the uppermost portion of the pith. Results obtained so far suggest that no marked changes occur in the position and level of the three elements during the study period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kupila-Ahvenniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hankonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sivonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4903, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1974). Esikokeita kinetiinin vaikutuksesta männyn hypokotyylien kallus- ja juurimuodostukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4903. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14747
English title: Effect of kinetin on the formation of callus and roots in hypocotyls of Scots pine; preliminary experiments.

After 64 days of aseptic culture, germlings of Pinus Syvestris L. were cut at the middle of the hypocotyl and above the root. The upper and lower halves of the hypocotyls were transferred onto agar medium RM-196 of Linsmaier & Skoog (1964) including 2 mg/l IAA and 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/l kinetin, one or both halves being put in each vial. Callus growth and root formation was observed after 55 days.

The lower ends of basally cut seedlings generally formed callus tissue and 20% of them also formed roots from this callus. No roots and less callus growth were observed in the lower hypocotyle halves excised at both ends. In the latter hypocotyles callus growth was promoted by the presence in the same vial of a basally excised germling, including cotyledons and plumule. Increasing amounts of kinetin slightly enhanced callus formation of basally excised germlings but seemed to inhibit callus growth in hypocotyls excised at both ends and placed alone on the growth medium. The total amount of callus was greatest in hypocotyls which included intact cotyledons and plumule.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4902, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1974). Urealannoituksen vaikutus metsämaan kasveille käyttökelpoiseen typpimäärään. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4902. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14746
English title: Effect of urea application on nitrogen available for plants in forest soil.

The paper describes a preliminary attempt to assess the long-term effect of urea application on the quantity of nitrogen available for plants in forest soil. The soil samples required for the study were collected from an experimental area which had been set up for investigations into both the single and joint effect on tree growth of two levels of each of urea and phosphorus application. The stand was a mixed forest of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) on Myrtillus type site with an average volume of 217.5 m3/ha.

According to the results, the nitrogen available for plants of the humus layer was significantly higher in fertilized than in unfertilized plots as late as four years after application. In terms of absolute values, the quantities were extremely small, only 3–4% of the amounts applied. In comparison with these results it was interesting to notice that urea application seemed to increase the C/N ratio.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4901, category Article
Veli Pohjonen. (1974). Istutustiheyden vaikutus eräiden lyhytkiertoviljelyn puulajien ensimmäisen vuoden satoon ja pituuskasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4901. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14745
English title: Effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of some species undergoing short rotation culture.

The effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx. (Populus x wettsteinii), Salix ’Aquatica Gigantea’, and Salix phylicifolia L. was studied at the Arctic Circle Agricultural Experimental Station in Northern Finland. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ gave yields which were twice as high as those of the other species in the study. The highest yields were of the order of 60 tons per hectare (fresh yield including foliage). The annual height growth in S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ was about 100 cm, in the others about 30–50 cm. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ had a maximal height growth when the distance between the seedlings was 25 cm.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4900, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1974). Eräiden koneellistamisennusteiden herkkyydestä kustannustason muutoksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4900. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14744
English title: The influence of the change of cost level on some mechanization prognosis.

In this study a formula has been developed to describe the influence of the change of cost level on such a mechanization prognosis, where is assumed that wages and machine costs bear compound interest. In the study there are some numerical examples.

In the formula p1 = annual per cent increase of wages, p3 = annual per cent increase of machine costs, p2 = sudden and incident per cent increase of machine costs, and tv = delay in the profitability of mechanization.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4899, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Näkökohta tyvi- ja latvaläpimitan keskiarvoon perustuvasta mäntypölkkyjen kuutioinnista. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4899. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14743
English title: Note on the volume based on the mean of butt and top diameters of Scots pine bolts.

In this paper the use of butt and top diameters of pulpwood bolts for volume determination is analysed. The study is based on the taper data of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems. According to the results, the use of the mean of butt and top diameters in the volume determination under Finnish condition causes a positive error in small stems. If the stems are so big that the butt portions of the stems can be used as saw logs, the remaining top bolts, used as pulpwood, are estimated to be smaller than they are in reality. Accordingly, there is a negative error.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4898, category Article
L. E. Mikhailov. (1974). Neuvostoliiton metsäntutkimuksen organisaatio ja kehityssuunnat. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4898. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14742
English title: Organizations and development trends of forest research in the Soviet Union.

Forest research in the U.S.S.R. aims for increased productivity, improvements in timber quality and forest protection, and for better understanding of the environmental impacts of forests. Research institutes are organized under the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, the State Committee of Forestry, the Forestry Committees of the Soviet Republics, or under some other institutions. Direct government subsidies as well as economic support from production enterprises are available as funding for these institutes. International cooperation in forest research, especially among the S.E.V. countries is strongly emphasized. As regards other countries, the well-established program for mutual exchange for forestry information and forest researchers with Finland should be mentioned.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikhailov, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4897, category Article
A. V. Chudnyi. (1974). Metsäpuiden populaatiorakenteen tutkimusmenetelmistä. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4897. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14741
English title: Investigation methods in forest tree population studies.

From the tree breeder’s point of view, an investigation of the chemical compounds in a tree population is worthwhile, if sufficiently high correlations exist between the chemical composition and any economical important characteristics. In Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations, such a correlation seems to exist between a high α-pinene and a low Δ3-carene content on the one hand, and the poor resistance to Fomitopsis annosa Fr. (now Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.) but a rapid development during the first half of the life cycle on the other hand. Detailed investigation on the terpene contents in pine populations were conducted at 121 locations throughout the Soviet Union. As a result, the range of this species was divided into zones, each of which was characterized by a distinct terpene composition pattern. In continuing selection and breeding work, the terpene contents are being used as indicators when the variation of economically important characteristics of Scots pine populations is studied.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Chudnyi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4896, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Keskusmuotoluvun perusteita tukkien ja kuitupuun mittauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4896. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14740
English title: Foundations of middle form factor in the measurement of logs and pulpwood.

In this literature review some error possibilities in the measurement of solid volume of logs and pulpwood are discussed. Although both underestimation and overestimation can occur for various reasons it seems likely that in the stereometric measurement method the real volume is underestimated, at least when Huber’s formula is applied, and the respective middle form factors are too low. Numerous results of empirical investigations are presented in the paper, too.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4895, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1974). Metsän aluskasvillisuuden biomassan ja peittävyyden välisestä suhteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4895. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14739
English title: The relation between biomass and coverage in ground vegetation of forest stand.

The possibilities of using results of coverage analyses for estimating the dry matter content of the ground vegetation has been examined in this study. The material covers 150 sample areas, 400 m2 large, which represent ground vegetation of Myrtillus type in the final succession stage. When the material was subjected to linear regression analysis, the amount of dry matter in the field and ground layer has been used as dependant variables and the results of the coverage analysis as the independent variable.

The study shows that it is possible to predict satisfactorily the dry matter content of the ground vegetation by grouping the coverage, according to the coverage weight, into parts of equal size and the using them as independent explaining variables. In particular, the value of the prediction equation for the dry matter content of the field layer could be improved by using the height and density characteristics of the vegetation as explaining variables in addition to the coverage figures. Thus, slightly over 80% of the total variation of the dry matter content of the field layer could be predicted. In the case of the ground layer vegetation, the explaining power rose slightly above 70%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4894, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1974). Forst-sanan alkuperä. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4894. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14738
English title: On the origin of the word forst (forest).
Original keywords: historia; etymologia
English keywords: history; etymology

By the last times of the Roman Empire, a considerable part of the vast forest and wilderness areas of the northern provinces had come into the possession of the Emperor and other owners of large land areas. Such areas were called saltus. The kings of the Franks considered all inhabited lands as belonging to the crown, but contrary to the Roman Emperors, they reserved the right of hunting and fishing in these areas for themselves. As the concept saltus did not originally include a prohibition against outsiders’ right to hunt and fish, and as among the people saltus still meant forest-covered wilderness in general, a new term was needed for description of uninhabited areas belonging to the king including all rights of using them. The introduced term was forestis, a word the origin of which has been a subject of much contention. In the present writer’s opinon, the most probable solution is that the word forestis has been derived from the Latin foris (outside of; e.g. outside of inhabited areas or of free utilization) by means of the suffix -estis. This is against the rules of Classic Latin, but it is completely possible in the case of the Latin of the seventh century.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4893, category Article
Tauno Kallio, Jukka Selander, Antti Uusi-Rauva. (1974). Fomes annosuksen (Fr.) Cooke kantaitiöiden merkitseminen radioaktiivisilla isotoopeilla 3H, 32P, 125I. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4893. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14737
English title: Labelling of Fomes annosus basidiospores with radioactive isotopes 3H, 33P and 125I.

The purpose of the study was to find out whether Fomes annosus (now Heterobasidion annosum) growing in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stump can, with its mycelium, take up the radioactive isotopes 3H, 33P and 125I in the heading, and whether it transfers them via the sporophores in situ to its basidiospores. Wood material in close proximity to active sporophores was injected with radioactive isotopes. All isotopes could be verified from the basidiospores. The production of viable basidiospores by sporophore was reduced by the isotope injections. This latter result may be of importance e.g. in meteorology for observation of the movements of air masses.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Selander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uusi-Rauva, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive