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Category: Review article

article id 1660, category Review article, 7765 views
Lars Rytter, Morten Ingerslev, Antti Kilpeläinen, Piritta Torssonen, Dagnija Lazdina, Magnus Löf, Palle Madsen, Peeter Muiste & Lars-Göran Stener. (2016). Increased forest biomass production in the Nordic and Baltic countries – a review on current and future opportunities. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 1660. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1660
Highlights: Annual growth is 287 million m3 in the forests of the Nordic and Baltic countries; Growth can be increased by new tree species, tree breeding, high-productive management systems, fertilization and afforestation of abandoned agricultural land; We predict a forest growth increment of 50–100% is possible at the stand scale; 65% of annual growth is harvested today.

The Nordic and Baltic countries are in the frontline of replacing fossil fuel with renewables. An important question is how forest management of the productive parts of this region can support a sustainable development of our societies in reaching low or carbon neutral conditions by 2050. This may involve a 70% increased consumption of biomass and waste to meet the goals. The present review concludes that a 50–100% increase of forest growth at the stand scale, relative to today’s common level of forest productivity, is a realistic estimate within a stand rotation (~70 years). Change of tree species, including the use of non-native species, tree breeding, introduction of high-productive systems with the opportunity to use nurse crops, fertilization and afforestation are powerful elements in an implementation and utilization of the potential. The productive forests of the Nordic and Baltic countries cover in total 63 million hectares, which corresponds to an average 51% land cover. The annual growth is 287 million m3 and the annual average harvest is 189 million m3 (65% of the growth). A short-term increase of wood-based bioenergy by utilizing more of the growth is estimated to be between 236 and 416 TWh depending on legislative and operational restrictions. Balanced priorities of forest functions and management aims such as nature conservation, biodiversity, recreation, game management, ground water protection etc. all need consideration. We believe that these aims may be combined at the landscape level in ways that do not conflict with the goals of reaching higher forest productivity and biomass production.

  • Rytter, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Ekebo 2250, SE-26890 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.rytter@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Ingerslev, Copenhagen University, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958, Frederiksberg C, Denmark ORCID ID:E-mail: moi@ign.ku.dk
  • Kilpeläinen, Finnish Environment Institute, Joensuu Office, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.kilpelainen@ymparisto.fi
  • Torssonen, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: Piritta.Torssonen@uef.fi
  • Lazdina, Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Riga str, Salaspils, LV 2169 Latvia ORCID ID:E-mail: Dagnija.Lazdina@silava.lv
  • Löf, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49 SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: magnus.lof@slu.se
  • Madsen, Copenhagen University, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958, Frederiksberg C, Denmark ORCID ID:E-mail: pam@ign.ku.dk
  • Muiste, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Dept. Forest Industry, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: Peeter.Muiste@emu.ee
  • Stener, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Ekebo 2250, SE-26890 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Lars-Goran.Stener@skogforsk.se
article id 1673, category Review article, 6276 views
Eshetu Yirdaw, Mulualem Tigabu & Adrian Monge. (2017). Rehabilitation of degraded dryland ecosystems – review. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1673. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1673
Highlights: The prospect of restoring degraded drylands is technically promising; The forest landscape restoration concept can be used as the overarching rehabilitation framework; Development of process-based models that forecast rehabilitation outcomes is needed; Rehabilitation methodologies developed for moist areas are not necessarily suitable for drylands; More data is needed on cost-benefit analysis of rehabilitation interventions.

Land degradation is widespread and a serious threat affecting the livelihoods of 1.5 billion people worldwide of which one sixth or 250 million people reside in drylands. Globally, it is estimated that 10–20% of drylands are already degraded and about 12 million ha are degraded each year. Driven by unsustainable land use practices, adverse climatic conditions and population increase, land degradation has led to decline in provision of ecosystem services, food insecurity, social and political instability and reduction in the ecosystem’s resilience to natural climate variability. Several global initiatives have been launched to combat land degradation, including rehabilitation of degraded drylands. This review aimed at collating the current state-of-knowledge about rehabilitation of degraded drylands. It was found that the prospect of restoring degraded drylands is technically promising using a suite of passive (e.g. area exclosure, assisted natural regeneration, rotational grazing) and active (e.g. mixed-species planting, framework species, maximum diversity, and use of nurse tree) rehabilitation measures. Advances in soil reclamation using biological, chemical and physical measures have been made. Despite technical advances, the scale of rehabilitation intervention is small and lacks holistic approach. Development of process-based models that forecast outcomes of the various rehabilitation activities will be useful tools for researchers and practitioners. The concept of forest landscape restoration approach, which operates at landscape-level, could also be adopted as the overarching framework for rehabilitation of degraded dryland ecosystems. The review identified a data gap in cost-benefit analysis of rehabilitation interventions. However, the cost of rehabilitation and sustainable management of drylands is opined to be lower than the losses that accrue from inaction, depending on the degree of degradation. Thus, local communities’ participation, incorporation of traditional ecological knowledge, clear division of tasks and benefits, strengthening local institutions are crucial not only for cost-sharing, but also for the long-term success of rehabilitation activities.

  • Yirdaw, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eshetu.yirdaw@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Tigabu, Sveriges Lantbruks Universitet (SLU), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Mulualem.Tigabu@slu.se
  • Monge, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: adrian.mongemonge@helsinki.fi

Category: Research article

article id 901, category Research article, 5719 views
Luis A. Apiolaza & Rosa M. Alzamora. (2013). Building deployment portfolios for genotypes under performance instability. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 901. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.901
We used portfolio theory to analyze the tradeoffs between returns and performance instability of deployment units for Pinus radiata D. Don. We considered three groups of 34 trees each grown to produce appearance lumber, structural lumber, or both. Risk was based on the variability of tree returns in scenarios of changing volume, wood stiffness and presence of resin defects due to genotype by environment interaction inducing both changes of scale and differential tree response to environmental scenarios. The return of structural trees was highly variable with a mean of 3.11 NZ $/stem/year, followed by appearance-structural trees (3.48 NZ $/stem/year). In contrast, appearance trees had the lowest returns (1.99 NZ $/stem/year) and variability. The portfolio model selected structural trees in high-risk scenarios, but selection was apportioned between structural and appearance-structural trees as the risk decreased. The model selected only appearance trees for high-risk aversion. The analysis also considered silvicultural regimes, where the appearance-structural regime was selected under high variability. As risk decreased the appearance grades regime was also selected. The structural regime was rarely selected due to the variability of stiffness between trees. Using genotypes improved for stiffness could increase the expected value and reduce variability for structural purposes, making the structural regime more appealing.
  • Apiolaza, School of Forestry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, 8042 Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: luis.apiolaza@canterbury.ac.nz (email)
  • Alzamora, Instituto de Manejo Forestal, Universidad Austral, Valdivia, Chile ORCID ID:E-mail: ralzamor@uach.cl
article id 958, category Research article, 5324 views
Back Tomas Ersson, Linus Jundén, Urban Bergsten & Martin Servin. (2013). Simulated productivity of one- and two-armed tree planting machines. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 958. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.958
Highlights: Using discrete-event simulation and detailed terrain and machine models, the productivities of excavator-based one- and two-armed tree planting machines were simulated; The machines’ arms were equipped with one-and two-headed planting devices; Two planting heads per arm rather than two arms per base machine is better for increasing the productivity of intermittently advancing planting machines on Nordic clearcuts.
To increase mechanized planting, planting machine productivity must increase in order to improve cost-efficiency. To determine if excavators with two crane arms could potentially help to increase planting machine productivity under Nordic clearcut conditions, we modelled one-armed and semi-automated two-armed excavators with one- and two-headed planting devices. Using a recently developed tool for discrete-event simulation, these machine models then mounded and planted seedlings on terrain models with moraine soil having various frequencies of obstacles (stumps, roots and stones). Compared to if the two heads were mounted pairwise on only one arm, the results showed that productivity did not increase if two planting heads were attached individually to two separate crane arms. But productivity did increase if the planting machine had four planting heads mounted pairwise on two separate arms. However, despite assuming automated mounding and crane motion between planting spots, the two-armed, four-headed model never achieved high enough productivity levels to make it more cost-efficient than one-armed machines. The simulations illustrate that our terrain models generate realistic root architecture and boulder content distributions in moraine soil, while our machine models functionally describe mechanized planting work. Based on our assumptions, we conclude that further development work on two-armed excavator-based planting machines for Nordic clearcut conditions is not warranted. Our simulations reveal that increasing the number of planting heads per crane arm rather than number of crane arms per base machine offers the greatest potential to raise the productivity of intermittently advancing planting machines.
  • Ersson,  Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: back.tomas.ersson@slu.se (email)
  • Jundén,  UMIT Research Lab, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: linus.junden@gmail.com
  • Bergsten,  Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: urban.bergsten@slu.se
  • Servin,  UMIT Research Lab, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: martin.servin@physics.umu.se
article id 1176, category Research article, 5026 views
Batoul Al-Hawija, Viktoria Wagner, Monika Partzsch & Isabell Hensen. (2014). Germination differences between natural and afforested populations of Pinus brutia and Cupressus sempervirens. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 4 article id 1176. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1176
Highlights: Silvicultural practices of raising and outplanting seedlings yielded contrasting outcomes in our species; Afforested Pinus brutia populations acquired ability to tolerate drought stress at intermediate and hot temperatures compared to natural populations, which may indicate local adaptation; Natural Cupressus sempervirens populations showed higher salt-tolerance than afforested populations; Seed germination was optimal under intermediate temperatures and deionized water for both species.
In afforestation, silvicultural processes of raising and planting seedlings under certain conditions can yield contrasting outcomes in tree stock performance. Moderate nursery conditions may select against stress tolerance whereas planting seedlings in stressful environments at afforestation sites may select for higher stress tolerance compared to natural populations. We compared germination performance between natural and afforested populations of Pinus brutia Ten. subsp. brutia and Cupressus sempervirens L. var. horizontalis (Mill.) under differing stress treatments. Seeds were collected from both natural stands and from afforested populations outside the natural distribution range, in Syria. Cold, intermediate and hot temperature regimes were simulated (8/4 °C, 20/10 °C and 32/20 °C) along with cold stratification, drought stress (–0.2 and –0.4 MPa), salt stress (50 and 100 mMol l–1), and deionized water (control) conditions. In addition, we tested the effects of seed weight and climatic conditions on seed germination. In general, intermediate temperatures were optimal for both population types. Afforested P. brutia populations outperformed natural ones under drought stress levels at hot and/or intermediate temperatures. Conversely, in C. sempervirens, cold stratification at all temperatures and higher salt stress at intermediate temperatures significantly decreased germination in afforested populations. Seed weight did not significantly affect germination percentages, which were however significantly negatively related to annual precipitation in P. brutia, and to annual temperature in C. sempervirens. We infer that silvicultural processes led to divergent outcomes in our species: local adaptation to drought stress and hot temperatures in afforested P. brutia populations and lower salt-stress tolerance in C. sempervirens.
  • Al-Hawija, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Am Kirchtor 1, D-06108 Halle/Saale, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: batoulh@gmail.com (email)
  • Wagner, Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: wagner@sci.muni.cz
  • Partzsch, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Am Kirchtor 1, D-06108 Halle/Saale, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: monika.partzsch@botanik.uni-halle.de
  • Hensen, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Am Kirchtor 1, D-06108 Halle/Saale, Germany & German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: isabell.hensen@botanik.uni-halle.de

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