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Category: Review article

article id 1095, category Review article, 276823 views
Jonas Fridman, Sören Holm, Mats Nilsson, Per Nilsson, Anna Hedström Ringvall, Göran Ståhl. (2014). Adapting National Forest Inventories to changing requirements – the case of the Swedish National Forest Inventory at the turn of the 20th century. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1095. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1095
Highlights: National Forest Inventories supply invaluable long term time series of forest state. Recent developments and international harmonization of modern NFIs widen the scope to even include ecosystem goods, e.g. biodiversity and carbon sequestration. The combination of NFI field data with remote sensing techniques can give good estimates for areas smaller than national and regional level.
National Forest Inventories (NFIs) are becoming increasingly important worldwide in order to provide information about the multiple functions of forests, e.g. their provision of raw materials to industry, biodiversity and their capacity to store carbon for mitigating climate change. In several countries the history of NFIs is very long. For these countries a specific challenge is to keep the inventories up-to-date without sacrificing the advantages associated with long time series. At the turn of the 20th century European NFIs faced some major challenges. In this article we describe the history and the recent developments of the Swedish NFI as an example from which general observations are made and discussed. The Swedish NFI started in 1923 and has evolved from an inventory with a narrow focus on wood resources to an inventory today which aims to provide information about all major forest ecosystem services. It can be concluded that the traditional approaches of most European NFIs, e.g. to collect data through sample plot field inventories, has proved to be applicable even for a wide range of new information requirements. Specifically, detailed data about land use, trees, vegetation, and soils has found new important uses in connection with biodiversity assessments and the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions. Though time-consuming and difficult, making NFI information comparable across countries through harmonization appears to be a useful approach. The European National Forest Inventory Network (ENFIN) was formed in 2003 and has been successful in pan-European NFI harmonization.
  • Fridman, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: jonas.fridman@slu.se (email)
  • Holm, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: soren.holm@slu.se
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.nilsson@slu.se
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: per.nilsson@slu.se
  • Ringvall, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Anna.Ringvall@slu.se
  • Ståhl, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: goran.stahl@slu.se

Category: Research article

article id 1019, category Research article, 149553 views
Michael Henke, Stephan Huckemann, Winfried Kurth, Branislav Sloboda. (2014). Reconstructing leaf growth based on non-destructive digitizing and low-parametric shape evolution for plant modelling over a growth cycle. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 2 article id 1019. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1019
Highlights: A complete pipeline for plant organ modelling (at the example of poplar leaves) is presented, from non-destructive data acquisition, over automated data extraction, to growth and shape modelling; Leaf contour models are compared; Resulting “organ” modules are ready for use in FSPMs.
A simple and efficient photometric methodology is presented, covering all steps from field data acquisition to binarization and allowing for leaf contour modelling. This method comprises the modelling of area and size (correlated and modelled with a Chapman-Richards growth function, using final length as one parameter), and four shape descriptors, from which the entire contour can be reconstructed rather well using a specific spline methodology. As an improvement of this contour modelling method, a set of parameterized polynomials was used. To model the temporal kinetics of the shape, geodesics in shape spaces were employed. Finally it is shown how this methodology is integrated into the 3D modelling platform GroIMP.
  • Henke, Department Ecoinformatics, Biometrics & Forest Growth, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: mhenke@uni-goettingen.de (email)
  • Huckemann, Institute of Mathematical Stochastics, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: huckeman@math.uni-goettingen.de
  • Kurth, Department Ecoinformatics, Biometrics & Forest Growth, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: wk@informatik.uni-goettingen.de
  • Sloboda, Department Ecoinformatics, Biometrics & Forest Growth, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: bslobod@web.de

Category: Review article

article id 1673, category Review article, 63813 views
Eshetu Yirdaw, Mulualem Tigabu, Adrian Monge. (2017). Rehabilitation of degraded dryland ecosystems – review. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1673. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1673
Highlights: The prospect of restoring degraded drylands is technically promising; The forest landscape restoration concept can be used as the overarching rehabilitation framework; Development of process-based models that forecast rehabilitation outcomes is needed; Rehabilitation methodologies developed for moist areas are not necessarily suitable for drylands; More data is needed on cost-benefit analysis of rehabilitation interventions.

Land degradation is widespread and a serious threat affecting the livelihoods of 1.5 billion people worldwide of which one sixth or 250 million people reside in drylands. Globally, it is estimated that 10–20% of drylands are already degraded and about 12 million ha are degraded each year. Driven by unsustainable land use practices, adverse climatic conditions and population increase, land degradation has led to decline in provision of ecosystem services, food insecurity, social and political instability and reduction in the ecosystem’s resilience to natural climate variability. Several global initiatives have been launched to combat land degradation, including rehabilitation of degraded drylands. This review aimed at collating the current state-of-knowledge about rehabilitation of degraded drylands. It was found that the prospect of restoring degraded drylands is technically promising using a suite of passive (e.g. area exclosure, assisted natural regeneration, rotational grazing) and active (e.g. mixed-species planting, framework species, maximum diversity, and use of nurse tree) rehabilitation measures. Advances in soil reclamation using biological, chemical and physical measures have been made. Despite technical advances, the scale of rehabilitation intervention is small and lacks holistic approach. Development of process-based models that forecast outcomes of the various rehabilitation activities will be useful tools for researchers and practitioners. The concept of forest landscape restoration approach, which operates at landscape-level, could also be adopted as the overarching framework for rehabilitation of degraded dryland ecosystems. The review identified a data gap in cost-benefit analysis of rehabilitation interventions. However, the cost of rehabilitation and sustainable management of drylands is opined to be lower than the losses that accrue from inaction, depending on the degree of degradation. Thus, local communities’ participation, incorporation of traditional ecological knowledge, clear division of tasks and benefits, strengthening local institutions are crucial not only for cost-sharing, but also for the long-term success of rehabilitation activities.

  • Yirdaw, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eshetu.yirdaw@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Tigabu, Sveriges Lantbruks Universitet (SLU), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Mulualem.Tigabu@slu.se
  • Monge, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: adrian.mongemonge@helsinki.fi

Category: Research article

article id 10076, category Research article, 62317 views
Tore Skrøppa, Arne Steffenrem. (2019). Genetic variation in phenology and growth among and within Norway spruce populations from two altitudinal transects in Mid-Norway. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 10076. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10076
Highlights: Norway spruce populations distributed along each of two altitudinal transects showed strong clinal relationships between the annual mean temperatures of the sites of the populations and height and phenology traits in short term tests and height in field trials; Large variation was present among families within populations for height and phenology traits and with a wider range within than among populations; Correlation patterns among traits were different for provenances and families.

Progenies from open pollinated cones collected in natural populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) distributed along two altitudinal transects in Mid-Norway were tested in the nursery, in short term tests and in long-term field trials. The populations showed clinal variation related to the mean annual temperatures of the populations, with the earliest bud flush and cessation of shoot elongation and lowest height at age nine years for the high altitude populations. Within population variation was considerable as the narrow sense heritability for these traits was 0.67, 0.31 and 0.09 in one transect and 0.55, 0.18 and 0.14 in the other transect, respectively. Lammas shoots occurred in the short term trials with large variation in frequency between years. There was significant family variation for this trait, but also interactions between populations and year. The variance within populations was considerably larger in the populations from low altitude compared to the high-altitude populations. Significant genetic correlations between height and phenology traits and damage scores indicate that families flushing early and ceasing growth late were taller. Taller families also had higher frequencies of damages. Selection of the top 20% families for height growth in short term tests at age nine years gave a simulated gain of 11% increased height growth at age 18 years in long term trials at altitudes similar to those of origin of the populations. The gain was negative when high altitude populations were selected based on testing in the lowland.

  • Skrøppa, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: tore.skroppa@nibio.no (email)
  • Steffenrem, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 1618, category Research article, 36483 views
Miguel Genin, Mohamed Alifriqui, Abdessamad Fakhech, Mohamed Hafidi, Lahcen Ouahmane, Didier Genin. (2017). Back to forests in pre-Saharan Morocco? When prickly pear cultivation and traditional agropastoralism reduction promote argan tree regeneration. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1618. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1618
Highlights: There was a significant positive relationship between the age of implanted prickly pear orchards and natural argan tree regeneration; This relationship is mainly associated with interconnected changes in traditional land uses and the activation of facilitation factors such as an enhancement of the soil’s organic matter and nurse plant phenomena; This example constitutes a remarkable alternative model for thinking about agricultural development while combating desertification.

In the southwestern pre-Saharan arid zone of Morocco, the endemic argan forest (Argania spinosa) had been almost completely destroyed in the 1960s due to intensive coal mining and mixed cereal-livestock farming. These activities turned out to be unviable and a massive rural exodus occurred in the 1970s. Local populations started to develop maintenance-free prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivation at large scale in order to keep their land ownership rights, while reducing their traditional agropastoral activity. We conducted a survey in order to characterize the relationships between the age of prickly pear orchards and argan tree regeneration. We also explored facilitating factors, such as soil organic matter and mycorrhiza. Results showed a high positive correlation (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001) between the age of prickly pear orchards and argan tree resprouts, but with differences depending on a continentality gradient. The soil organic matter content also showed highly significant differences (p < 0.001) depending on the age of the prickly pear plantation, while spora density did not show such differences. The recent high economic value attributed to prickly pear fruits, and to both argan and prickly pear seed oil, has given farmers the opportunity to develop a lucrative agricultural activity, while promoting the recovery of native vegetation. This situation constitutes a remarkable example of speculative agricultural development in a very harsh environment, in phase with ecological priorities for combating desertification. It could represent an alternative to the externally-generated projects sustained by high levels of public funding, with ecological, economic and social impacts which are sometimes questionable.

  • Genin, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) & Aix-Marseille Université, Laboratoire Population, Environnement, Développement, UMR151 AMU-IRD, Marseille, France ORCID ID:E-mail: miguel.genin@gmail.com
  • Alifriqui, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: alifriqui@gmail.com
  • Fakhech, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: abdessamad.fakhech@edu.uca.ac.ma
  • Hafidi, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: hafidi.ucam@gmail.com
  • Ouahmane, Cadi Ayyad University (UCAM), Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement (CNRST, URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco ORCID ID:E-mail: l.ouahmane@gmail.com
  • Genin, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) & Aix-Marseille Université, Laboratoire Population, Environnement, Développement, UMR151 AMU-IRD, Marseille, France ORCID ID:E-mail: didier.genin@univ-amu.fr (email)

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