Table 1. Norway spruce populations and families from Mid-Norway. Analyses of variance of transformed proportion of seedlings with apical bud measured in the nursery at August 23 in the nursery (Stiklestad). Shown are estimates of variance components, p-values and heritabilities at plot level (standard error in parentheses). | ||||

Southern transect populations | Northern transect populations | |||

Variance | p-value | Variance | p-value | |

Populations | 0.013 | < 0.0001 | ||

Families (populations) | 0.016 | 0.0003 | 0.015 | <0.001 |

Blocks | 0.128 | <0.0001 | 0.032 | 0.001 |

Populations × blocks | 0.004 | 0.028 | 0.009 | <0.0001 |

Error | 0.037 | 0.031 | ||

Heritability | 0.54 (0.17) | 0.53 (0.18) |

Table 2. Norway spruce populations and families from Mid-Norway. Analyses of variance of traits measured in the short term trial at Selbu. Shown are estimates of variance components for random effects, p-values from the F-test and heritabilities (standard error in parentheses). | ||||||||

Height age 9 | Bud flush^{ 1)}age 8 | Growth cessation^{ 2)}age 9 | Damage age 9 | |||||

Variance | p-value | Variance | p-value | Variance | p-value | Variance | p-value | |

Populations | 0.0004 | 0.0017 | 0.0009 | 0.92 | ||||

Families (populations) | 33.68 | <0.0001 | 0.18 | <0.0001 | 0.0028 | <0.0001 | 0.008 | 0.04 |

Blocks | 298.60 | <0.0001 | 0.0013 | <0.0001 | ||||

Error | 1086.105 | 0.64 | 0.0233 | 0.500 | ||||

Heritability | 0.09 (0.04) | 0.67 (0.12) | 0.32 (0.09) | 0.05 (0.03) | ||||

^{1) }Scored according to Krutzsch (1973). ^{2) }Proportion of growth accomplished at June 30. |

Table 3. Norway spruce families from Mid-Norway. Estimates of genetic correlations (with standard errors or p-values) for traits measured in the short term trial at Selbu. P-values are given when inferences are based on Pearson-correlations between BLU-predicted breeding values. | ||||

Bud flush | Growth cessation^{ 1)} | Damage | Bud set^{ 2)} | |

Height | 0.20 (0.23) | –0.46 (0.21) | 0.38 (p = 0.004) | –0.08 (ns) |

Bud flush | 0.65 (0.12) | 0.18 (ns) | –0.05 (ns) | |

Growth cessation | –0.10 (ns) | 0.03 (ns) | ||

Damage | 0.07 (ns) | |||

^{1) }Proportion of shoot growth accomplished at June 30. ^{2) }Measured in the nursery (Stiklestad). |

Table 4. Norway spruce populations and families from Mid-Norway. Analyses of variance of traits measured in the short term trials at Stiklestad and Kvatninga. Height, bud flush, lammas shoots and damage are from measurements/assessments at both sites, while growth cessation was measured only at Stiklestad. Shown are estimates of variance components for random effects, p-values from the F-test and heritabilities (standard error in parentheses). | ||||||||||

Height age 9 | Bud flush^{ 1)}age 6 | Growth cessation^{ 2)}age 9 | Lammas shoots age 6 ^{ 3)} and 9^{ 4)} | Damage age 9 | ||||||

Variance | p-value | Variance | p-value | Variance | p-value | Variance | p-value | Variance | p-value | |

Sites | 0.004 | |||||||||

Populations | <0.0001 | <0.0001 | 0.0001 | 0.16 | 0.48 | |||||

Sites × populations | 0.02 | 0.48 | <0.0001 | 0.78 | ||||||

Families (populations) | 60.06 | <0.0001 | 0.14 | <0.0001 | 0.0016 | 0.0003 | 0.030 | <0.0001 | 0.007 | 0.02 |

Sites × families (populations) | 19.98 | <0.0001 | 0.0 | 0.001 | 0.32 | 0.001 | 0.37 | |||

Replicates (site) | 117.86 | <0.0001 | 0.0005 | 0.008 | ||||||

Error | 1250.81 | 0.63 | 0.0238 | 0.464 | 0.499 | |||||

Heritability | 0.14 (0.04) | 0.55 (0.08) | 0.18 (0.07) | 0.18 (0.04) | 0.04 (0.02) | |||||

^{1) }Scored according to Krutzsch (1973). ^{2) }Proportion of shoot growth accomplished at June 30. ^{3) }Assessed at Kvatninga.^{4) }Assessed at Stiklestad. |

Table 5. Norway spruce families from Mid-Norway. Estimates of genetic correlations (with standard errors or p-values) for traits measured in the short term trial at Stiklestad and Kvatninga and for bud set assessed in the nursery (Stiklestad). P-values are given when inference are based on Pearson-correlations between BLU-predicted breeding values. | |||||

Bud flush | Growth cessation^{ 1)} | Lammas shoots | Damage | Bud set^{ 2)} | |

Height | 0.58 (0.12) | –0.09 (0.22) | 0.32 (0.16) | 0.42 (p < 0.0001) | –0.24 (p = 0.04) |

Bud flush | 0.62 (0.16) | 0.45 (0.12) | 0.43 (p < 0.0001) | –0.17 (ns) | |

Growth cessation | 0.32 (0.26) | 0.29 (p = 0.01) | 0.17 (ns) | ||

Lammas shoots | 0.27 (p = 0.01) | –0.08 (ns) | |||

Damage | –0.05 (ns) | ||||

^{1) }Proportion of shoot growth accomplished at June 30. ^{2) }Measured in the nursery (Stiklestad). |

Table 6. Norway spruce populations and families from Mid-Norway. Mean values across three field trials at age 18 year of selected and all families for each of three subset of populations. | ||||

Subset of populations | Height cm | Diameter mm | Mortality % | Damage % |

Southern transect populations > 250 m altitude | ||||

Selected families | 390 | 49 | 11.5 | 29.4 |

All families | 350 | 46 | 18.1 | 21.7 |

Northern transect populations < 250 m altitude | ||||

Selected families | 368 | 44 | 18.8 | 17.8 |

All families | 353 | 43 | 16.4 | 23.8 |

Northern transect populations > 250 m altitude | ||||

Selected families | 313 | 37 | 13.1 | 28.3 |

All families | 321 | 40 | 19.0 | 21.5 |