Table 1. Population names, their geographical locations, number of individuals sampled for genetic analyses, parameters of genetic diversities and inbreeding coefficients (F) for B. nana sampling sites studied. P_{loc} = number of polymorphic loci; H_{j} = Nei’s gene diversity. | ||||||||

Country | Population | Code | Location | No of individuals | P_{loc} | H_{j} | F | |

Latitude, Longitude | ||||||||

1. | Poland | Linje | LIN | 53°11´N, 18°18´E | 23 | 83 | 0.120 | 0.249 |

2. | Torfowisko pod Zieleńcem | ZIEL | 50°20´N, 16°25´E | 20 | 91 | 0.129 | 0.130 | |

3. | Torfowiska Doliny Izery | IZER | 50°51´N, 15°21´E | 20 | 102 | 0.136 | 0.060 | |

4. | Finland | Juttuvaara | JUT | 62°57´N, 30°22´E | 21 | 87 | 0.103 | 0.075 |

5. | Kaitaa | KAI | 63°14´N, 28°52´E | 20 | 87 | 0.114 | 0.402 | |

6. | Tuusniemi | TUS | 62°52´N, 28°24´E | 21 | 91 | 0.091 | 0.035 | |

7. | Belarus | Berezin’skij Zapovednik | BZ | 54°37´N, 28°21´E | 7 | 85 | 0.120 | 0.078 |

8. | Russia | Ural Mts. | UR | 63°03´N, 58°36´E | 7 | 89 | 0.115 | 0.057 |

Table 2. Parameters of habitat quality and sexual reproduction in the B. nana populations. Pop = populations codes according to Table 1; Hab = number of habitat plots; Habitat quality parameters: EC = electrical conductivity; Reproductive parameters: GS = number of germinated (without scarification) seeds per individual, GSC = number of seeds germinated after scarification, ES = number of empty seeds (without ovule), PF = number of partly filled seeds, IN = number of seeds infected by insects; ^{#} = median values. View in new window/tab. |

Table 3. Results from analyses of molecular variance in the B. nana populations divided into two groups: LIN + ZIEL (Poland) and all other samples. | |||

Source of variation | Percentage of variation | P | Fixation indices |

Among groups | 12.87 | 0.032 | F_{CT} = 0.12866 |

Among localities within groups | 15.82 | < 0.0001 | F_{SC} = 0.18153 |

Within localities | 71.32 | < 0.0001 | F_{ST} = 0.28684 |

Table 4. Genetic differentiation (F_{ST}) between pairs of populations of B. nana. Population codes according to Table 1. * = statistically significant values after Bonfferoni’ s correction. | |||||||

ZIEL | IZER | JUT | KAI | TUS | BZ | UR | |

LIN | 0.244* | 0.271* | 0.314* | 0.196* | 0.339* | 0.228* | 0.278* |

ZIEL | 0.234* | 0.359* | 0.249* | 0.367* | 0.285* | 0.301* | |

IZER | 0.246* | 0.159* | 0.252* | 0.222* | 0.261* | ||

JUT | 0.049* | 0.051* | 0.161* | 0.203* | |||

KAI | 0.085* | 0.097* | 0.136* | ||||

TUS | 0.176* | 0.217* | |||||

BZ | 0.037 |

Table 5. Results of the two-sample randomisation tests comparing the reproductive parameters (dependent variable) in the relict (R) vs. central (C) populations (grouping variables). * = value significant after Bonferroni’s correction. | ||||

Variable | Test statistic | P | ||

Grouping | Dependent | Medians | ||

Relict vs. central samples | Female flowers | R = 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 0.3956 |

C = 0.0000 | ||||

Male flowers | R = 6.0000 | 3.0000 | 0.0074* | |

C = 3.0000 | ||||

Total no. of flowers | R = 7.5000 | 3.0000 | 0.0161 | |

C = 4.5000 | ||||

Seed mass [g] | R = 0.0159 | 0.0027 | 0.0035* | |

C = 0.0132 | ||||

Seeds germinated without scarification | R = 0.0000 | 0.0000 | 1.0000 | |

C = 0.0000 | ||||

Seeds germinated after scarification | R = 0.5000 | –3.5000 | 0.0002* | |

C = 4.0000 | ||||

Empty seeds | R = 95.5000 | 0.5000 | 0.7345 | |

C = 95.0000 | ||||

Partly filled seeds | R = 0.0000 | 0.0000 | 1.0000 | |

C = 0.0000 | ||||

Seeds infected by insects | R = 1.0000 | 0.0000 | 1.0000 | |

C = 1.0000 |

Table 6. Results of ANOVA comparing the chemical parameters of environment in the populations of B. nana. Populations codes according to Table 1. P_{adj }= P adjusted. * = value significant after Bonferroni’s correction. | |||||

Variable | DF | F | P | Post hoc tests | |

pH | 52 | 9.768 | 0.0001* | IZER vs. TUS | P_{adj }= 0.0015 |

IZER vs. LIN | P_{adj }= 0.0028 | ||||

IZER vs. KAI | P_{adj }= 0.0026 | ||||

IZER vs. ZIEL | P_{adj }= 0.0432 | ||||

Electrical conductivity (EC) | 52 | 9.293 | 0.0001* | LIN vs. ZIEL | P_{adj }= 0.0015 |

LIN vs. JUT | P_{adj }= 0.0070 | ||||

LIN vs. KAI | P_{adj }= 0.0065 | ||||

LIN vs. TUS | P_{adj }= 0.0072 | ||||

LIN vs. IZER | P_{adj }= 0.0297 | ||||

NH_{4}^{+} concentration | 52 | 1.924 | 0.1085 | - | - |

PO_{4}^{3– }concentration | 52 | 8.696 | 0.0001* | LIN vs. ZIEL | P_{adj }= 0.0015 |

LIN vs. TUS | P_{adj }= 0.0014 | ||||

ZIEL vs. IZER | P_{adj }= 0.0065 | ||||

IZER vs. TUS | P_{adj }= 0.0084 | ||||

LIN vs. JUT | P_{adj }= 0.0209 |