Decay of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the Åland Islands
In 1972, all Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees of a minimum 7 cm diameter at breast height growing in the sample plots of the Sixth National Forest Inventory were examined on the main island of Aland, Finland. The soundness of standing trees was estimated by means of external characteristics and increment borer chips. The trees were then felled and measured. They were cut into lengths, and the type and extent of decay were studied.
30% of the trees examined was affected by butt rot, ca. 3% by wound decay. A comparison of the results with those of the Sixth National Forest Inventory justifies the estimate that in Aland 23% of spruce trees exceeding 7 cm in diameter at 1.3 m had butt rot.
The proportion of decayed trees in the cubic volume was 31%. Decayed wood material accounted for 5% of the volume including bark. Butt rot increased towards the mature stands. The reduction in the number of timber trees due to decay was 14.5%, in their volume 21.5%, and in the volume of sulphite pulpwood 12%. The share of sulphate pulpwood increased from 1 to 10%. The total reduction in usable wood was 6.3%. The stumpage price of the trees fell by 10.3%. As the degree of decay increased the increment percentage of the trees decreased. The most common cause of butt rot was Fomes annosus (Heterobasidion annosum) found in 46% of the number of decayed trees. Armillaria mellea was found in 16%. Bacteria were found in 50% of the decayed trees.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
Published in 1974