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Michelle de Chantal (email), Hannu Rita, Urban Bergsten, Mikaell Ottosson Löfvenius, Harald Grip

Frost heaving of Picea abies seedlings as influenced by soil preparation, planting technique, and location along gap-shelterwood gradients

Chantal M. d., Rita H., Bergsten U., Löfvenius M. O., Grip H. (2009). Frost heaving of Picea abies seedlings as influenced by soil preparation, planting technique, and location along gap-shelterwood gradients. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 214. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.214

Abstract

The effects of soil preparation, planting technique and location along gap-shelterwood gradients (position and orientation) on frost heaving damage to seedlings were studied in Vindeln Experimental Forests, northern Sweden. The forest was harvested in a grid pattern in winter 2004–2005, forming gaps and shelterwood areas of 30 x 40 m each. Gap-shelterwood gradients were delimited in four orientations and subdivided into five positions: 7 m and 15 m into the gap and shelterwood, and at the gap edge. At each position, three replicates of three soil preparations were made: exposed E and B horizons and HuMinMix (milled vegetation and humus layers mixed with surface mineral soil). In early October 2005, one-year-old containerized Picea abies (L.) Karst. seedlings were planted using four techniques: normal and deep planting, and mobile and fixed experimental containers. After one winter, frost heaving damage was highest for seedlings on B horizon combined with the mobile container (51 ± 6%) and normal planting (43±6%). Normal- or deep-planted seedlings in HuMinMix had the least damage (5–6.6 ± 2.5%). Compared to normal planting, deep planting reduced frost heaving damage only on B horizon. When considering the orientation, seedlings in the experimental containers had more or similar frost heaving damage than normal- or deep-planted seedlings. Along the eastern gradient, seedlings incurred more frost heaving damage in the center of the gap than under the canopy.

Keywords
deep planting; normal planting; mobile container; fixed container; HuMinMix; soil horizon

Author Info
  • Chantal, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Ecology & Dept of Forest Resource Management, Helsinki, Finland E-mail michelle.dechantal@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Rita, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Ecology & Dept of Forest Resource Management, Helsinki, Finland E-mail hr@nn.fi
  • Bergsten, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeå, Sweden E-mail ub@nn.se
  • Löfvenius, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeå, Sweden E-mail mol@nn.se
  • Grip, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeå, Sweden E-mail hg@nn.se

Received 29 October 2007 Accepted 21 January 2009 Published 31 December 2009

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Available at https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.214 | Download PDF

Creative Commons License CC BY-SA 4.0

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