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Marjut Ihalainen (email), Kauko Salo, Timo Pukkala

Empirical prediction models for Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea berry yields in North Karelia, Finland

Ihalainen M., Salo K., Pukkala T. (2003). Empirical prediction models for Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea berry yields in North Karelia, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 513. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.513


Forest berries and the outdoor experiences related to berry collection are important goods and services provided by Finnish forests. Consequently, there is a need for models which facilitate the prediction of the impacts of alternative forest management options on berry yields. Very few such models are available. In particular, empirical models are lacking. Models used in forest management should express the effect of variables altered in forest management such as stand density and mean tree size. This study developed empirical models for bilberry and cowberry yields in North Karelia. The data consisted of 362 measurements of 40 m2 sample plots. The plots were located in clusters. The same plot was measured over 1 to 4 years. Besides berry yield some site and growing stock characteristics of each plot were measured. A random parameter model was used to express the berry yield as a function of site fertility, growing stock characteristics, and random parameters. The random part of the models accounted for the effect of plot, measurement year, and cluster. The fixed predictors of the model for bilberry were stand age and forest site type. Stand basal area, mean tree diameter and forest site type were used to predict cowberry yields. The most significant random parameter was the plot factor. The fixed model part explained only a few per cent of the variation in berry yields. The signs of regression coefficients were logical and the model predictions correlated rather well with the predictions of earlier models.

mixed models; berry yield index; Vaccinium myrtillus; Vaccinium vitis-idaea

Author Info
  • Ihalainen, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail marjut.ihalainen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Salo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail ks@nn.fi
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail tp@nn.fi

Received 12 February 2002 Accepted 22 October 2002 Published 31 December 2003

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Available at https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.513 | Download PDF

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