Heating values of mature trees
The effective heating values of the above and below ground biomass components of mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh), silver birch (B. pendula Roth), grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), black alder (A. glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) were studied. Each sample tree was divided into wood, bark and foliage components. Bomb calorimetry was used to determine the calorimetric heating values.
The species is a significant factor in the heating value of individual tree components. The heating value of the wood proper is highest in conifers. Broadleaved species have a higher heating value of bark than conifers. The species factor diminishes when the weighted heating value of crown, whole stems or stump-root-system are considered. The crown material has a higher heating value per unit weight in comparison with fuelwood from small-sized stems or whole trees. The additional advantages of coniferous crown material are that it is non-industrial biomass resource and is readily available. The variability of both the chemical composition and the heating value is small in any given tree component of any species. However, lignin, carbohydrate and extractive content were found to vary from one part of the tree to another and to correlate with the heating value
Published in 1997