Full text of this article is only available in PDF format.

Erkki K. Kalela (email)

Tutkimuksia Itä-Suomen kuusi-harmaaleppä-sekametsiköiden kehityksestä

Kalela E. K. (1936). Tutkimuksia Itä-Suomen kuusi-harmaaleppä-sekametsiköiden kehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 7330. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7330

English title: Studies on the development of mixed forest of Norway spruce and grey alder in Eastern Finland


Shifting cultivation, practiced earlier in Finland, was beneficial for grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench). It can produce seeds early and the early growth of the seedlings is fast. Areas where shifting cultivation was intensive, the areas next to the fields were pure alder stands, next circle was Betula sp. dominated, beyond that could be found Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and finally Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). When shifting cultivation ended, Norway spruce became more common. Many young mixed stands had Norway spruce undergrowth and alder overgrowth. The aim of the study was to find out how the stands develop to spruce dominated stands, and how they should be managed.

The density of spruce undergrowth affects the further development of both spruce and alder. The number of alder stems decreases the faster the denser the spruce undergrowth is. Alder overgrowth slow down the early diameter and height growth of spruce compared to pure stands. Also the diameter and height growth of alder remains smaller in mixed stands. The basal area of spruce develops slowly in the beginning, increases significantly by the age of 30, and surpasses the growth of pure spruce stands in Oxalis-Myrtillus site type. Thus, Norway spruce do not suffer from growing in the undergrowth. In the first years, fast growing alder seedlings limits growth of ground vegetation and protects spruce seedlings from frost.  Later thinning or removal of alder benefits spruce growth. The density of spruce undergrowth decides how much alder can be leaved in the stand. If the spruce undergrowth is thin, more alder can be left in the stand.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

Original keywords
Picea abies; metsänhoito; alikasvos; sekametsä; kaskeaminen; juuristokilpailu; Alnus incana

English keywords
forest management; root competition; mixed stand

Published in 1936

Views 1293

Available at https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7330 | Download PDF

Creative Commons License CC BY-SA 4.0

Click this link to register to Silva Fennica.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content

Your selected articles
Your search results
Hökkä H., Alenius V. et al. (1997) Individual-tree basal area growth models for Sco.. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5616
Lilja A., Kurkela T. et al. (1997) Nursery practices and management of fungal disea.. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5611
Kuuluvainen T., Leinonen K. et al. (1996) Statistical opportunities for comparing stand st.. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5598
Vettenranta J., (1996) Effect of species composition on economic return.. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5574
Heikurainen L., (1985) The influence of birch nurse crop (Betula pubesc.. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5233
Mikola P., (1984) Selection system in timber harvesting in Finland Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5220
Lehtiniemi T., (1976) Effect of ionizing radiation on the germination .. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4930
Kapustinskaité T., (1975) Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth i.. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924
Tertti M., (1939) Forest management of Norway spruce forests Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4569
Räsänen A. A., (1939) Forest regeneration in Northern Finland Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4559
Heikinheimo O., (1939) Experiences in forest management of Hylocomnium-.. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4558
Tertti M., (1937) Regeneration felling of Norway spruce stands Silva Fennica vol. no. 42 article id 4513
Ilvessalo Y., (1967) The development of natural normal forest stands .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 5 article id 7170
Kallio T., (1965) Studies on the biology of distribution and possi.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 3 article id 7156
Laiho O., Mikola P. (1964) Studies on the effect of some eradicants on myco.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 77 no. 2 article id 7150
Yli-Vakkuri P., (1961) Emergence and initial development of tree seedli.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 1 article id 7128
Heikurainen L., (1958) Root systems of mixed forest in drained peatlands Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 2 article id 7476
Kallio K., (1957) On the development of spruce forests of the Oxal.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 3 article id 7473
Nuorteva M., (1956) Effect of fellings on bark beetle population in .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 4 article id 7467
Tikka P. S., (1947) Quality of Norway spruce stands in Peräpohjola i.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 1 article id 7389
Kangas E., (1946) Drying of Norway spruce stands as forest damage .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 7383
Multamäki S. E., (1939) Sowing and planting of Norway spruce in drained .. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 7343
Nyyssönen A., Ojansuu R. (1982) Assessment of timber assortments, value and valu.. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 179 article id 7626
Niemistö P., Korpunen H. et al. (2024) Harvesting efficiency and understory damage with.. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 2 article id 23065
Allen B., Dalponte M. et al. (2022) Detection of Root, Butt, and Stem Rot presence i.. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 2 article id 10606
Dahlgren Lidman F., Holmström E. et al. (2021) Management of spontaneously regenerated mixed st.. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 4 article id 10485
Pukkala T., Holt Hanssen K. et al. (2019) Stem taper and bark functions for Norway spruce .. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 10187
Repola J., Hökkä H. et al. (2018) Models for diameter and height growth of Scots p.. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 10055
Sharma R. P., Vacek Z. et al. (2017) Modelling tree crown-to-bole diameter ratio for .. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 1740
Fahlvik N., Ekö P. M. et al. (2015) Effects of precommercial thinning strategies on .. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 1302
Hökkä H., Mäkelä H. (2015) Post-harvest height growth of Norway spruce seed.. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 5 article id 1192
Hedwall P.-O., Grip H. et al. (2013) Effects of clear-cutting and slash removal on so.. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 933
Kankaanhuhta V., Saksa T. et al. (2009) Variation in the results of Norway spruce planti.. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 217
Repola J., Hökkä H. et al. (2006) Thinning intensity and growth of mixed spruce-bi.. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 353
Lindén M., Vollbrecht G. (2002) Sensitivity of Picea abies to butt rot in pure s.. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 519