Current issue: 56(2)
Investigation on the relationship between the size of the Megastigmus suspectus Borr. (Hymenoptera, Torymidae) and the size of Abies alba Mill. seeds from which those insects emerged was conducted. The examined insects (n = 46) originated from southern Poland, and were obtained from cones collected in 1993. M. suspectus thorax length was used as an index of adult insect size, because that was correlated with 8 other body measurements. In addition, the diameter of the emergence hole of this insect was measured. All data were log-transformed and analysed using regression analysis. There was no linear correlation between adult size and seed size, using either length of thorax or any of the other 8 body traits tested.
In the winter of 1977/78, a White-backed Woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos Bechstein) was observed in the archipelago of southwestern Finland 200 km from its breeding areas. It foraged on insects living in mall dead alder and birches. The potential prey species were identified by rearing the insects from the trunks used by the White-backed Woodpecker. Altogether 628 adult insects emerged. In addition to the big larvae the potential food also included larvae of Sciaridae and Cecidomyidae (Diptera) living in dense clumps.
This paper deals with the testing of dynamic stratification for estimating stand level forest characteristics (basal areas, mean diameter, mean height and mean age) for a 117 ha study areas in Finland. The results do not show possibilities to achieve more accurate estimates using only Landsat TM principal components as auxiliary data opposed to static stratification. It was found that in dynamic stratification non-measured observations should be assigned the mean characteristics of the measured observations that belong to the same cube (class) instead of stratification variable classes until a certain limit. If only one principal component is used the number of classes has, however, little influence. Low field values are overestimated and high values underestimated.
The only successful results were obtained using two variables of different origin – the qualitative development stage class and the quantitative 1st principal component. The lowest root mean square error in estimating basal area was 6.40 m2/ha, mean diameter 3.34 cm, mean height 2.65 m and mean age 14.06 years. This increase of stratification accuracy is mainly resulted by the use of development stage class as an auxiliary variable.
The effect of species mixture was studied in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by simulating around 100 different treatment schedules during the rotation in a naturally regenerated even-aged stand located on a site of medium fertility in North Karelia, Finland. Both thinning from below and thinning from above were applied. Optimum rotations were determined by maximising the net present value calculated to infinity and different treatment schedules were compared with the net present value over one rotation as per rotation applied. In the optimum treatment programme, the proportion of pines was decreased by half of the basal area in the first thinning stage and by the end of the rotation to about one third. In thinning from above, the proportion of pines can be maintained at a slightly higher level. It is economically profitable to maintain the growing stock capital at approximately the level recommended by Forest Centre Tapio, a semi-governmental forestry authority. With non-optimum species composition, the loss in net present value over one rotation can be about 10 % in thinning from below and about 20 % in thinning from above.
The prescribed burning of a 7.3 ha clear-cut and a 1.7 ha partially cut forest (volume 150 m3/ha) was carried out in Evo (61 °12'N, 25°07'E) on 1 June 1992. The forest was a mesic Myrtillus site type forest dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Practically all the trees and the above-ground parts of the understorey vegetation died in the fire, while the mor layer was thinned by an average of 1.5 cm.
A study was made on the change of germinated seedling population in time and their dependence on environmental factors. Seedlings of Norway spruce, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), pubescent birch (B. pubescens Ehrh.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were inventoried in 1993 and in 1994 on permanent plots, four times per growing season. Autoregression models were used to compare regeneration of tree species in the burned forest with regeneration in the burnt clear-cut area, and to study the effect of distance from nearest seed source to regeneration.
The average number of seedlings germinating in 1993 was higher than in 1994, probably because of differences between these consecutive years in regard to the amount of seed rain and weather conditions. The number of Norway spruce and rowan seedling was higher inside the forest area than in the clear-cut area. The distance to the bordering forest and to the closest seed tree did not explain the result. It is suggested that the more stable microclimatic conditions under the shade of dead tree promote germination and seedling establishment in the forest area. As rowan is a bird-dispersed species, it is likely that dead trees help the dispersal of rowan seed by providing birds place to sit and defecate. The shade provided by dead trees may influence the further succession of the tree stand and vegetation composition and diversity.
Fresh and herb-rich upland forest sites in the north-western part of the central boreal vegetation zone in Finland were studied with respect to vegetation structure and vegetation-environment relationships (soil, stand characteristics). Two fresh heath vegetation data sets, one from the northern boreal zone and the other from the central boreal zone, were compared with the data of this study using multivariate methods.
The variation in heath forest vegetation within the climatically uniform area was mainly determined by the fertility of the soil (primarily Ca and Mg) and the stage of stand development. N, P and K content of the humus layer varied little between the vegetation classes. Fertile site types occurred, in general, on coarse-textured soils than infertile site types, may be due to the fact that the sample plots were located in various bedrock and glacial till areas, i.e. to sampling effects.
The place of the vegetational units of the study area in the Finnish forest site type system is discussed. The vegetation of the area has features in common with the northern boreal zone as well as the southern part of the central boreal vegetation zone. The results lend some support to the occurrence of a northern Myrtillus type or at least that intermediate form of fresh and herb-rich mineral soil sites commonly occur in the studied area. It is argued that the older name Dryopteris-Myrtillus type is more suitable than Geranium-Oxalis-Myrtillus type for herb-rich heath sites in the study area.
Germination of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pollen decreased during exposure to open air conditions. Usually more than half of the pollen remained germinative after a few days outdoors, but following more than four days outdoors the germination became very low. This study supports the opinion that pollen in the atmosphere remains viable long enough to allow for long-distance gene flow by pollen migration, as an important factor in genetic management of conifers and in evolution, maintaining diversity and potential for adaptation.