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Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 | 2024

Category : Research article

article id 23072, category Research article
Matti Haapanen. (2024). Realised genetic gains from past Finnish silver birch seed orchards. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 23072. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.23072
Keywords: Betula pendula; seed orchards; genetic gain; forest reproductive materials
Highlights: Seed orchard materials generally outperformed unimproved trees in all growth and quality traits, but individual seed orchards showed substantial performance variability; Realised gains in stem volume and forking showed an increasing temporal trend, whereas gains in branch quality were positive and steady; Gains in stem volume and branch quality trade off slightly; The bi-clonal seed orchard variety “JR-2” emerged as the best overall performer across all the seed orchards, whereas the older variety “JR-1” was mediocre; An alternative statistical concept, D-value, was introduced to compare levels of genetic gains for different scaled, normally distributed traits.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Genetic gains realised through silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seed orchards were studied using data from common-garden trials established at 34 sites in southern and central Finland. The test materials include seedlots representing 19 commercial seed orchards that operated between 1972 and 2009, and 21 natural stands. All the trials were assessed for several growth and quality traits between the ages of 9 and 24. Realised gains were estimated based on univariate linear mixed models with corrections for latitudinal seed transfer effects. Overall, seed orchard materials outperformed unimproved reference materials in all the traits but results for individual seed orchards varied substantially. Stem volume gains ranged from 1.0% to 31.1%. Improved trees had, on average, 6.8% (up to 26.7%) fewer ramicorn branches and 16.2% (up to 57.6%) fewer forks than unimproved trees. Branch and overall quality showed consistently positive gains. More recently established seed orchards performed better than older ones, and seed orchards with fewer clones outperformed those with dozens of clones. "JR-1" and "JR-2" bi-clonal seed orchards fared differently, with "JR-1" showing modest genetic gains and "JR-2" emerging as the top overall performer across all seed orchards. An alternative statistical concept, the D-value, was utilised to assess the magnitude of genetic gain for different scaled, normally distributed traits. Average D-values implied a similar level of improvement for stem volume, branch quality, and forking, and a smaller gain for stem slenderness and the number of ramicorn branches. The results for individual seed orchards suggest a slight trade-off between stem volume growth and branch quality.
article id 23058, category Research article
Johanna Jetsonen, Annamari Laurén, Heli Peltola, Olli Muhonen, Juha Nevalainen, Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Antti Kilpeläinen, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Elisa Männistö, Nicola Kokkonen, Marjo Palviainen. (2024). Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the ground vegetation cover and soil chemical properties in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 23058. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.23058
Keywords: boreal forest; competition index; forest fertilization; upland forests; vegetation cover
Highlights: Nitrogen (N) fertilization decreased the total cover of ground vegetation; N fertilization decreased the cover of mosses and dwarf shrubs and increased the cover of herbaceous plants; N concentration of the mor humus layer increased with the N fertilization; The magnitude of these changes depended on the intensity of the N fertilization.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization intensity on the ground vegetation cover and soil chemical properties  in two Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)  and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) dominated stands on upland forest sites in Eastern Finland. The fertilizer was applied using a helicopter in the spruce stands and a forwarder in the pine stands. The distribution and the amount of fertilizer was measured with funnel traps. Cover of each species of ground vegetation was estimated  before fertilization and 3–4 years after it in pine and 2–3 years after it in spruce stands. Further, the cover observations were aggregated by plant types. Based on measurements, we analyzed the effects of the funnel-trap-observed amount of N fertilizer on the cover and plant type composition of ground vegetation and soil N and C concentration. In addition, we analyzed  the impacts of competition caused by trees on the ground vegetation cover based on competition indices. N fertilization increased the cover of herbaceous plants and decreased the cover of mosses and dwarf shrubs, and the total cover of ground vegetation. Further, it increased the N concentration of the mor humus layer. The magnitude of the changes increased with the intensity of the N fertilization. The competition caused by trees did not affect the cover of ground vegetation.
  • Jetsonen, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: johanna.jetsonen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Laurén, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland; Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6835-9568 E-mail: annamari.lauren@helsinki.fi
  • Peltola, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: heli.peltola@uef.fi
  • Muhonen, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0009-0007-4051-8567 E-mail: olli.muhonen@forestvital.com
  • Nevalainen, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0009-0000-2972-4385 E-mail: juha.hs.nevalainen@gmail.com
  • Ikonen, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1732-2922 E-mail: veli-pekka.ikonen@uef.fi
  • Kilpeläinen, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4299-0578 E-mail: antti.kilpelainen@uef.fi
  • Tuittila, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: eeva-stiina.tuittila@uef.fi
  • Männistö, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3869-6739 E-mail: elisa.mannisto@uef.fi
  • Kokkonen, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0197-2672 E-mail: nicola.kokkonen@uef.fi
  • Palviainen, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: marjo.palviainen@helsinki.fi
article id 23032, category Research article
Maria Anna Gartner, Matthias Kaltenbrunner, Manfred Gronalt. (2024). Dynamic box assignment planning in log yards. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 23032. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.23032
Keywords: storage assignment; seasonality; binary integer program; optimisation model; sawmill storage
Highlights: Seasonal change of assortments calls for dynamic box assignment planning in log yards; Multi-period planning better suited for dynamic problem, however period per period planning improves with decreasing capacity on the log yard; Rearrangement of assortment amounts to 8–11% of total transportation distance (loaded travelled distances of transportation vehicle); Considering separate box allocation (storage and ejection), which results in double stage planning of box allocation, benefits most if 10% additional volume may be cut in to clear the box.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The situation on the log yard changes seasonally and also over the years. The quantities of assortments to be stored, their number and also the type of wood can change. To respond to this, we have developed a dynamic log yard planning model for assigning roundwood to specific ejection boxes and storage areas in order to minimise the overall transport distances of the loaded transportation vehicles on the log yard, including any possible re-allocation of assortments. The study centres on the log yard of a medium-sized hardwood sawmill in Europe, with actual cutting data from a six-month period. We are comparing a multi-period binary integer program with a model that operates on a period per period basis and a solution approach that splits the problem into two subproblems and solves them sequentially. The models undergo testing with decreasing space capacities at the storage boxes on the log yard and are compared. If capacity is continuously decreasing from 100% to 80%, then period per period planning is on average 13% worse than multi-period planning. We also investigate how the solutions change when twice as many or half as many assortments are stored at the log yard. In addition, we study how much the solutions improve when logs can be removed from the storage boxes to clear them and release them for other material in the following period.
  • Gartner, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstrasse 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8547-718X E-mail: maria.gartner@boku.ac.at
  • Kaltenbrunner, improvem GmbH, Holzinnovationszentrum 1a, 8740 Zeltweg, Austria ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1178-0087 E-mail: matthias.kaltenbrunner@improvem.at
  • Gronalt, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Institute of Production and Logistics, Feistmantelstrasse 4, 1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0944-4911 E-mail: manfred.gronalt@boku.ac.at
article id 22017, category Research article
Andis Lazdiņš, Ainārs Lupiķis, Kaspars Polmanis, Arta Bārdule, Aldis Butlers, Santa Kalēja. (2024). Carbon stock changes of drained nutrient-rich organic forest soils in Latvia. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 22017. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.22017
Keywords: drainage; hemiboreal forests; organic soil; peat compaction; peatland forests; subsidence of the peat layer
Highlights: In moderate nutrient-rich forest site type (Myrtillosa turf. mel.), a significant subsidence of peat layer after drainage is associated with compaction rather than decomposition of peat; In nutrient-rich forest site type (Oxalidosa turf. mel.), a contribution of soil C stock losses to subsidence of the peat layer is significant; In moderate nutrient-rich forest site type (Myrtillosa turf. mel.), type of dominant tree species has higher impact on changes in soil C stock after drainage than in nutrient-rich forest site type (Oxalidosa turf. mel.); Distribution of different forest site types involving soil nutrient status has to be taken into account when CO2 emissions from drained organic soil in forest land are estimated at national level.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Impact of drainage of organic soils in forest land on soil carbon (C) stock changes is of high interest not only to accurately estimate soil C stock changes, but also to provide scientifically based recommendations for forest land management in context of climate change mitigation. To improve knowledge about long-term impact of drainage on nutrient-rich organic soils in hemiboreal forests in Latvia, 50 research sites representing drained conditions (Oxalidosa turf. mel. (Kp) and Myrtillosa turf. mel. (Ks) forest site types) and undrained conditions as control areas (Caricoso-phragmitosa, Dryopterioso-caricosa and Filipendulosa forest site types) were selected. Soil C stock changes after drainage was evaluated by comparing current C stock in drained organic soils to theoretical C stock before drainage considering impact of soil subsidence. During the 53-years period after drainage, the peat subsidence was higher in nutrient-rich Kp forest site type compared to moderate nutrient-rich Ks forest site type (peat subsided by 37.0 ± 4.8 and 23.3 ± 4.8 cm, respectively). In nutrient-rich Kp forest site type, soil C stock decreased by 4.98 ± 1.58 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 after drainage, while no statistically significant changes in soil C stock (0.19 ± 1.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) were observed in moderate nutrient-rich soils in Ks forest site type. Thus, in Ks forest site type, the main driver of the peat subsidence was the physical compaction, while in Kp forest site type contribution of organic matter decomposition and consequent soil C losses to subsidence of the peat was significant.

  • Lazdiņš, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’ (LSFRI Silava), Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7169-2011 E-mail: andis.lazdins@silava.lv
  • Lupiķis, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’ (LSFRI Silava), Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia E-mail: ainars.lupikis@inbox.lv
  • Polmanis, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’ (LSFRI Silava), Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2579-353X E-mail: kaspars.polmanis@silava.lv
  • Bārdule, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’ (LSFRI Silava), Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0961-5119 E-mail: arta.bardule@silava.lv
  • Butlers, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’ (LSFRI Silava), Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3118-1716 E-mail: aldis.butlers@silava.lv
  • Kalēja, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’ (LSFRI Silava), Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia E-mail: santa.kaleja@silava.lv

Category : Research note

article id 23071, category Research note
Mattias Finndin, Per Milberg. (2024). The population development of small trees and shrubs after 100 years of free succession of a wooded meadow in southern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 23071. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.23071
Keywords: conservation; land-use change; nemoral forest; plants; regrowth; wooded grassland
Highlights: Using a unique map of trees and shrubs from 1937, we estimated the mortality of woody species typical of wooded meadows after management ceased in 1923; Both population size and canopy cover of the studied species had decreased during the past 86 years; On the other hand, several tree and shrub specimens endured for a century, pointing to the slow changes involved as well as the potential for restoration.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Wooded meadows are characterised by traditional-historic human use. Deliberate selection of species, pollarding and haymaking has created a complex and biodiverse habitat where small trees and shrubs were prevalent. This study set out to document what happens to such trees and shrubs during succession to forest, the normal fate when wooded meadows are abandoned but also when other open to semi-open patches revert to forest. The study was conducted at a site in southern Sweden where traditional management was abandoned by 1923 when the area was protected for research and allowed to follow natural succession. The current study is a follow-up of a 1937-inventory of small trees and shrubs. The results show a decrease in both population size and canopy cover in the selected species during the past 86 years. Hence, we can expect a loss of these species when wooded meadow are abandoned and left to developed into forests. On the other hand, several tree and shrub specimens endured for a century, pointing to the slow changes involved as well as the potential for restoration.

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