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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 | 1993

Category: Article

article id 5523, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1993). Snow and soil frost in Finnish forests. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5523.
Keywords: snow damages; Finland; ground vegetation; forest ecology; flora; snow cover; fauna
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Abundant snowfalls and thick snow cover influence forest ecology mainly in two ways. Snow loading increases the number of damaged stems, which increases the amount of decay in stems, in its turn important for many animals. Second, the ground remains unfrozen under the snow cover, which is of crucial importance for many perennial species of ground vegetation. These winter phenomena also have influenced the early Finnish culture as man in his everyday life in the wilderness was in close contact with nature. In this paper, ecological interactions between snow conditions, forest flora, fauna and early culture are discussed mainly with reference to the province of Uusimaa in Southern Finland.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5522, category Article
Jari Kokkola. (1993). Drying of pulpwood in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5522.
Keywords: pulpwood; storage; moisture; green weight; storage weight loss
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Drying of pulpwood bolts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), birch (Betula spp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was studied by measuring the drying of sample bolts placed in experimental piles. The results revealed that the main factors affecting timber drying are debarked surface area, moisture content at the time of felling and the size of the bolt. Furthermore, pine and spruce bolts located in the upper part of the pile dry better than bolts near the ground.

The investigation of green weight changes of whole piles of pine and birch was based on data collected in 1987–91. The green weight of piles was dependent mainly on storage time and on region; effect of weather variables could not be distinguished. Specific calibrating coefficients for motor-manual and mechanical cutting were included in the green weight equations.

Comparison between green weight equations and detected weight losses of sample piles indicates that fitted models seem to produce at least approximate results for the green weights, the said results thus lending themselves to be utilized as part of a transportation cost model.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kokkola, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5521, category Article
Taneli Kolström, Seppo Kellomäki. (1993). Tree survival in wildfires. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5521.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; forest fires; Picea abies; Betula spp.; Finland; mortality
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The survival of forest tree species in wildfires was examined on two burned stands. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birches (Betula spp.) proved to be sensitive to the effects of wildfire; almost all individuals of these tree species were killed by the fires. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was more tolerable to the effects of wildfire; i.e. one out of five Scots pines survived. Fire tolerance increased as tree size increased.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kolström, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5520, category Article
Kari T. Korhonen. (1993). Mixed estimation in calibration of volume functions of Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5520.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; models; forest inventories; volume; estimation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Regression models for estimating stem volume of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were constructed using sample tree data measured in the 7th and 8th National Forest Inventory of Finland. Stem volume were regressed on diameter, basal area of growing stock, and geographic location. The results of the study show that using second order trend surface to describe the geographic variation of the residuals gives satisfactory results. Using mixed estimation for combining old and new sample tree data improves the efficiency of an inventory. The weight of the prior information must be low, because remarkable differences in stem form was found in the two inventories.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Korhonen, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5519, category Article
Jyrki Kangas, Jari Karsikko, Laura Laasonen, Timo Pukkala. (1993). A method for estimating the suitability function of wildlife habitat for forest planning on the basis of expertise. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5519.
Keywords: forest management; models; wildlife management; black grouse; production functions; multiple use; Lururus tetrix
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the method presented in this study, a group of experts evaluate, in a pairwise manner, a set of forest areas with respect to the game species considered. On the basis of these comparisons, relative priorities of forest areas are estimated using the eigenvalue technique. Using regression analysis, a habitat suitability function is estimated in which the priority is predicted by measures already familiar in forest planning. As a case study, a habitat suitability function was estimated for black grouse (Tetrao tetrix, Lururus tetrix L.). The function is applicable in forestry planning carried out using modern planning techniques.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kangas, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Karsikko, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown
  • Laasonen, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown
  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5518, category Article
Heikki Hänninen, Seppo Kellomäki, Kaisa Laitinen, Brita Pajari, Tapani Repo. (1993). Effect of increased winter temperature on the onset of height growth of Scots pine: a field test of a phenological model. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5518.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; height growth; frost damage; bud burst; climatic change
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to a recently presented hypothesis, the predicted climatic warming will cause height growth onset of trees during mild spells in winter and heavy frost damage during subsequent periods of frost in northern conditions. The hypothesis was based on computer simulations involving a model employing air temperature as the only environmental factor influencing height growth onset. In the present study, the model was tested in the case of eastern Finnish Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings. Four experimental saplings growing on their natural site were surrounded by transparent chambers in autumn 1990. The air temperature in the chambers was raised during the winter to present an extremely warm winter under the predicted conditions of a double level of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The temperature treatment hastened height growth onset by two months as compared to the control saplings, but not as much as expected on the basis of the previous simulation study. This finding suggests that 1) the model used in the simulation study needs to be developed further, either by modifying the modelled effect of air temperature or by introducing other environmental factors, and 2) the predicted climatic warming will not increase the risk of frost damage in trees as much as suggested by the previous simulation study.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Laitinen, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown
  • Pajari, E-mail: bp@mm.unknown
  • Repo, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown

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