Current issue: 56(2)

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Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Finland'

Category: Article

article id 5637, category Article
Janne Uuttera, Harri Hyppänen. (1997). Relationship between forest management planning units and spatial distribution of forest habitat components in Koli National Park. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5637. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8539
Keywords: Finland; forest management planning; forest habitat distribution; Geographic Information Systems; kriging-interpolation; Koli National park
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study examined the relationships between forest management planning units and patches formed by forest habitat components. The test area used was a part of Koli National Park in North Karelia, eastern Finland. Forest management planning units (i.e. forest compartments) were defined by using a traditional method of Finnish forestry which applies aerial photographs and compartment-wise field inventory. Patches of forest habitat components were divided according to subjective rules by using a chosen set of variables depicting the edaphic features and vegetation of a forest habitat. The spatial distribution of the habitat components was estimated with the kriging-interpolation based on systematically located sample plots. The comparisons of the two patch mosaics were made by using the standard tools of GIS. The results of the study show that forest compartment division does not correlate very strongly with the forest habitat pattern. On average, the mean patch size of the forest habitat components is greater and the number of these patches lower compared to forest compartment division. However, if the forest habitat component distribution had been considered, the number of the forest compartments would have at least doubled after intersection.

  • Uuttera, E-mail: ju@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hyppänen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown
article id 5617, category Article
Teijo Palander. (1997). A local DLP-GIS-LP system for geographically decentralized wood procurement planning and decision making. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5617. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8518
Keywords: Finland; GIS; linear programming; dynamic linear programming; DLP; geographical decentralization; local wood procurement; participatory planning; wood procurement
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Linear programming (LP) is an important method for allocation of wood inventory stock. It is, for instance, used alone in tactical planning systems, which currently are in wide use at the higher hierarchical level in the functionally decentralized planning of the Finnish forest industry. Unfortunately, LP as a solution method has not been capable of handling spatial data that seem to characterize planning systems in geographical decentralization. In the present study, GIS was used to assimilate data from different wood procurement functions, to calculate transportation distances and cost figures, and to write the data in ASCII files, which were then used as input for the LP model. Using the experiments and methods of GIS on a planning system developed according to participatory planning, the results of this study suggest that the participatory method was faster than the conventional LP method, when solved using actual data. The participatory method was also capable of providing the same global optimum for a wood allocation problem. The implications of these results for improving operational and tactical planning of wood procurement in Finland are discussed.

  • Palander, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5611, category Article
Arja Lilja, Timo Kurkela, Sakari Lilja, Risto Rikala.. (1997). Nursery practices and management of fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. A review. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5611. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8512
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; forest nursery; Betula spp.; Finland; damping-off; grey mold; root dieback; scleroderris canker; pine twisting rust; seedlings; fungal diseases; Godronia multispora; Lophodermium needle cast; snow blights; birch rust; stem lesions of birch; leaf lesions of birch; Lophodermium pinastri; Botrytis cinerea; Melampsora pinitorqua; Melampsoridium betulinum
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this article was to collate the literature on fungal diseases that occur on seedlings in forest nurseries. It describes the symptoms of the diseases, the infection pattern of each fungus and the possibilities of controlling the diseases. As background a short introduction is given on forests and nursery practices in Finland.

  • Lilja, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kurkela, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
  • Lilja, E-mail: sl@mm.unknown
  • Rikala., E-mail: rr@mm.unknown
article id 5570, category Article
Anne Toppinen, Riitta Hänninen, Susanna Laaksonen. (1996). A dynamic forecasting model for the Finnish pulp export price. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5570. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8505
Keywords: inventory; Finland; cointegration; business cycles; pulp; price; sulphate pulp; export prices
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study investigates the relationship between Finnish sulphate pulp export prices and international pulp inventories using the Johansen cointegration method. Long-run equilibrium is found to exist between pulp price and NORSCAN inventory for the study period, 1980-94. Granger causality is found to exist from inventory to price but not vice versa. A simple short-run forecasting model for the Finnish pulp export price is formed. In preliminary analysis, the explanatory power of model is found to be acceptable but only under stable market conditions.

  • Toppinen, E-mail: at@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hänninen, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
  • Laaksonen, E-mail: sl@mm.unknown
article id 5569, category Article
Esa-Jussi Viitala. (1996). Assessing the effectiveness of non-profit forestry organisations: An ultimate goal approach. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5569. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8504
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; Finland; forest owners; evaluation; forestry management associations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper is an assessment of what in Finland are referred to as local forest management associations (LFMAs); the local units of a non-profit, forestry-promotion institution. First, the concept of organisational effectiveness is explored and an attempt is made to define it with respect to the LFMAs. The study then seeks to identify the environmental constraints, organisational characteristics and managerial practices differentiating the most effective and least effective associations. Discriminant analysis revealed four determinants of effectiveness: agrarian prosperity in the given area, activeness in marketing services to forest owners, the board of governors' role, and goal setting practices. The results thus indicate that the comparison of managerial policies and practices among LFMAs can provide useful information for improving their effectiveness.

  • Viitala, E-mail: ev@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5601, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1996). Impact of fire on Finnish forest in the past and today. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5601. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9246
Keywords: forest fires; biodiversity; Finland; prescribed burning; forest ecology; wildfires; slash and burn cultivation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Nearly every forest land in Finland has been burnt down by a wildfire at least once during the past 400–500 years. Slash and burn cultivation (1700–1920) was practised on 50–75 percent of Finland's forests, while prescribed burning (1920–1990) has been applied to 2–3 percent of the country's forests. Because of land-use changes and efficient fire prevention and control systems, the occurrence of wildfires in Finland has decreased considerably during the past few decades. Owing to the biodiversity and ecologically favourable influence of fire, the current tendency is to revive the use of controlled fire in forestry in Finland. Prescribed burning is used in forest regeneration and endeavours are being made to revert old conservation forests to the starting point of succession through forest fires.

  • Parviainen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5594, category Article
Anssi Niskanen, Tapio Rantala, Olli Saastamoinen. (1996). Economic impacts of carbon sequestration in reforestation: examples from boreal and moist tropical conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5594. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9239
Keywords: boreal forests; carbon; forestry; Finland; Philippines; profitability; tropical forests; forest plantations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The impact of carbon sequestration on the financial profitability of four tree plantation cases in Finland and the Philippines were examined. On the basis of stem wood growth; the accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, the formation and decomposition of litter, and the carbon flow in wood-based products were assessed for each reforestation case representing boreal (Finland) and moist tropical conditions (the Philippines). Using different unit values for carbon sequestration the profitability of reforestation was estimated for a fixed 100-year period on a per hectare basis. The financial profitability of reforestation increased notably when the sequestered carbon had high positive values. For example, when the value of carbon sequestration was set to be Twenty-five United States Dollar per megagram of carbon (25 USO/Mg C), the internal rate of return (IRR) of a reforestation investment with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Finland increased from 3.2% to 4.1 %. Equally, the IRR of reforestation with mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in the Philippines increased from 12.8% to 15.5%. The present value of carbon sequestration ranged from 39–48% and from 77–101% of the present value of the reforestation cost in Finland and the Philippines, respectively when a 25 USO/Mg C shadow price and a 5% discount rate were applied. Sequestration of one mg of carbon in reforestation in Finland and the Philippines was estimated to cost from 10.5–20.0 and from 4.0–13.6 USO, respectively.

  • Niskanen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Rantala, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
  • Saastamoinen, E-mail: os@mm.unknown
article id 5592, category Article
Ari Talkkari. (1996). Regional predictions concerning the effects of climate change on forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5592. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9237
Keywords: climate change; Finland; simulation; growing stock; wood production; Gap model; regional predictions; cutting yield
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A gap-model was used with forest inventory data in taking ground-true site, soil and tree characteristics into account in predicting the effects of climate change on forests. A total of 910 permanent sample plots established in the course of national forest inventory (NFI) in Finland and located on mineral soil sites in southern Finland were selected as the input data. The climatological input used in the simulations consisted of interpolated means of and deviations from long-term local temperature and precipitation records. The policy-oriented climate scenarios of SILMU (Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change) were used to describe the climate change. The temperature changes in the climate scenarios were increases of ca. +1.1 °C (low), +4.4 °C (medium) and +6.6 °C (high) compared to the current climate in 110 years. The simulation period was 110 years covering the time years 1990–2100.

Southern Finland, divided into fifteen forestry board districts, was used as the study region. Regional development of stand volume, cutting yield, and total wood production of forests under different climate scenarios were examined. The annual average growth in simulations under current climate was close to that observed in NFL Forests benefited from a modest temperature increase (Scenario 2), but under Scenario 1 the growing stock remained at a lower level than under the current climate in all parts of the study region. In wood production and cutting yield there were regional differences. In the southern part of the study regional wood production under Scenario 1 was ca. 10% lower than under the current climate, but in the eastern and western parts wood production was 5–15% higher under Scenario 1 than under the current climate. The relative values of total wood production and cutting yield indicated that the response of forests to climate change varied by geographical location and the magnitude of climate change. This may be a consequence of not just varying climatic (e.g. temperature and precipitation) and site conditions, but of varying responses by different kind of forests (e.g. forests differing in tree species composition and age).

  • Talkkari, E-mail: at@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5572, category Article
Markku Lehtelä, Juha-Pekka Hotanen, Pentti Sepponen. (1996). Understorey vegetation in fresh and herb-rich upland forests in southwest Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5572. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9217
Keywords: Finland; forest soil; forest type; site classification; multivariate methods; forest vegetation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Fresh and herb-rich upland forest sites in the north-western part of the central boreal vegetation zone in Finland were studied with respect to vegetation structure and vegetation-environment relationships (soil, stand characteristics). Two fresh heath vegetation data sets, one from the northern boreal zone and the other from the central boreal zone, were compared with the data of this study using multivariate methods.

The variation in heath forest vegetation within the climatically uniform area was mainly determined by the fertility of the soil (primarily Ca and Mg) and the stage of stand development. N, P and K content of the humus layer varied little between the vegetation classes. Fertile site types occurred, in general, on coarse-textured soils than infertile site types, may be due to the fact that the sample plots were located in various bedrock and glacial till areas, i.e. to sampling effects.

The place of the vegetational units of the study area in the Finnish forest site type system is discussed. The vegetation of the area has features in common with the northern boreal zone as well as the southern part of the central boreal vegetation zone. The results lend some support to the occurrence of a northern Myrtillus type or at least that intermediate form of fresh and herb-rich mineral soil sites commonly occur in the studied area. It is argued that the older name Dryopteris-Myrtillus type is more suitable than Geranium-Oxalis-Myrtillus type for herb-rich heath sites in the study area.

  • Lehtelä, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hotanen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown
  • Sepponen, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown
article id 5555, category Article
Mauno Pesonen, Arto Kettunen, Petri Räsänen. (1995). Modelling non-industrial private forest landowners’ strategic decision making by using logistic regression and neural networks: Case of predicting the choice of forest taxation basis. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 5555. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9206
Keywords: logistic regression; Finland; Neural Networks; forest owners; forest taxation; non-industrial private forest landowners,; timber management strategies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this study, logistic regression and neural networks were used to predict non-industrial private forests (NIPF) landowners’ choice of forest taxation basis. The main frame of reference of the study was the Finnish capital taxation reform of 1993. As a consequence of the reform, landowners were required to choose whether to be taxed according to site-productivity or realized-income during the coming transition period of thirteen years.

The most important factor affecting the landowners’ choice of taxation basis was the harvest rate during the transition period, i.e. the chosen timber management strategy. Furthermore, the estimated personal marginal tax rate and the intention to cut timber during next three years affected the choice. The descriptive landowner variables did not have any marked effect on the choice of forest taxation basis.

On average, logistic regression predicted 71% of the choices correctly; the corresponding figure for neural networks was 63%. In both methods, the choice of site-productivity taxation was predicted more accurately than the choice of realized-income taxation. An increase in the number of model variable did not significantly improve the results of neural networks and logistic regression.

  • Pesonen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kettunen, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown
  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
article id 5398, category Article
Timo Karjalainen, Seppo Kellomäki, Ari Pussinen. (1994). Role of wood-based products in absorbing atmospheric carbon. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5398. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9163
Keywords: wood products; Finland; carbon balance; timber; lifespan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The amount of carbon (C) stored in wood products manufactured in Finland was calculated with the help of a model using wood harvesting statistics, product flows and lifespans in order to study how much C could be set aside from the atmospheric C cycle outside the forest ecosystem. The calculations showed that on the average 9.9 Tg C/a was in harvested timber in 1986–1991 in Finland. C emissions of timber harvest and transport were 0.1 Tg C/a. In production processes about one third of the C bound in in timber was released into the atmosphere, but two thirds was still bound in products. After 50 and 100 years, more than 40% and 33% of the C initially in products was either in products still in use or disposed to landfills. The wood product C storage was most sensitive to landfill decay rate and to the burning of abandoned products for energy, but not to the same extent to the length of the lifespan of products.

  • Karjalainen, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Pussinen, E-mail: ap@mm.unknown
article id 5523, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1993). Snow and soil frost in Finnish forests. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5523. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15684
Keywords: snow damages; Finland; ground vegetation; forest ecology; flora; snow cover; fauna
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Abundant snowfalls and thick snow cover influence forest ecology mainly in two ways. Snow loading increases the number of damaged stems, which increases the amount of decay in stems, in its turn important for many animals. Second, the ground remains unfrozen under the snow cover, which is of crucial importance for many perennial species of ground vegetation. These winter phenomena also have influenced the early Finnish culture as man in his everyday life in the wilderness was in close contact with nature. In this paper, ecological interactions between snow conditions, forest flora, fauna and early culture are discussed mainly with reference to the province of Uusimaa in Southern Finland.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5521, category Article
Taneli Kolström, Seppo Kellomäki. (1993). Tree survival in wildfires. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5521. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15682
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; forest fires; Picea abies; Betula spp.; Finland; mortality
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The survival of forest tree species in wildfires was examined on two burned stands. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birches (Betula spp.) proved to be sensitive to the effects of wildfire; almost all individuals of these tree species were killed by the fires. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was more tolerable to the effects of wildfire; i.e. one out of five Scots pines survived. Fire tolerance increased as tree size increased.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kolström, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5517, category Article
Tuomo Kotimäki. (1993). Ristipaineet valtion metsien käytön valintatilanteissa. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5517. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15678
English title: Contradictory targets in the use of state forests of Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsien monikäyttö; aluepolitiikka; maankäyttö; kestävä metsätalous
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest management planning; Forest Service; state forests; multiple use of forests; conflicting targets; land use; regional planning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper discusses the principles of forest management in the state forests of Finland, and the contradictions in choosing between the different land uses. These principles of the forest management are sustainable use of natural resources, economic and effective management, and taking in account nature conservation, protection of environment, recreation services and employment issues in all activities of the Forest Service. Even regional policy affects the management planning in the state forests.

  • Kotimäki, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5516, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1993). Yksityismetsätalous ja arvojen muutos. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15677
English title: Private forestry and the changing values.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsätalous; metsänomistajat; arvot
English keywords: forest management; forestry; values; Finland; forest owners; private forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forests have been economically important for Finnish private forest owners at all times, but the use of forests has changed markedly since 1920s, when forests were mainly used for collecting household timber, and the cuttings were often exploitative because of the farmer’s need for money. The present situation is totally different. Need for household timber is marginally small, and private forestry produces mainly timber for sale. The sales of timber have increased, but due to better forest management the growing stock in the private forests has increased. The article discusses how the changes in values of forest owners has and will affect the stage of private forestry.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5510, category Article
Esa Koistinen, Sauli Valkonen. (1993). Models for height development of Norway spruce and Scots pine advance growth after release in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5510. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15671
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; Finland; growth models; advance growth; release cut
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Mixed linear models were constructed to describe the height development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) advance growth after release cutting. The models related density of the overstory, time elapsed since release cutting and tree size with annual height increment. Parameters of preliminary models were estimated from a limited data set to judge the feasibility of the approach for further studies.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Koistinen, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
  • Valkonen, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown
article id 5494, category Article
Jari Nieppola. (1993). Site classification in Pinus sylvestris L. forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5494. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15655
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; forest soils; Southern Finland; forest types; site classification; TWINSPAN
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

It was examined whether the present site classification method, and especially its applicability to site productivity estimation, could be improved in upland Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland by developing a classification key based on Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN), and/or by inclusion of soil texture, stoniness and the humus layer depth more closely in the classification method. TWINSPAN clusters (TW) explained 71%, and forest site types (FST) 64% of the variation in site index (SI) (H100). When soil texture (TEXT) was added to the regression model, the explanatory power increased to 82% (SI = TW + TW * TEXT) and to 80% (SI = FST + FST * TEXT), respectively. Soil texture alone explained 69% of the variation in site index. The influence of stoniness on site index was significant (P <0.05) on sorted medium sand soils and on medium and fine sand moraine soils. The thickness of the humus layer (2–6 cm) was not significantly (P=0.1) related to site index.

It is suggested that the proposed TWINSPAN classification cannot replace the present forest site type system in Scots pine stands in Southern Finland. However, the TWINSPAN key may be used to aid the identification of forest types. The observation of dominant soil texture within each forest type is recommended.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nieppola, E-mail: jn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5489, category Article
Markku Penttinen, Matti Kinnunen. (1992). Profitability of forestry in jointly-owned forests of Northeastern Finland and Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5489. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15650
Keywords: forest management; forestry; northern Finland; profitability; co-ownership; jointly owned forest holdings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The profitability of jointly owned forest holdings in the two northernmost forest board districts of Finland was studied by means of ratio analysis. A time series of profit and loss statements and balance sheets from 33 holdings covering the fiscal years ending 1981–1990 served as the database. The studied area was 348,038 ha, the allowable cut 304,300 m3 per year and the average turnover, deflated by the wholesale price index, FIM 57.6 million per year. The key result obtained was that the average annual profit was FIM 107 per hectare and FIM 110 per m3. The time series showed that the ratios had increased significantly over the calculation period.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Penttinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kinnunen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5485, category Article
Pekka Ripatti. (1992). Yksityistilojen metsäalan muutokset Kaakkois-Suomessa 1986-1991. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5485. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15646
English title: Forest area changes of non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991.
Original keywords: yksityismetsät; yksityismetsätalous; Kaakkois-Suomi; tilakoko
English keywords: Finland; private forestry; farm size; forest holdings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to describe the total change of forest area in non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991. The average gross decrease of forest area was 1.7 hectares, whereas the average gross increase was 1.2 hectares. Consequently, the average size of holdings decreased from 32.5 to 32.0 hectares. The most important factors affecting the changes of forest area were the inheritance system, resulting in a decrease of 0.7 ha, and reclassification of forestry land, producing an increase of 0.4 ha per holding. The increase of small, under 10 ha holdings accounted for much of the structural change.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Ripatti, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5480, category Article
Erkki Verkasalo. (1992). Forest industry as a producer and consumer of wood-based energy in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5480. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15641
Keywords: Finland; fuelwood; fuels; forest products industries; wood residues; black liquor; calorific value
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This article summarises the importance of forest industry in the acquisition and consumption of wood-based energy in Finland. Opportunities to increase the efficiency of energy utilization further are discussed, as well.

The forest industry uses 25% of the total energy and 40% of the total electricity. It also generates considerable amounts of heat and electric power as by-products of wood-processing. Wood in different forms accounts for 64% of the fuels of the forest industry. Consequently, the need for outside, imported energy is minute. Black liquor of pulping is dominant as a source of wood-based energy. In addition, plenty of wood residues (bark, saw dust, planer shavings, grinder dust, screening reject of chips) and minor amounts of for wood processing unsuitable fractions obtained in conjunction with harvesting small-sized whole-trees, tree selections and logging residues are used for energy production.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Verkasalo, E-mail: ev@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5451, category Article
Maija Salemaa, Eeva-Liisa Jukola-Sulonen, Martti Lindgren. (1991). Forest condition in Finland, 1986-1990. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 5451. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15605
Keywords: needle age; Finland; defoliation; discolouration; cones; needle cast; air pollution; leaves
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The results of the Finnish forest condition survey carried out during 1986–90 in background areas are presented. The same 3,388 forest trees (1,897 Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.), 1,289 Norway spruces (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. And 202 broadleaves) on 450 mineral soil sample plots were examined annually. Growth characteristics (defoliation, the number of needle age classes, branch damage and needle discolouration), fertility and abiotic and biotic damage express the general vitality of the trees and are not specific for air pollutants. A correlative approach was applied in analysing the factors which may explain the regional pattern and changes in defoliation.

Average tree-specific degree of defoliation was 9% in pine, 21% in spruce and 12% in broadleaves in 1990. Altogether 11% of the pines, 42% of the spruces and 16% of the broadleaves have lost over 20% of their needles or leaves. Defoliation in spruce was the same as in the previous year, but in pine and broadleaves it had slightly decreased. Defoliation had increased by 5 %-units in pine, 16 %-units in spruce and 7 %-units in broadleaves during the whole study period 1986–90.

High stand age and different weather and climatic factors greatly affected forest defoliation in background areas in Finland. Pine cancer (Ascocalyx abietina) has enhanced defoliation in pine in the western part of the country. Air pollutants have evidently contributed to the increase of defoliation in the most polluted parts of Southern Finland. In pine a significant positive correlation was found between modelled sulphur deposition and the average stand-specific degree of defoliation as well as with the increase in average 5-year defoliation in Southern Finland. It is suspected that green algae growing on needles of spruce in Southern Finland indicates elevated nitrogen deposition levels.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Salemaa, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown (email)
  • Jukola-Sulonen, E-mail: ej@mm.unknown
  • Lindgren, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown
article id 5431, category Article
Juha Siitonen. (1990). Potential forest pest beetles conveyed to Finland on timber imported from the Soviet Union. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5431. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15585
Keywords: Finland; forest pests; timber trade; Scolytidae; Soviet Union; pest introduction; timber import
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Coniferous timber imported by rail from the Soviet Union in Finland was studied for the presence of potential forest and timber pest beetles. Systematic samples of fourteen lots of pine pulpwood were examined. Seven of the lots originated from the European parts of the Soviet Union and seven from Siberia. 23 species of Scolytidae and about 18 other phloeophagous species were found including three species new for Finland: Phaenops guttulata (Buprestidae), Ips subelongatus and Orthotomicus erosus (Scolytidae).

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Siitonen, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5429, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski, Veikko Möttönen. (1990). Maan vesitalous ja ilmatila metsäaurausalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5429. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15583
English title: Soil water conditions and air-filled porosity on ploughed reforestation areas.
Original keywords: maanmuokkaus; turvemaat; maavesi; maaveden potentiaali; huokostilavuus; pohjavedenpinta; vesipotentiaali; metsäauraus; kivennäismaat
English keywords: site preparation; Finland; peatlands; soil moisture; ground water table; water potential; soil aeration; forest ploughing; mineral soil sites
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Five ploughed research areas from Finnish Norther Karelia were selected for comparison studies of plough ridges and untouched soil. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm in sample plots on both mineral and paludified mineral soil and peatland parts of these areas. In summer 1987 daily soil water matric potential was measured using tensiometers, and volumetric soil moisture content and density were determined from soil samples at two dates during the summer. Water characteristics of the core samples were also determined. On paludified mineral and peat soils the water table depth from the soil surface was measured.

The results indicated that in plough ridges matric potential was lowest. Plough ridges were also seen to dry and wet faster and to a greater degree than untouched soils. In untouched soils, soil water relations and aeration were not affected by the distance to the furrow. The effect of the plough ridge was smallest on peatland, where there was a good capillary connection from plough ridge to the ground water, if the ditches were not very effective. The soil in the ridges did not dry too much to restrict seedling growth. The untouched surface soil in poorly drained peat and paludified minear soil was, at least in a rainy growing season, often and also for long times so wet that 10% minimum air space required for good seedling root growth was not available.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Möttönen, E-mail: vm@mm.unknown
article id 5423, category Article
Eliisa Särkilahti, Terho Valanne. (1990). Induced polyploidy in Betula. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5423. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15577
Keywords: Betula; Finland; breeding; colchicine; polyploidy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seeds of ten different Betula species were treated with colchicine solution during germination, to induce duplication of the chromosome set. The species included in the study were B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. papyrifera subcordata, B. papyrifera papyrifera, B. papyrifera occidentalis, B. populifolia, B. alleghaniensis, B.n igra, B. glandulosa and B. nana. The total number of individually labelled, colchicine-treated trees was 1,550. Colchicine treatment induced changes in morphological features, especially in the leaves. These features proved to be good indicators of polyploidization. The experiments produced 687 polyploid trees, 287 of which are still alive. The polyploid Betula trees offer possibilities of studying the significance of the genome dosage for the growth, breeding, adaptability and evolution of Betula.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Särkilahti, E-mail: es@mm.unknown (email)
  • Valanne, E-mail: tv@mm.unknown
article id 5422, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1990). Suomen pyöreän puun vienti 1921-1986. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5422. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15576
English title: Finnish exports of roundwood in 1921–1986.
Original keywords: puutavara; vienti; Suomi; markkinointi; raakapuun vienti; 1900-luku; vientipolitiikka
English keywords: Finland; roundwood; export; marketing; export policy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

When Finland attained independence in 1917–1918, about 65% of her population made their linving from agriculture and only 17% from industry. Despite the fact that most sectors of the modern forest industry, i.e. sawmilling, pulp and paper making as well as plywood industry were then in existence a considerable proportion of timber was exported as roundwood.

It was reasonable to assume, however, that further economic development would reduce the roundwood exports to provide raw material for industry. The present paper investigates the Finnish roundwood exports in 1921–1986 largely from the point of view of this hypothesis. Examination of statistics is focused on the change of volume of exports in the major categories of wood, changes in the trade policies of consumer countries, changes in competition between exporting countries and changes in Finnish export policy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5413, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1990). Metsän uudistuminen Kivalon vanhoilla kaistalehakkuualoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5413. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15565
English title: Forest regeneration of old strip cutting areas in Kivalo.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsänhoito; luontainen uudistaminen; Lappi; kaistalehakkuu
English keywords: Picea abies; natural regeneration; northern Finland; strip cutting; spruce stands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The results of regenerating 54 and 36–38-year old strip cuttings were surveyed in the Kivalo Research Forest (N 66°20’, E 26°40’). 15 measurement plots were placed on each strip. The most common forest type was Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type. Regeneration of the strips proved to be slow. Most of the spruces growing on the strips probably originated from the time before the cutting. The average number of stems was 1,155 per ha, of which one third consisted of broadleaved trees. The average volume increment of stem wood after cutting had been about 1 m3/ha/yr, but it was increasing at the time of the inventory. Both the reforestation of the strips and the development of the emergent stands were dependent on elevation and site fertility. Site fertility was indicated by the abundance of Vaccinium myrtillus.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5407, category Article
Eero Kubin. (1990). Lumi-, routa- ja lämpöolot eri tavoin muokatussa metsämaassa Kuusamossa. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5407. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15559
English title: The effect of site preparation on snow, soil frost and temperature conditions at a site near Kuusamo.
Original keywords: maanmuokkaus; routa; maan lämpötila; Kuusamo
English keywords: soil frost; site preparation; northern Finland; soil temperature
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The winter 1986–87 was unusually cold; the snow cover remained thin and consequently the soil froze to a considerable depth. In spite of the severe frost, the lowest temperatures measured at the ground surface was -10.3°C and in the soil at the depth of 10 cm -5.8°C. The temperature sum of the following summer was unusually small and the soil frost melted more slowly than usual. The winter frosts did not have a decisive influence on the survival of planted seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kubin, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5389, category Article
Jyrki Tomminen, Matti Nuorteva, Markku Pulkkinen, Jouni Väkevä. (1989). Occurrence of the nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus Mamiya & Enda 1979 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5389. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15547
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; Finland; wood; Bursaphelenchua xylophilus; Bursaphelenchus mucronatus; nematodes; Monochamus galloprovincialis; Monochamus sutor
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A survey was conducted in Finland in 1988 to determine whether the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus Mamiya & Enda 1979 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) or the closely related species B. mucronatus would occur in Finnish forests. Dead or dying standing trees and timber of two conicer species, Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. (Norway spruce) were analysed for the presence of these nematodes. Monochamus spp. pine sawyers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) were also collected and inspected for the presence of dispersal fourth juvenile stages (dauerlarva) of the nematodes. The species B. xylophilus was not found, but B. mucronatus appeared to be widespread in the country. Individuals of this nematode were found both from Scots pine and Norway spruce. Adults of two Monochamus species were found, M. galloprovincialis and M. sutor. Only two of the examined beetles of the former species had dauerlarvae in their body.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tomminen, E-mail: jt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown
  • Pulkkinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown
  • Väkevä, E-mail: jv@mm.unknown
article id 5368, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1989). Invertebrates of young Scots pine stands near the industrial town of Harjavalta, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5368. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15527
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Finland; Harjavalta; mites; air pollution; invertebrates; aphids; Arthropoda
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Invertebrates of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands were preliminarily studied along a gradient of industrial air pollutants in Harjavalta, south-western Finland. Bark samples and net samples on pine branches and needles were taken in May–June, 1987. The number of aphids on needles was highest near the industrial plants. The number of mites in bark was positively correlated with the increasing distance from the pollutant source. Detrended correspondence analysis ordination calculated according to the bark invertebrates showed that the sampling sites of the zones far from the emission source formed a distinct group while those of the zones near the source were relatively widely dispersed indicating disturbances in faunal structure.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5367, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1989). Quantitative variation in the elemental composition of Scots pine needles along a pollutant gradient. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5367. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15526
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Finland; nutrients; Harjavalta; air pollution; heavy metals; herbivores
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Quantitative variation in the elemental composition of living Scots pine needles was studied along an atmospheric pollutant gradient in the surroundings of the industrial town Harjavalta, south-western Finland. Two 9-km-long transects, each with nine sample plots, running to the S and SW from factory complex were delimited in a homogenous Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest. Needle samples were taken from 10 trees at each site, and from two separate sites in Tuusula near Helsinki. There was considerable spatial variation in the elemental composition of the needles. Heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn) showed a clear pattern of exponentially decreasing concentration with increasing distance from the emission source. Sodium and potassium concentrations, as well as the ash weight and air-dry weight, also decreased. Magnesium, manganese and calcium concentrations increased with increasing distance.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5365, category Article
Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Metsänuudistamistutkimuksen arvioinnin seminaari 28.4.1988. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5365. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15522
English title: Presentation report of evaluation group on forest regeneration research in Finland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänuudistaminen; Suomen Akatemia; arviointi
English keywords: evaluation; forest research; forest regeneration research; Academy of Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Academy of Finland commissioned a review of forest regeneration research. This paper summarises the evaluation. The report deals with the individual research projects and, in addition, the international evaluation group gives several recommendations to develop the forest regeneration research further. The recommendations concern education and training, publications, peer review, experimental design, routine work and extension service, and technology transfer. The paper also includes comments of the Finnish Forest Institute, the Finnish Society of Forest Science and a research scientist on the results of the evaluation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puttonen, E-mail:
article id 5364, category Article
Urban Bergsten. (1988). Invigoration and IDS-sedimentation of Pinus sylvestris seeds from northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5364. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15521
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; germination; Scots pine; northern Finland; seed quality; elimination of non-productive seeds; invigoration of seeds
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Northern Finland as well as in Northern Sweden there is a shortage of high-quality Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds, mostly due to unsuitable temperatures during the development and maturation of cones and seeds. Methods have been developed for elimination of non-productive seeds and for invigoration of seeds. In the present work, these methods were tested on poorly developed seed lot from Rovaniemi, Northern Finland (66°15’–66°30’; 180 m a.s.l.). The seeds were conditioned using the following treatments:

1. PREVAC method (5 min, 97 kPa below atmospheric pressures) for removal of mechanically damaged seeds (7%)

2. Invigoration using incubation at controlled moisture content (30% f.w) and continuous air supply, for 14 days at 5°C.

3. Additional water supply for 16 hours at 5°C.

4. Drying in dehumidified air until a near maximum difference in density between viable and dead seeds was obtained

5. Separation in a sedimentation flume to achieve a gradient of fractions of different germination rate and capacity.

The treatments resulted in an improvement of germination percentage from 33 to about 95% and a reduction in mean germination time from 8.8 days to 6 days if the control and the best fractions (32% seeds) were compared.

  • Bergsten, E-mail: ub@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5361, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1988). Interactions among herbivores in three polluted pine stands. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5361. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15518
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Finland; Harjavalta; air pollution; insect pests; herbivores
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Succession of insect attacks on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied in heavily, moderately and slightly polluted pine stands within a three-kilometre distance from a prominent emission source in Western Finland. The total number of pest species was highest in the moderately polluted stand, but unlike other herbivores, aphids were also abundant in the heavily polluted stands. A few positive but no negative interactions were detected between herbivores, which suggests that insect species may benefit from a previous occurrence of other species in the same tree.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5359, category Article
Olli Haltia, Markku Simula. (1988). Linkages of forestry and forest industry in the Finnish economy. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5359. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15516
Keywords: forestry; Finland; employment; national economy; forest industries; input-output analysis; sectoral growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose was to analyse the importance of forestry and forest industry in the Finnish economic development since the 1950’s, and to find out how the sector has contributed to the growth of the national economy through other sectors. Data were derived from the input-output tables of 1959, 1970 and 1980. Information provided by Hirschmanian linkages was expanded by taking into account e.g. induced, consumption, final demand and absorption linkages. The linkages of forestry and forest industry had multiplied during the study period. Both final demand linkages and intermediate product linkages were significant. The sector’s contribution to the development of metal and machinery and equipment industries as well as that of energy/water supply was significant. Integration with most other sectors has increased. Indirect production coefficients of forestry and forest industry were larger than on average in manufacturing. Because of labour productivity growth, production and employment coefficients were different.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Haltia, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Simula, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown
article id 5345, category Article
Leo Koutaniemi, Raimo Koponen, Kyösti Rajanen. (1988). Podzolization as studied from terraces of various ages in two river valleys, Northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5345. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15502
Keywords: boreal forest; Finland; Lapland; nutrient concentration; podzol; podzolization; taiga
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study was made in the Ivalojoki and Oulankajoki valleys, consisting of terraces of well sorted sandy material aged 9500–300 B.P. The vegetation is characterized by dry and moderately dry forest types with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as the dominant tree species. The study included: forest types, particle size and sorting of mineral horizons, thickness of horizons, amount of organic material, pH, electrical conductivity, and NH4OAc (pH 4.56) extractable Fe, Al, P, K, Mg, Mn and Zn concentrations. The principal aim was to study the interrelationships between all these properties with special reference to the age of the soil.

The results allowed a distinction to be made between the following categories: (1) features typical of podsolization (e.g. increase in leaching of Fe and Al with age of soil from the A2), (2) certain factors showing higher values in the north (Ivalo) than in the south (Oulanka), principally Fe and Mg, (3) declining trends in P, Mg, Mn and Zn concentrations with age, which may partly be due to the geological history, and (4) declining trends in amount of organic material and electrical conductivity with age, these both being factors arising from the geological history rather than from podzolization.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koutaniemi, E-mail: lk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Koponen, E-mail: rk@mm.unknown
  • Rajanen, E-mail: kr@mm.unknown
article id 5312, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Siementuotannon vaikutus kuusen ja männyn vuotuiseen kasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15469
English title: Effect of seed production on the annual growth of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; Lappi; siemensato; sädekasvu; kesäpuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; Finland; latewood; Lapland; radial growth; seed crop
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study material consisted of 13 rather old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 17 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands located in different parts of Finland. In each stand the seed crops, radial growth and amount of latewood were measured during a period of about ten years. Seed production reduces the radial growth of spruce and pine in the year of seed maturing. In Southern and Central Finland also the proportion of latewood is reduced. Seed production accounts for about 14% of the variation in radial growth of a spruce stand growing in Lapland, and 27% in other parts of Finland. In pine stands the seed crop explains 19% of the variation in radial growth in Lapland, and only 7% in the rest of Finland. In spruce stands an average seed crop reduces radial growth by 14% in Lapland and 5% in the rest of the country. An abundant seed production causes a reduction of about 20%. In southern parts of Finland, the proportion of latewood is reduced by 5% in an average seed year and by 24% in a good seed year. In pine stands an average seed crop decreases the width of annual ring by 5%, and a good seed crop by 15%. Outside Lapland, also the proportion of latewood is reduced: in an average seed year by 5%, and in a good seed year by 16%. The reduction in volume growth of spruce stands due to an average seed crop was estimated to be about 10% in Lapland, and 6% in other parts of Finland. A prolific seed production causes a reduction of 20%. In old pine stands the reduction is 5% in an average seed year, and 15% in a good seed year.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5311, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Kuusen ja männyn siemensadon ennustemalli. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5311. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15468
English title: Model for predicting the seed crop of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; Lappi; siemensato; lämpötila; kukinnan aloitus; ennustemalli
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; natural regeneration; Scots pine; Finland; Lapland; predictive modelling; seed crop; flowering initiation; influence of temperature
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The seed crop of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is predicted with the help of mean monthly temperatures during May–August one and two years before the flowering year. The prediction models were made separately for Lapland and for the rest of Finland. The models are based on 10-year periods of seed crop measurements and climatic data. The total number of time series was 59.

In Lapland, Norway spruce flowered abundantly and produced an abundant seed crop after warm July–August and two years after cool July–August. In other parts of Finland, warm June and July produced a good flowering year, especially if these months were cool two years before the flowering year.

In Lapland, Scots pine flowered abundantly if the whole previous growing season was warm. Elsewhere in Finland, a cool June preceded prolific flowering in the coming year if the rest of the growing season was considerably warmer than the average.

The prediction models explained 37–49 % of the variation in the size of the seed crop. The occurrence of good and poor seed years was usually predicted correctly. Using the presented models, the prediction of the seed crop is obtainable 1.5 year for Norway spruce and 2.5 year for Scots pine before the year of seed fall.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5286, category Article
Matti Keltikangas. (1986). Quantification problems in the design of forest policy programs. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5286. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27742
Keywords: forest policy; Finland; forest policy design; quantification of means; planning process; Forest 2000
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Some of the quantification problems which face the designer of a forest policy program are discussed. Experiences drawn from the preparation of the Forest 2000 program in Finland are used as examples. Both the defining of goals and the choice of means are surveyed and their interconnection in the planning process emphasized.

  • Keltikangas, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5285, category Article
Aino-Marjatta Metz. (1986). Influence of forest owners as an interest group in achieving the forest policy goals in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5285. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27741
Keywords: forest policy; forestry; Finland; forest owners; neocorporatism; forestry program
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The importance of forestry and forest industries to the Finnish economy led, at a very early stage, to a close cooperation between the interest organizations concerned and the government which founded the economic advisory council. The development of the social system in Finland since the 50’s can be described with the help of the neocorporatist theory. This can also apply in part to the forest and forest industry policy. According to Olson’s group theory the representation of interests of the forest owners as a free association was forced to use various incitements to win new members or to maintain old ones. This led to tension with the forest industry which had developed its own activities to approach forest owners. Following the economic crisis, the wish was expressed for an official forestry policy programme. In response to indirect requests to the state, a project committee was formed by the economic advisory council in order to work towards a long-term plan to solve the problems and to carry out the objectives of the forestry and the forest industries. In formulating phase of the policy, the marked neocorporatist consensus between the associations and the state became evident. Certain controversial questions were, however, postponed and thereby remained unresolved. The interest organization of forest owners held an important position throughout all the phases of program design up to their realization.

  • Metz, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5271, category Article
Kimmo Kiljunen. (1986). Growth of third world forest industry: possible impact on Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5271. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15450
Keywords: Finland; forest industry; developing countries; forest resources; international division of labour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Use of tropical forest resources is analysed as part of the world forest resources and global development of forest industry. Finland’s role in the international division of labour of forest industry is investigated. Factors of competitiveness are analysed in order to differentiate specific adjustment constraints in Finland due to competition from developing countries.

It is concluded that in the long run there are two major factors which are restricting the growth of Finnish forest industry. First, tightened resources constraints, and second, competitive shifts in external markets due to new sources of production. Finland has already reached its wood-producing limits of sustained yield. Technological advances in the use of short-fibre raw materials for pulp and paper making, as well as in making programmes for establishing fast-growing plantations, have facilitated the utilization of tropical forest areas. In the short term, however, the competitive threat from LDC wood-processing industry is primarily directed to home markets rather than to exports.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kiljunen, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5260, category Article
The Forest 2000 Programme sub-commitee. (1986). The Forest 2000 Programme in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5260. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15439
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; Finland; timber production; forest industries; annual cut; forestry development; cutting target
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Forest 2000 Programme is a long-term programme for forestry and the forest industries in Finland. It attempts to obtain a better integration of timber production and other forms of forest use. The total annual cut is to be increased by 15 million m3 by the year 2010. This is almost one third greater than the level during the first few years of the 1980’s. In order to achieve the cutting targets, the cut area will have to be increased by almost one third by the turn of the century. The area of thinnings will experience the greatest increase. Considerable changes are proposed in silvicultural and basic improvement work. According to the programme, the growth of the raw-material base and the consumption of the wood-based products will permit an annual increase of about 3% in the production of the forest industries as a whole until the end of the century. This would be the same as the target growth rate of the GNP.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • The Forest 2000 Programme sub-commitee, E-mail:
article id 5252, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1985). On repeated browsing of Scots pine saplings by moose (Alces alces). Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5252. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15431
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Finland; Alces alces; moose; seedling damages; browsing damage; elks
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The size, nutrient contents and terpene composition of needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings untouched and repeatedly browsed by the moose (Alces alces L.) were compared. Material was collected from a 14-years old and 2.5 m high pine stand in Bromarv, Southern Finland. The average length and fresh and dry weight of the needles were measured, and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu) was determined.

The needles of repeatedly browsed pines became long and robust. There was, however, no difference between the dry matter percentage between the needles. The average nitrogen content was higher in the rebrowsed trees. Nitrogen content is, however, not directly correlated with the palatability of pine needles. Even phosphorus and boron content were higher in the damaged trees. No difference was found in Ca, K, Mg and Cu contents of the browsed and control pine saplings.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5237, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine. (1985). Duration of the height growth response of young pine stands to NPK-fertilization on oligotrophic pine bogs in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5237. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15416
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; drained peatlands; Scots pine; Finland; climate; growth; degree days
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This is the latest report in a series of publications from an on-going investigation which is concerned with the influence of different fertilization treatments and ditch spacings on the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and transplants growing on nutrient drained poor bogs in different parts of Finland. This paper concentrates on duration of the growth response to NPK-fertilization on the experimental plots. The experiment was established and the treatments performed in 1965–66.

The results show that climate, expressed as effective temperature sum (dd°C, threshold +5°C) has a clear influence on the duration of the fertilization effect. In Southern Finland (>1,200 dd°C), the duration was at least 15 years. In Central Finland (1,200–1,000 dd°C), it appears to be almost 10 years, and in Northern Finland (<1,000 dd°C), slightly shorter. The amount of fertilizer applied clearly influenced the duration of the fertilization effect. The dosage of 500 kg/ha (N 14, P 7.8, K 8.3 per cent) had, on average, a shorter duration than the greater dosages of 1,000 and 1,500 kg/ha. However, there was no clear difference between the latter two dosages.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laine, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5229, category Article
Maija-Liisa Juntunen, Jan Engsås, Lennart Gustafsson, Pekka Mäkinen, Frans Theilby, Tore Vik. (1985). Supervisors in the forestry of the Nordic countries. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5229. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15408
Keywords: forestry; Nordic countries; Finland; Norway; Sweden; Denmark; forest education; wages; supervisors; foremen; pay system
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The goal of this research was to study the position of forest supervisors, their education, number, pay system, professional organizations and work situations in Nordic countries. The study belonged to a joint Nordic project of the Nordic Research Council on Forest Operations. Participating in the actual work the number of forest supervisors were Denmark (year 1978) 715, Finland (1980) 8,000, Norway (1967) 1,055, and Sweden (1975) 6,400. In Denmark, 87% of the supervisors worked in forestry, in Finland 91%, in Norway 98% and in Sweden 86%.

Forest supervisor education started at the end of the last century. In the 1950s and 1960s the forest supervisors’ education has been renewed in all four countries. Supervisors have a special 1 to 4.5 years’ training, but many have a forest technician’s education, too. In Finland and Sweden forest supervisor education was reformed at the end of the 1970s. Supervisors work in functional as well as in regional organizations. In Nordic countries, supervisors are paid monthly salaries. Salaries are a little higher in private than in public sector companies. In 1981 the start salary in Finland was 3,107 FIM and in Sweden in 1980 about 4,425 FIM. Most supervisors in the Nordic countries belong to some union.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Juntunen, E-mail: mj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Engsås, E-mail: je@mm.unknown
  • Gustafsson, E-mail: lg@mm.unknown
  • Mäkinen, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown
  • Theilby, E-mail: ft@mm.unknown
  • Vik, E-mail: tv@mm.unknown
article id 5224, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Suomen metsäntutkimuksen kehittämisohjelma. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5224. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15403
English title: Development programme for forestry research in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; metsätalous; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; Suomi
English keywords: forestry; Finland; forest research; forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) has drawn up this development programme primarily for the authorities and decision-makers. Forestry research has been divided into three areas: A) Biological forestry research, B) Research into the management and utilization of forests, and C) Research into forest economics and forest policy. Key research tasks are presented under the above-mentioned headings. The programme also deals with the organization of research, post-graduate education, library and information services, publishing policy and international co-operation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 5223, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Metsäntutkimus metsätalouden tietopohjana. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5223. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15402
English title: The role of forestry research in providing a scientific basis for practical forestry.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; metsätalous; Suomi
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; forest research; forest sciences
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged on 26th April 1984 a Forestry Science Day centred on the theme ”The role of Forestry Research in Providing a Scientific Basis for Practical Forestry”. Specialists in forestry and forest policy reviewed the role, present situation and future tasks of forest research from different points of view, in their papers. This article includes the talks given in the event in Finnish and an English summary.

  • Mälkönen, E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 5222, category Article
Matti Leikola, Aune Koponen. (1984). Metsätalouden harjoittaminen ja metsien hoito. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5222. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15401
English title: Forestry in Finland. Studia Forestalia 1983.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; luentosarja
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; forest research; course of lectures
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

1983 was the so-called ”Year o the Forest” in Finland. To mark the occasion, the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged a series of Studia Forestalia lectures which covered, in general form, a wide range of subjects. 12 of the 14 lectures given in this series are included in this edition.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail:
  • Koponen, E-mail:
article id 5220, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1984). Harsintametsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5220. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15399
English title: Selection system in timber harvesting in Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsänhoito; harsinta; eri-ikäiskasvatus; eri-ikäisrakenteinen metsä; tasaikäiskasvatus; tasa-ikäinen metsä
English keywords: forest management; Norway spruce; Picea abies; yield; Finland; selection system; even-aged stands; selection cuttings; uneven-aged stands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This article reviews experiments and practical experience of forest management by the selection system in Finland. In an experiment of 25-year duration the annual growth of uneven-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands was only about 50% of the average annual yield of even-aged stands in normal rotation on the same site.

In Finland the selection system is applicable under exceptional conditions only, viz. In intensively managed park stands and, on the other hand, on very marginal sites, e.g. on peat bogs and mountains near the tree-line. Even normal silviculture, however, may include cuttings which somewhat resemble selection system, e.g. removal of standards or restoration of mismanaged forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5217, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1984). Pohjoissuomalaisten metsäammattimiesten käsityksiä metsien ja soiden marjantuotoskyvystä. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5217. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15396
English title: Observations of forest specialists in Northern Finland on the berry yield capacity of forests and swamps.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; ojitus; metsätyypit; suotyypit; puolukka; luonnonmarjat; mustikka; marjasato; hilla; karpalo
English keywords: northern Finland; Vaccinium myrtillus; Vaccinium vitis-idaea; wild berries; berry yield; forest types; peatland types; berry crop; Rubus chamaemorus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A survey was carried out among forest foremen and forest technicians to record their observations on the value of various swamp and forest types as producers of berries and on the effect of drainage of peatlands upon the berry yields. Comparative agreement existed on the best blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) forest types and on the best lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) forest types of rather dry upland sites. Fuscum pine swamps or fuscum bogs were considered best for the most part as regards the yield of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.). The replies showed rather great dispersion.

Agreement existed as well on the relation between drainage of peatlands and the yields of our economically most important swamp berries, cloudberry and cranberry. 90% of those responding were of the opinion that drainage reduces the cloudberry yield in the long term and a full 97% indicated that cranberry crop diminishes as well.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepponen, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5205, category Article
Juha Suominen, Alfred Varkki. (1984). Lauhanvuoren kasvisto. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5205. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15384
English title: Vascular plant flora of Lauhavuori Hill, Western Finland.
Original keywords: kasvisto; putkilokasvit; kasvillisuusanalyysi; Lauhanvuori; Etelä-Pohjanmaa; tulokaskasvit; alkuperäiset kasvilajit
English keywords: native species; vascular plants; vegetation analysis; Western Finland; flora; Ostrobothnia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Lauhavuori area is barren, consisting of sandstone and granite bedrock covered by coarse moraine and sand. The woodlands are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Calluna. The top of the hill, rising 230 metres above the sea level, is more fertile, as it was never covered by the ancient Baltic Sea. Numerous springs and spring brooks are bordered by herb-rich Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) woodlands and swamps. Although most of the peatlands are oligotrophic, several mesotrophic peatland plants occur, some southern, giving the peatlands a rather northerly character.

The study area is 8 by 12 km. According to the vegetation analysis, 310 species were identified, 208 of which were native to the area and 102 immigrants. The native species can be separated from the immigrants because the area is largely undisturbed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suominen, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Varkki, E-mail: av@mm.unknown
article id 5201, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Distribution of vegetation on mesic forest sites in relation to some characteristics of the tree stand and soil fertility. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5201. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15184
Keywords: Finland; ground vegetation; indicator species; fertility; forest types; forest site classification; TWINSPAN; Oxalis-Myrtillus type; Myrtillus type; tree stand characteristics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Vegetation data collected from a random sample of mature forest stands representing mesic upland forest sites in Southern Finland were analysed and classified using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). The variation of some characteristics of the tree stand and soil fertility between the produced vegetation units were analysed statistically.

Both the species list and the sample list arranged by TWINSPAN reflects the overall site fertility considerably well. The results are in agreement with the main division of mesic forest sites in the Finnish forest site type classification: vegetation units which can be assigned to the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type are clearly separated from the remaining units, and the overall site fertility indicates a statistically significant difference. The within-type variation in the vegetation composition in the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type reflects the variation in site fertility, whereas the within-type variation in the Myrtillus site type is mainly caused by the tree stand factor.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5199, category Article
Pekka Saranpää. (1983). Puuaineen tiheyden ja vuosiluston leveyden vaikutus kuusen iskutaivutuslujuuteen Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5199. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15182
English title: The influence of basic density and growth ring width on the impact strength of Norway spruce wood from Southern and Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; alkuperä; lujuus; puuaineen tiheys; vuosiluston leveys; iskutaivutuslujuus
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; northern Finland; basic density; progeny; Southern Finland; growth ring width; impact strength
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Basic density and absorbed energy in impact bending were measured for 500 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples from Northern and Southern Finland. Statistical analysis showed that the relationship between impact strength and basic density was significant and regression analysis showed that it was linear.

Furthermore, with constant density, the impact strength was higher in Northern than in Southern Finland. This was due to growth ring width: i.e. when density was kept constant the impact strength increased with decreasing growth ring width. In addition, when the growth ring width was kept constant, the basic density of wood was higher in Southern Finland than in Northern Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saranpää, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5181, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Olle Dumell. (1983). Kuusipuun taivutuslujuuden riippuvuus tiheydestä ja vuosiluston leveydestä Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5181. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15097
English title: Effect of basic density and growth ring width on the bending strength of Norway spruce wood from southern and northern Finland.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; Pohjois-Suomi; kuusi; alkuperä; puuaines; puuaineen tiheys; vuosiluston leveys; taivutuslujuus
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; northern Finland; basic density; progeny; Southern Finland; growth rings; bending strength
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A population consisting of 450 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples was gathered from northern and southern Finnish wood. The static bending strength was affected greatly by the density of the wood. However, keeping the density constant, the bending strength was higher in northern than in southern Finnish wood. The reason was the effect of the growth ring width.

The basic density was affected by the growth rate. Keeping the growth ring width constant, the basic density was over 5 kg/m3 lower in northern than in southern Finnish wood. This result supports the earlier findings on the effect of latitude.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Dumell, E-mail: od@mm.unknown
article id 5173, category Article
Heikki Kurimo. (1983). Surface fluctuation in three virgin pine mires in eastern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5173. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15088
Keywords: peatlands; hydrology; eastern Finland; mires; groundwater table; surface fluctuations; pine mire
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Altitude fluctuation of mire surface proportional to that of the groundwater table is presented for three virgin pine mires in Eastern Finland during the growing season 1982. The average amplitude of the surface fluctuation was found to be dependent on the period representing a certain type of weather, being limited to a certain maximum. The average amplitude of the surface fluctuation ranged from 18 to 45 mm; each of the mires followed a fluctuation scale of its own.

The daily fluctuation rates were low, generally 0.5–1 mm. No sudden fluctuation peaks occurred. Regularities in the surface fluctuation were caused by the duration of the period representing continuous sinking or rise of the groundwater table, and magnitude of it. The daily rate of the surface fluctuation related to that of the groundwater table was smaller in the beginning of such period than at the end of the same period. The one-directional rise or sinking of the altitude of the mire surface according to the groundwater table fluctuation is responsible for the autocorrelation of the long-term regression data.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kurimo, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5172, category Article
Pekka Hynninen, Pentti Sepponen. (1983). Erään suoalueen ojituksen vaikutus purovesien laatuun Kiiminkijoen vesistöalueella, Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5172. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15087
English title: The effect of drainage on the quality of brook waters in the Kiiminkijoki River basin, Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; soiden ojitus; hydrologia; veden laatu; purot; joet; liukoiset ravinteet
English keywords: water quality; northern Finland; suspended solids; hydrology; draining of peatlands; brooks; rivers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present study deals with the effect of forest drainage on some quality factors of brook waters. Under study were several brooks in the basin of the Kiiminkijoki River as well as its main tributary, the Nuorittajoki River. These are located in Northern Finland and belong to the international water program Project Aqua.

The following values were determined for the water samples: pH, electric conductivity, colour, concentration of suspended solids., NO2, NO3, and NH4 nitrogen concentrations, dissolved and total phosphorus, and Ca, Mg, K and Fe concentrations. Water quality in the brooks was monitored prior to and after ditching. A statistically significant change was noted in colour, in the concentration of suspended solids, in the NH4 concentration and in some brooks also in the pH value and in the total phosphorus, K, and Fe concentrations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hynninen, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Sepponen, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown
article id 5163, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1982). Ojitusalueiden taimistojen kehityksestä vuosina 1964-68 toimeenpannun suometsäkilpailun koealojen valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5163. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15078
English title: Development of seedling stands on drained peatlands in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: metsitys; ojitusalueet; kasvu; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; taimikot
English keywords: afforestation; drained peatlands; Finland; growth; seedling stands; fertilizing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the paper was to describe the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedling stands on drained peatlands and to find out the principal factors influencing their growth. The material under survey consists of 180 sample plots distributed from southern coast of Finland to the Polar Circle.

The most important growth factors have been the accumulated temperature sum, site quality, drainage intensity and silvicultural condition, such as the density of the stand, the proportion of birch in the stand, and the amount of possible shelterwoods. The influence of these factors, and to some extent the influence of fertilizing, and the disturbing effects of some forest damages, such as frost, growth disturbances and elk damages were investigated. Comparisons of the development in the seedling stands on drained peatlands with the known development of seedling stands in mineral soils were made.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5158, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1982). Miten metsää tulisi tutkia. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5158. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15073
English title: How forests should be studied in the future. Seminar on the research policy of the Society of Forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; seminaarit
English keywords: Finland; forest research; forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science; seminar
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the seminar, arranged by the Finnish Society of Forest Science, was to instigate discussions which would bring up new approaches and research methods for studying forestry problems from both the biotechnical and socio-economical fields. Six papers were presented and over 70 opinions aired at the seminar.

The following points were considered especially important from the point of view of the promotion of forestry research

- Improving contacts between forestry and other branches of science and increasing international exchange of ideas and results.

- Improving the effectiveness of research work through sound planning

- Promotion and gaining benefit from diverse forms of research.

- Arranging the further education of researchers in order to improve the professional standards of researchers.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 5148, category Article
A. Hautojärvi, S. Ahonen, R. Erkinjuntti, H.-S. Katainen, T. Lappalainen, T. Raunemaa. (1981). Surface concentration of sulphur on Scots pine needles. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5148. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15375
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; Finland; coal; air pollution; measurement methods; environmental impact; sulphur; power plant; sulphate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method to determine sulphur as sulphate has been applied to search for surface concentration of sulphate sulphur on needle samples. The method is based on reducing sulphates as volatile hydrogen sulphide gas by using hydriodic acid. The hydrogen sulphide gas is swept with nitrogen into an absorbent solution. Sulphide ion concentration in solution is then measured using ion selective electrodes.

The method was applied on one to four years old needle samples collected from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at 0.9 to 15.9 km distances from a 1,064 MW coal-fired power plant in Southern Finland. Surface sulphate values found in the samples closer than 4 km to the power plant were 50 to 100% higher than a nearly constant background level. No significant variation of values with needle age was found. The advantages of the method compares to other methods for sulphur determination are speed, reasonable sensitivity and low detection limit.

  • Hautojärvi, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ahonen, E-mail: sa@mm.unknown
  • Erkinjuntti, E-mail: re@mm.unknown
  • Katainen, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown
  • Lappalainen, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown
  • Raunemaa, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 5145, category Article
Torleif Bramryd. (1981). Environmental effects of heavy metals distributed from power plants. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5145. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15372
Keywords: Finland; coal; mosses; air pollution; environmental impact; heavy metals; indicator plants; energy production; power plant; Scots pine needles; bioindicator
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Increased prices on oil have resulted in the search for alternative energy sources, e.g. coal, peat, biomass, different types of waste. Combustion especially of waste, coal and peat emits large quantities of air pollutants such as heavy metals but also harmful organic substances. Heavy metals are not easily separated from the smoke, and the concentrations are often high in the emissions even with advanced fly-ash separators.

Ecological investigations carried out around a coal burning power plant in Finland using mosses and pine needles as parameters are presented in the paper. Increased concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu and V have been found near the plant. Often a clear gradient was found with increased concentrations at decreased distance from the power plant.

  • Bramryd, E-mail: tb@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5121, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1981). Metsätöiden palkkauksen ja työolosuhteiden kehitys Suomessa ennen työehtosopimuskautta. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5121. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15062
English title: Development of the wages and work conditions in forest work in Finland prior to the age of agreements on the terms of working.
Original keywords: historia; uitto; metsätyö; palkkaus; työolot; asumisolot
English keywords: Finland; history; floating; forest work; wages; working conditions; lodging
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland the first trade union in the field of forest work and timber floating was founded in 1946 and the first formal collective agreement was achieved in 1962. Information about the development of wage payments and work conditions (lodging and food) in forest work prior to the formal agreements was dispersed in a number of different sources, and is already partially in danger of being forgotten. The aim of this study was to bring together all available information concerning the matter in question.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5119, category Article
Kari Puukko. (1981). Okakaarnakuoriaisen, Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) levinneisyyden nykyinen eteläraja Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5119. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15060
English title: The southern border of the present distribution of Ips acuminatus Gyll. In Finland.
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsätalous; levinneisyys; kaarnakuoriaiset; esiintymisalue; okakaarnakuoriainen
English keywords: bark beetles; forestry; Finland; distribution; Ips acuminatus; loggings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) is a bark beetle that causes deep bluing in thin-barked Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood. It has been shown that this decreases pulp yield. The purpose of this study was to map the southern border of the distribution of Ips acuminatus in Finland. It was found that there have been changes in the distribution of this species during the last three decades. Ips acuminatus has now disappeared from southern Finland. On the basis of the sample plots (134 cutting areas) the southern border of this pest lies on the line running through the towns Vaasa–Seinäjoki–Äänekoski–Jyväskylä–Pieksämäki–Savonlinna–Punkaharju. A certain degree of localisation was observed in the occurrence of I. acuminatus in its distribution area, for instance, differences in its occurrence frequency in cutting areas and even in log and cutting residue piles in the sample cutting area.

It is considered that the most important reasons for these changes in distribution are the increase in logging and changes in the location of cutting sites, and resulting competition for breeding material for the increased population of bark beetles. Furthermore, the long-distance transport of unpeeled logs from the north across the present southern borders may, in the future, contribute to local changes in the southern distribution of Ips acuminatus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puukko, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5093, category Article
Ismo Karhu, Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Väestön mielipiteet metsänhoidon vaikutuksesta maisemakuvaan Puolangan kunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5093. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15034
English title: Effects of silvicultural practises on the forest landscape. A study on attitudes among inhabitants of Puolanka, north-eastern Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; mielipidetutkimus; metsien virkistyskäyttö; metsämaisema; maiseman arvostus; Puolanka
English keywords: forest management; Finland; recreation; forest landscape; scenic values; attractiveness
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The landscape preferences and attitudes of inhabitants of Puolanka, north-eastern Finland, to the effects of silvicultural practice on the forest landscape were studied by a postal inquiry. The effect of silvicultural practice on the forest landscape was mainly negative. Birch (Betula sp.) stands and mixed coniferous and deciduous tree species were the most preferred by the Puolanka inhabitants. The landscape preferences were related to socio-economic background of the inhabitants. The quality of the living environment also influenced the preferences, since uncommon features in the living environment were favoured most.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Karhu, E-mail: ik@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5090, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Raili Voipio. (1980). Suomalainen haapa- ja poppelilajeja (Populus) koskeva kirjallisuus 1759...1979. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5090. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15031
English title: Finnish literature on aspen and poplar species (genus Populus), 1759–1979.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat; Suomi; poppeli; haapa
English keywords: Populus tremula; Finland; forest research; aspen; bibliography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The first Finnish paper on aspen (Populus tremula L.) was published in 1759 in Åbo (Turku). After this dissertation, numerous scientific and other articles and reports have been published. In this bibliography about 340 papers are listed. Most of the papers deal only with aspen or other species of the genus Populus. Besides these even those articles have been included which deal with other problems but contain some information on the features of poplars.

The titles are listed without any translation or classification. If an article has a summary, it is shown in the title.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Voipio, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5088, category Article
Reijo Solantie, Kari Ahti. (1980). Säätekijöiden vaikutus Etelä-Suomen lumituhoihin v. 1959. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5088. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15029
English title: The influence of weather on the snow damages for forests in Southern Finland in 1959.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; lumituhot; sääolosuhteet; sääilmiöt; huurre
English keywords: snow damage; rime; weather conditions; Southern Finland; orographic precipitation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Snow and rime, attached to branches of conifers, seriously damaged forests in a region of 11,000 km2 in Southern Finland during a passage of two nearly occluded cyclones in 1959. The roles of different weather elements were studied by considering the variations occurring in them over this region and its surroundings. Damage occurred only inside an accentuated pattern of copious orographic precipitation. Precipitation only became attached to and retained on branches in such parts of the area where temperature varied on both sides of freezing point but did not exceed 0.6°C. Furthermore, damage only occurred in forests where rime formed (above a certain level and on sloping towards the prevailing wind).

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ahti, E-mail: ka@mm.unknown
article id 5085, category Article
Kari Keipi. (1980). Business economics in forestry research in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5085. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15026
Keywords: Finland; economics; forest research; forest sciences; forest economics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper reviews the past research in the five major subfields of business economics of forestry. Although the twelve doctoral dissertations in the discipline distribute evenly among the subfields, timber production economics has gained the major weight during the past 10–20 years. The new forest products market development requires the focus be shifted from pulpwood to high quality sawn timber production. Maintaining the current market share requires effective measures to control the wood costs. The article proposes nine research projects relating to these market demands.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Keipi, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5077, category Article
Eero Paavilainen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1980). Toimenpiteet vanhoilla ojitusalueilla. Suomalais-neuvosliittolaisen symposion esitelmät. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5077. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15018
English title: Management of old forest drainage areas – papers presented in Finnish-Soviet symposium.
Original keywords: metsäojitus; Suomi; kokoukset; suometsätiede; soiden ojitus; Neuvostoliitto
English keywords: drained peatlands; Finland; peatlands; forest research; Soviet Union; USSR; symposium
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The forestry working group of the committee for scientific and technical cooperation between Finland and the Soviet Union initiated cooperation work between the two countries in the field of forestry almost ten years ago. The Finnish organizations the Department of Peatland Forestry, the Finnish Forestry Research Institute, and the Institute of Peatland Forestry of the University of Helsinki participated in the activity. From the Soviet Union the participants have been the Ministry of Forestry, the Russian Federation of USSR, and the Forestry Research Institutes of Leningrad and Estonia.

This paper includes the papers presented in the joint symposium arranged at the Forest Field Station of University of Helsinki on 17.9.1979. The 9 Russian lectures and the 8 Finnish ones, are presented either in their entirety or slightly condensed variably in Finnish, English or Russian. The summary of the seminar is presented in English and in Russian.

  • Paavilainen, E-mail:
  • Seppälä, E-mail:
article id 5076, category Article
Veikko Koski. (1980). Minimivaatimukset männyn siemenviljelyksille Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5076. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15017
English title: Minimum requirements for seed orchards of Scots pine in Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; siemenviljelmät; kloonit; siemenviljely; laatuvaatimukset
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Finland; seed orchards; clones; requirements
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In order to be recorded in the national list of untested seed orchards, set by law, a seed orchard must attain certain objectives. It is impossible to define universal requirements for all categories of seed orchards of all species. The present paper suggests minimum requirements for a clonal region seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris L in Finland. The clonal composition as well as factors influencing on the mating pattern have been given precise numerical threshold values. To be approved the seed orchard must fulfil all the requirements at the same time. The goal is to control the genetic superiority of the forest reproductive material obtained from registered untested seed orchards.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Koski, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5065, category Article
Juhani Niiranen. (1980). Methods used in cutting propagation of forest trees in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5065. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15006
Keywords: Norway spruce; Betula; Picea abies; Larix; Finland; lodgepole pine; Pinus contorta; rooting; cutting propagation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Cutting propagation of forest trees has recently been done in Finland mainly by the Foundation for Forest Tree Breeding. The aim has been to develop methods which could be used in forest nurseries for large scale production of rooted cuttings. Methods are being developed for tree species which seem to offer possibilities for economically profitable vegetative propagation. The most important tree species has been Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) RH. Karst.), and also larches (Larix sp.), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), birches (Betula sp.), alders (Alnus sp.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) are propagated. The sensitive rooting phase takes place in plastic greenhouses which have ventilation on the roof top, mist irrigation equipment and separate heating systems for the air and the ground. Methods used for cutting propagation of Norway spruce, lodgepole pine, larch species and broadleaved trees are described.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish

  • Niiranen, E-mail: jn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5061, category Article
Max Hagman. (1980). Experiences with Norway spruce provenances in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5061. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15002
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; tree breeding; Finland; Symposiums; provenience breeding
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ecological investigations have shown that Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) reached Western Finland about 1,500–1,000 years B.C. and did not reach Åland islands before around the year 0. The species spread into Finland from the east and north-east, having survived the glaciation somewhere in the central parts of the Asian continent. Geographical variation has provided foresters with provenances of better growth and higher economic yield. In Finland, provenances, for instance, from Austria, Eastern Germany, Romania, Southern Poland and Slovakia have been planted in experiments, mostly in various parts of Southern Finland. According to the results of the experiments, it seems that for the more northern parts of Finland and Sweden the best material was to be obtained from north-east Europe.

The Scandinavian countries decided in 1975 to make a common assessment of all the provenance experiments with Norway spruce. The synthesis confirms the earlier view that provenances from the most north-eastern parts of Central Europe are of the greatest value for Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hagman, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5058, category Article
Max Hagman. (1980). Suomalais-neuvostoliittolainen metsägenetiikan ja siemenhuollon symposiumi Punkaharjulla 17.–18.8.1978. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5058. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14999
English title: Reports of the Finnish-Soviet symposium on forest genetics and forest tree seed production, Punkaharju, Finland, August 17-18. 1978.
Original keywords: metsänjalostus; Suomi; kokoukset; siemenviljely; Neuvostoliitto; seminaarit; genetiikka
English keywords: Finland; seed orchards; forest tree breeding; Soviet Union; USSR; symposium; forest genetics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

As a part of the scientific and technical cooperation between Finland and the USSR a symposium and an excursion on forest genetics and seed production was organized in Finland in August 1978. The symposium paper presented at Punkaharju are published here in order to bring them available for a wider audience.

The 12 symposium reports deal with the following subjects: Practical application of forest genetic research (A.I. Novoselceva), geographical variability and provenance transfer (E.P. Prokazin, M. Hagman, I. Etverk), variation in wood density (P. Velling), variation of flowering and seed crops in seed orchards (Y.P. Efimov), and natural stands (V. Koski), vegetative propagation (J. Niiranen), seed size effects and early test problems (J. Mikola), quantitative analysis of genotypic and environmental effects (S.A. Petrov), hormonal induction of flowering (O. Luukkanen) and x-ray photography analysis of the ageing of seeds during storage (M. Ryynänen).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hagman, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5050, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1979). Suomen metsäntutkimuksen ulkomaiset yhteydet. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5050. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14907
English title: International contacts of Finnish forest research.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; kansainvälinen yhteistyö; tutkimusyhteistyö
English keywords: Finland; forest research; forest sciences; international cooperation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article describes various forms of international contacts in the Finnish forestry research and emphasizes the importance of this cooperation. The relatively small additional resources required to maintain contacts should be safeguarded. When considering the ways in which international contacts could be strengthened, coordination with the aims of the public and private sectors is needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5028, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). MAB 2-projekti metsäbiologisen tutkimustyön tulosten hyödyntäjänä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5028. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14884
English title: Benefits of MAB Project 2 by the research work on forest biology in Finland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsäekologia; maankäyttö; seminaari
English keywords: Finland; forest ecology; forest research; land uses; seminar; MAB
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

MAB Project 2 concentrates on the influences of man’s activities on forests with no special consideration to any particular research field. At the same time as the swift development of research methods has brought the natural sciences and forest biology very near to each other, the circle of users of research results in forest biology has widened to include area and city planners etc. In Finland, the main role of MAB Project 2 is to promote mutual exchange between the users and producers of research results in forest biology and to facilitate both national and international co-operation between all research workers and organizations interested in this field.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5027, category Article
Ossi Eskelinen. (1979). Pyynikin ulkoilualue. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5027. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14883
English title: The natural environmental welfare factors of forested outdoor recreation area Pyynikki.
Original keywords: seminaarit; maankäyttö; Pyynikki; ulkoilualueet
English keywords: Finland; recreation areas; land uses; seminar; MAB
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article examines the outdoor recreation area of Pyynikki in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland from the viewpoint of social sciences. It was demonstrated that sociological factors are connected with the physical environmental factors by the welfare factors.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme Project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Eskelinen, E-mail: oe@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5025, category Article
Eero Paavilainen. (1979). MAB 2 -projekti Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5025. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14879
English title: MAB 2 project in Finland.
Original keywords: seminaarit; maankäyttö; metsäekosysteemit
English keywords: Finland; forest ecosystems; land uses; seminar; MAB
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article examines the problems of interdisciplinary research and the Finnish participation in MAB Project 2, which concentrates on the influences of man’s activities on forests. From the Finnish point of view, the main research areas are the effects of forestry activities which affect large areas, multiple use of forests, forests and environmental pollution, and the effects of energy economy.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Paavilainen, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5013, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). Tutkimustoiminta Lapin metsien hoidon ja käytön suuntaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1A article id 5013. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14867
English title: The role of forestry in guiding forest policy and management in Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; historia; Lappi
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland; Lapland; history; forestry research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The part played by research work in guiding the management and utilization of Lapland’s forests is examined in this publication. The review has been written to mark the 70th anniversary of the Finnish Forestry Society (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science).

The climate in Lapland is very severe and, owing to the lack of experience abroad, forestry has been forced to follow the guidelines set by domestic research activity in Finland. Research work was very active in Lapland the 1910’s, 1920’s and 1950’s, and the main outlines for forestry utilisation were soon established. In the 1950’s, there was a strong trend prevailing to develop forestry, with the result that a change took place in favour of clear-cutting. The cool climate period in the 1960’s caused considerable damage to young plantations. In order to find means to rectifying the situation and to devise new guidelines for forest management, The Finnish Forest Research Institute established a number of research stations in Lapland.

Research activity has had a pronounced effect on the management and utilization of forests in Lapland. Present-day problems have been caused more by the international situation than by difficulties in the management of forests in Lapland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail:
article id 5011, category Article
Kullervo Etholén. (1978). Experimental growing of curly birch in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5011. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14865
Original keywords: Lappi; visakoivu; puunkasvatus
English keywords: Finland; cultivation; Lapland; Betula pendula var. carelica; curly birch
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to register the curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) plantations established in Lapland and to determine their location and present condition. The information was obtained by means of interviews and visual observations.

In Lapland, the growing of curly birch started in 1950’s and the early 1960’s. During this period, in the different supervisory areas of Lapland, the National Board of Forestry established curly birch stands totalling approximately 30 ha, including about 34,000 seedlings. The bulk of the plantations have been destroyed by animals. On the other hand, the curly birch experimental stands established by the Finnish Forest Research Institute have thrived. The private sector of Forest Management has been engaged in the production of seedlings on a large scale and, as a result of this, curly birch trees are frequently seen as ornamentals in Rovaniemi and in other localities in Lapland. When taken care of, curly birch thrives in Lapland and produces I-class curly wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Etholén, E-mail: ke@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5002, category Article
Antti Haapanen, Pertti Siitonen. (1978). Kulojen esiintyminen Ulvinsalon luonnonpuistossa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5002. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14856
English title: Forest fires in Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; metsäpalot; ekologia; Ulvinsalon luonnonpuisto; Kuhmo; palohistoria
English keywords: forest fires; Norway spruce; Scots pine; northern Finland; ecology; national park
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study is the first report of a larger project concerning fire ecology in the Finnish boreal forests. Modern forestry has never been practiced in the Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve (2,500 ha) in Northern Finland in the county of Kuhmo. Forest fires have been uncommon because of mosaic of mineral and peat soils. The forests are mostly Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) often as the oldest trees of a stand. Forest fires were dated by counting annual rings from cambium to the fire scar in pines. 73 stands covering 1,207 ha were surveyed, over 80% of which was on mineral soil.

50% of the area had burned at least once during the life time of the present pine trees. 48 different forest fires were found, the first being from the year 1712 and the latest from 1969. The average time elapsed between the fires was about 82±43 years, and range 18–219 years. It was assumed that the stands where no fire scars were found, had, however, regenerated after fires but no fires have occurred since after that. In latter part of the 19th century 21 forest fires were dated, in the other half centuries only 4–9. This may have been caused by the increased human activity in the late 1800’s. The fire rotation of the area is 280 years, and spruce is almost the only tree species, which can regenerate in the present situation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haapanen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
  • Siitonen, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown
article id 4996, category Article
Mikko Raatikainen. (1978). Puolukan sato, poiminta ja markkinointi Pihtiputaan kunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4996. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14850
English title: The berry yield, picking, and marketing of Vaccinium vitis-idaea in the commune of Pihtipudas, Central Finland.
Original keywords: puolukka; marjanpoiminta; puolukkasato; Pihtipudas; luonnonmarjat; luonnonmarjojen kauppa
English keywords: cowberry; Finland; Vaccinium vitis-idaea; lingonberry; berry yield; income; sale of berries
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A study on the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) was made in 1976. The berry yield was studied by picking along 17 lines, each 1,000 m long. The picking and use of lingonberry were studied by an inquiry addressed to the families engaged in such an occupation. The marketing of the lingonberry was investigated by interviewing purchasers, and by means of reports based on purchasing certificates of the purchacers. The total yield of lingonberry in Pihtipudas was 1.2 million kg or 18 kg per hectare of productive forest. Only 7% of the total yield of the berry was picked. 47% of the lingonberries picked were used by the families themselves, 48% were sold and 5% were used for other purposes. The families who sold lingonberries earned, on an average, 350 Fmk.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Raatikainen, E-mail: mr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4993, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1978). Yliopistollisten metsänhoidon harjoitustöiden siirtäminen Evolta Hyytiälään. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4993. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14847
English title: Transfer of the field courses in silviculture of the University of Helsinki, Finland, from Evo to Hyytiälä.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; Helsingin yliopisto; korkeakouluopetus; Evon metsäopisto; Hyytiälän metsäasema
English keywords: Finland; forest education; University of Helsinki; field courses; Evo Forest Institute; Forest Training Station Hyytiälä; university education
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article describes the series of events and the decisions which in the years 1908–1911 resulted in transfer of the field courses in silviculture of the University of Helsinki from the old training region of the Evo Forest Institute in Central Finland, where higher education in forestry had been given since 1860. The establishment of the new training region of Siikakangas and the building of the new Forest Training Station Hyytiälä in 1911–1912 are also described, as well as the arguments behind these decisions and the motives of the forestry faculty of the University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4984, category Article
Jyrki Raulo. (1978). Forestation chain for birch (Betula pendula Roth) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4984. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14838
Keywords: forest management; Betula pendula; regeneration; silver birch; Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

During the 1970’s an average of 4 million Betula pendula (Roth) seedlings have been planted annually in Finland. The activities connected with the planting of this tree species, the selection of forestation sites, site preparation, planting out the seedlings and follow-up work on the forestation sites are briefly reviewed in the article. The manuscript is based on the studies into the breeding, seedling production and planting techniques of B. pendula started by the Finnish Forest Research Institute already in 1960’s, as well as on practical observations made at the planting sites. A list of some of the Finnish studies concerning B. pendula which have been published in English and studies with a summary in English is included.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Raulo, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4983, category Article
Satu Huttunen. (1978). The effects of air pollution on provenances of Scots pine and Norway spruce in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4983. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14837
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Scots pine; provenance; northern Finland; mortality; seedlings; air pollution; Picea abes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The success of certain Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) provenances from Northern Finland was studied in a tree damage area occasioned by air pollution in the town of Oulu over the period of 1972-76. The pine strains from more northerly and easterly areas and the spruce strains from the immediate vicinity of the site itself were being observed to thrive best. The results point in a similar direction to those of other comparable experiments, except that the mortality rate amongst the saplings was exceptionally high and the proportion of healthy saplings in good condition was found to be unusually low. Structural properties suggestive of resistance to pollution were observable selectively in certain provenances, these including the xeromorphy of needles or thickness of the epidermis. The chief cause of mortality amongst the saplings was found to be the damage inflicted by pollution during the winter, while that arising in the summer months was relatively slight.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Huttunen, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4974, category Article
Markku Mäkelä. (1977). Teknisesti korjattavissa oleva hakkuutähde sekä kanto- ja juuripuu Kaakkois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4974. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14825
English title: The amounts of logging residues and stump and root wood technically harvestable in southeast Finland.
Original keywords: puunkorjuu; kannot; hakkuutähde; juuret; Kaakkois-Suomi
English keywords: stumps; timber harvesting; logging residue; roots; stemwood; southeast Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The amounts of harvestable logging residues and stump and root wood were examined in the area where 100,000 solid m3 of stemwood was cut in 1975. The cutting amounts of stemwood from work sites suitable for harvesting of logging residues was 35,000 m3, and suitable for harvesting of stump and root wood 38,000 m3. The increase in the yield of wood (without bark) from logging residues compared with the unbarked stemwood was 2.4%. The same percentage of wood from stump and root wood was 5.0–5.8% depending on the harvesting loss.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: mm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4969, category Article
Robert J. Rainio. (1977). Tammen levinneisyydestä läntisellä Uudellamaalla ja Turunmaan itäisimmissä osissa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4969. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14820
English title: On the distribution of oak (Quercus robur) in the southwest parts of Finland.
Original keywords: levinneisyys; metsätammi; Lounais-Suomi; Uusimaa
English keywords: Finland; distribution; Quercus robur; oak; southwest Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The maps concerning the natural distribution of oak (Quercus robur L.) have proved most unreliable in detailed examination. In this paper, the author has collected his observations on natural oak in the westernmost parts of the province of Uusimaa and the easternmost parts of province of Turunmaa, the islands included. Furthermore, the paper includes some viewpoints which must be considered as criteria when determining the naturality of the stand in question. Future borders of oak’s distribution range must be moved farther up north to replace the earlier views of the northern limit of natural oak in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rainio, E-mail: rr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4968, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1977). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran metsäntutkimuksen suuntautumista ja tiedonvälitystä koskeva seminaari. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4968. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14819
English title: Seminar on the targets of forestry research and communication, arranged by the Finnish Society of Forest Science on March 1977.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; seminaarit; tiedonvälitys
English keywords: Finland; communication; forest research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish Society of Forest Science arranged on 16 March 1977 a seminar where targets of forestry research and communication were discussed by scientists, as well as publicists and users of scientific information. This paper includes summaries of some of the speeches and the reports of the workshops. The theme of the seminar was Forest science and practice – Do we understand each other?

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4957, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1977). Finnish inland waterway fleet in 1975. - An analysis with special reference to wood transporting vessels. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4957. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14807
Keywords: Finland; inland waters; inland waterway fleet; water transport
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In 1975 the roundwood transport in Finland, which was mostly floated in the inland waters, accounted for 45% of the total transport performance and for 25% of the total transport volume. The paper describes the Finnish inland waterway fleet in 1975. The information was collected from the material of navigation inspectors who yearly inspect the seaworthiness of the merchant ships. The number of inspected vessels was 778. Of those 495 were tugs, 118 passenger boats, 71 warping boats, and the others totalled 94. The average power of tugs was 65 kW and that of warping boats 16 kW.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and French.

  • Roitto, E-mail: yr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4955, category Article
Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto. (1976). Puutavaraselvitys 1976. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4955. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14801
English title: Timber report 1976. – Finland’s roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue balances by 1980 as well as the wood raw material situation of Finnish forest industries by the year 2000.
Original keywords: metsäteollisuus; raakapuu; puuvarat; raaka-aine; metsätase; teollisuusjätepuu; metsätähde
English keywords: Finland; roundwood supply; forest industry; logging residue; timber balance; Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries; industrial residue
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study was carried out on behalf of the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries Federation) in order to obtain information about the wood raw material situation, to serve, in turn, as a basis for the forest industries’ long-term planning. The study deals with the potential supply of roundwood, industrial residue and forest residue by the year 200 by five wood-supply areas. Examination of the situation during the period of 1972–80 is based on available balances and that concerning the period 1985–2000 in the estimated quantities available for industrial use.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suomen Metsäteollisuuden Keskusliitto, E-mail:
article id 4939, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1976). Metsänomistuksen muutokset ja metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4939. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14784
English title: Forest ownership changes and forestry.
Original keywords: Metsähallitus; metsänomistus; metsätilat; tilakaupat
English keywords: forest ownership; Finland; Forest Service; forest land sales
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper examines the changes in forest ownership and the farm properties for sale from a business economic standpoint. The changes in forest ownership are examined on the basis of statistics and literature. The empirical data both for farms for sale and farms sold are based on the purchases made by the National Board of Forestry in 1972.

There are a number of ownership groups actively buying and selling forest land, thus giving alternatives for ownership changes. The National Board of Forestry has been active in the market since 1960. For instance, in 1972 it purchased 60% of the forest estates it was offered. Of the forest area put up for sale, 75% originated from private individuals, and 20% from inheritance sales.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4932, category Article
Marketta Hoogesteger. (1976). Kasvillisuuden muuttuminen Koilliskairan autiotupien ympärillä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4932. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14774
English title: Changes in vegetation around refuge huts in Koilliskaira forest area in Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: kasvillisuus; Lappi; kulutuskestävyys; Koilliskaira; autiotuvat; retkeily
English keywords: vegetation; Finland; Lapland; trampling; recreation; refuge huts; hiking
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The area of Koilliskaira, situated in the eastern part of Finnish Lapland, is a popular venue for hikers. The present work examines the change of vegetation around 35 refuge huts in the area. The indigenous vegetation was found to conform to the various heath forest types common to forests in Lapland and continental subalpine mountain birch forest types, principally dry or fairly dry heath forest.

According to the study, the change in vegetation showed a clear positive correlation with the number of summer visitors. The dwarf shrubs and lichens were the most susceptible to trampling, and the grasses the least so. Both resilient and susceptible species were to be found among the mosses. The incoming hemerophilous flora was seen to consist principally of species known to accompany Lappish settlement in the area, and only occasional cases of alien species were noted.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hoogesteger, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4925, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Pohjoissuomalaisten mäntytukkien soikeus. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4925. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14767
English title: Ovalness of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; mänty; puutavaranmittaus; läpimitta; sahatukki
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; saw logs; northern Finland; diameter; timber scaling
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material of this study consists of 1,080 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs measures in two saw mills in Northern Finland. The largest and the smallest top-diameter of each log was measured under bark. According to the results, the ovalness was rather small, 1 mm or 4.9% on average. On the other hand, only 14.3% of all logs showed a diameter difference smaller than 2%. The ovalness was larger than 10% in 5.8% of all logs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4919, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1975). Thaimaalaisten metsänhoitajien yliopistokoulutus Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4919. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14775
Original keywords: metsätieteet; yliopistot; Suomi; kehitysyhteistyö; Thaimaa; koulutusyhteistyö
English keywords: Finland; forest sciences; university; development cooperation; cooperation in education; Thaimaa
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Since the year 1966, fourteen specialists, most of them forestry graduates from Kasetsari University in Bangkok, have studied or will start studying in Finland. The visiting graduate students have completed their program successfully, and are interested, as well as the Thai authorities, in continuing the educational cooperation. However, the Finnish Government now seems to have changed the list of countries which are included in this kind of program. The Thai authorities will possibly grant a limited number of scholarships for studies carried out in Finland. The possible need to develop the study program further is discussed if the educational cooperation with Thailand will continue.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4913, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1975). Metsäammattimiesten ja luottamushenkilöiden mielipiteet julkisesta metsähallinnosta ja sen kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4913. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14757
English title: Forestry expert’s and appointed representatives’ opinions about official forest administration and its development in Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; yksityismetsät; metsähallinto; metsäammattialiset; luottamushenkilöt; metsäorganisaatiot
English keywords: Finland; state forests; private forests; forestry administration; forest organizations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The task of the study was to describe the opinions of the forestry experts engaged in the State forestry organization and the organization for promotion of private forestry, and of the appointed representatives in the organization for the promotion of private forestry concerning the official forestry administration and its development. The study material was based on two samples, one of 240 forestry experts and the other of 290 appointed representatives. The data was compiled by mail inquiry.

Forestry experts were found to rate the success of the official forestry administration in its tasks lower than did the appointed representatives. Both the forestry experts and appointed representatives were of the opinion that the official forestry administration has been most successful in accomplishing timber production and least successful in the tasks concerning multiple use of forests. The results also indicate that 44% of the forestry experts were of the opinion that the most suitable organization model would be a uniform state organization for both the State, and private owned forests. About a third of the forestry experts considered that the best model would be two different state organizations, one for the State forests and the other for the private forests. 62% of the appointed representatives were of the opinion that the best solution would be to retain the official forestry administration such as it is now.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4906, category Article
Lasse Lovén. (1974). Maisemanhoitomallien käyttö metsätalouden maan aluevaraussuunnittelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4906. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14750
English title: Regional landscape planning of forest areas.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsänhoitajat; maisemanhoito; asennetutkimus; metsien monikäyttö; puuntuotanto; metsämaisema
English keywords: forest management; Finland; landscape planning; timber production; landscape management; multiple use of forests; forest landscape; attitude studies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study deals with economic significance of forest landscape planning models used in regional planning in Finland. The »judge»-method is used among professional foresters working on private forestry boards in Southern Finland to define their view of what would be moderate level of costs of landscape management for private forest owners. A sample of 154 forest professionals working in district forestry boards in Southern Finland was sent a sociological questionnaire.

It was possible to form three hierarchical moderation classes by statistical grouping of judgement distributions. Prolongations in rotation ages and restrictions concerning ditching of forested bogs, forest read building and clear-cutting were considered the most immoderate models. Rather or wholly insignificant were evaluated such management models, which mean restrictions in »old fashioned» methods or which are already used in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lovén, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4905, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1974). Kesän vesitaseen vaikutus metsä- ja suokasvillisuuteen ja linnustoon sekä lämpöolojen välityksellä maatalouden toimintaedellytyksiin Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4905. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14749
English title: The influence of water balance in summer on forest and peatland vegetation and bird fauna and through the temperature on agricultural conditions in Finland.
Original keywords: suokasvillisuus; lämpötila; metsäkasvillisuus; sademäärä; ilmasto; haihdunta; vesitase
English keywords: Finland; climate; precipitation; temperature; forest vegetation; water budget; evaporation; peatland vegetation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The significance of water budget in June and July for forest and peatland vegetation, and consequent effects on fauna, climate and agriculture has been studied.

In June, the difference between evaporation and precipitation is greater than it is later in the summer. North of the line zero difference of evaporation and precipitation, coinciding with a line of sharp change in forest vegetation, the uppermost part of podsol remains wet throughout the summer. During July, the line of zero difference moves from north to south over the greater part of Finland, run-off being minute and podsol at the driest in this month. This line, indicating the length of the period with evaporation greater than precipitation and causing a sharp change in forest vegetation, in frequency of peatlands, amount of growing stock productive capacity of forests etc. This line is significant also for cultivation: because of the lower evaporation north of this line, night temperature below the freezing point often appear in summer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4884, category Article
Kauko Hahtola, Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Aarne Reunala. (1973). Metsänomistajien puunmyyntikäyttäytyminen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4884. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14721
English title: The timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners.
Original keywords: yksityismetsät; puukauppa; metsänomistajat; hakkuusuunnite; puun tarjonta
English keywords: Finland; forest owners; allowable cut; private forests; timber sales; wood supply
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The task of this study was to gather all available information concerning timber-sales behaviour of private forest owners and to try to find the probable trends in this behaviour. The initiative for the study came from the Central Association of Finnish Forest Industries.

In Finland there are areas of timber savings and those of overcutting. These are mainly explained by regional variation in prosperity of forest owners. There are also several individual factors affecting timber sales behaviour. Without major changes in forest policy the annual variation in quantity cut in Finland is increasing and the degree of cutting seem to remain below the allowable cut.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown
  • Reunala, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown
article id 4868, category Article
Mikko Tormilainen. (1972). Havaintoja Oitin siemenviljelyksen mäntykloonien kukinnasta ja käpysadosta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4868. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14671
English title: Studies of flowering and cone crop in a seed orchard of Scots pine.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; mänty; kloonit; siemenviljelmä; siemenviljely; kukinta; käpysato; geneettinen vaihtelu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; flowering; genetic variation; seed orchards; clones; Southern Finland; cone production
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Male and female flowering, cone crop, and some vegetative characteristics were studied in grafts 10 to 16 years of age in a clonal seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Genetic variation was found between clones in flowering as well as in cone production. Clone evaluation resulted in similar classifications of clones in different years. A regression analysis showed that crown size clearly increased but previous height growth slightly decreased flowering and cone production. The percentage of pollinated female strobili did not differ between clones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tormilainen, E-mail: mt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4862, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1972). Vuonna 1971 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4862. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14665
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1971.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat
English keywords: Finland; forest research; forest sciences; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1971 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4857, category Article
Antti Lappalainen. (1971). Metsät ja verot. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4857. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14659
English title: Forests and taxation in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäverotus; verotus; Suomi; pinta-alavero; tuloverotus
English keywords: forestry; Finland; forest taxation; area taxation; tax on income; gross income from timber sales
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There is no clear picture in Finland of how big the revenues are that the State and the local authorities receive from taxation for the part of primary forestry. Conception of taxation varies from 100% to 50%. The paper presents a comparison between the gross income from timber sales as determined according to the method used at the Central Statistics Bureau and the net revenues as calculated on the basis of forest fee.

At 1920s area taxation was introduced in forest taxation. The system is based on forest types and their timber production capacity. According to the principles of area taxation, no tax is paid for overcuts, whereas timber capital savings should be paid for.

According to the calculations of this study, in 1958–62 the gross income from timber sales was about 506 million Fmk annually in Southern Finland, the costs involved in timber production about 437 million Fmk, and the annual taxable income 231 million Fmk. In the period more valuable timber assortments were harvested than those for which taxes were paid according to the old regulations.

Half a century ago, area taxation was a system suited to its purpose. Now, however, forestry is in the hands of another generation, and accounting has been introduced in practical agriculture and forestry. Therefore, a taxation system based on the real income from timber growing should be introduced. The transition period could even be relatively short. It seems probable that a forest owner does not sell timber at a time when this would be required by silvicultural aspects in order to avoid income taxation, he should have to be present an acceptable working plan.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lappalainen, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4844, category Article
Kaarina Rutanen. (1971). Sinivuoren luonnonpuiston kasvisto ja kasvillisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4844. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14646
English title: Flora and vegetation of the Sinivuori Nature Park in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: kasvillisuus; luonnonpuistot; luonnonsuojelualueet; Häme; lehdot; kasvillisuuskartoitus; kasvisto; Suomi
English keywords: Finland; vascular plants; nature reserves; vegetation analysis; national parks; flora; herb-rich forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Sinivuori Nature Park, located in the northeast part of the county of Häme in Southern Finland represents the rare fertile forest lands in the country, and belong partly to the so-called centre of herb‐rich forests of Häme. Sinivuori is one of the smallest nature reserves in Finland (64 ha). The detailed vegetation analysis was performed in 1969, supplemented by earlier and later observations. The area was divided into 69 one-hectare squares for the study of the flora and vegetation.

The most common rock in the park is mica schist. The pH of the soil is relatively high, in average 6.6. Thermal-time sum is 1,100–1,200. The vegetation differs to a large extent from the surrounding areas. 169 vascular plants were found in the area, some of which very rare in the area. The paper lists the plants and their abundance in the area, and the vegetation is described by the forest types. Distribution maps are presented for the species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rutanen, E-mail: kr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4837, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1971). Vuonna 1970 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4837. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14626
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1970.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat; tieteelliset julkaisut
English keywords: Finland; forest sciences; bibliographies; scientific publications
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1970 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4836, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1971). Anaerobisten olosuhteiden ja aerobisuusrajan esiintymisestä erilaisilla luonnontilaisilla turvemailla ja merkityksestä suotyypin kuvaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4836. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14625
English title: Anaerobic conditions in various virgin peat soils and the significance of the aerobic limit as an indicator of site quality.
Original keywords: suotyypit; turvemaat; luonnontilaiset suot; anaerobisuusraja; puuston kasvu; pohjaveden syvyys
English keywords: Finland; tree growth; virgin peatlands; peatland types; aerobic limit; ground water table
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to increase the knowledge of the anaerobic conditions prevailing in virgin peat soils of different kinds, and on the fluctuation of the aerobic limit. Silver rod method was used to indicate anaerobic conditions and to locate the aerobic limit. The material included 18 peatland sample plots on treeless bogs, in pine bogs and in spruce swamps in Southern Finland. Observations of the discoloration of the silver rods and measurements of ground water level were made from 8 June to 13 August 1968.

The results show that the location of the aerobic limit is dependent of the depth of the ground water table, and usually lies 5–15 cm above the ground water table. Down to 10–20 cm below the aerobic limit, where it reaches maximum, the rate of decomposition of sulfurous organic matter is positively correlated with the distance from the aerobic limit. Deeper it gradually decreases, and in the depth of 25–35 cm no hydrogen sulphide seems to be released.

In the forested peatland types the volume of the growing stock and the increment were dependent on the depth of the aerobic limit only when nutrient content and pH of the peat was more or less constant. Where the aerobic limit was close to the ground surface but the nutrient contents were relatively high, the volume of the growing stock may be comparatively high. Birch (Betula sp.), better than the conifers, is able to stand conditions poor in oxygen. The growing stock was poor in sites where the aerobic limit was near the ground surface, but the nitrogen and phosphorus contents were high, or vice versa. Consequently, aerobic limit is of great importance as an indicator of site quality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4833, category Article
Eero Malmivaara, Jouni Mikola, Christel Palmberg. (1971). Pajujen mahdollisuudet metsäpuiden jalostuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4833. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14622
English title: Potential of willows in forest tree breeding.
Original keywords: metsänjalostus; Suomi; pajut
English keywords: Finland; forest tree breeding; willows; Salix
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A review is made into the experiences and possibilities of willow breeding, with a particular consideration of their application under Finnish conditions.

In comparison with other tree genera, Salix has many advantages in breeding. The great number of species, large genetic variation between and within species and frequent crossability offer good possibilities for improvement by hybridization. The dioecious flowering, plentiful seed production and short generation cycle are valuable properties for breeding by controlled pollination. Individuals with desirable characteristics can be easily propagated vegetatively from cuttings. The propertied stated above are also characteristic of poplars, the breeding of which has resulted in great success. Corresponding results can be therefore expected from willow breeding, which has recently been initiated in several countries.

Today willows have no practical significance for forestry in Finland. There are, however, some suitable Salix species, both indigenous and exotic, for starting material for breeding, and plenty of favourable sites for willows. Therefore, the beginning of breeding research with willows should be well justified also in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Malmivaara, E-mail: em@mm.unknown (email)
  • Mikola, E-mail: jm@mm.unknown
  • Palmberg, E-mail: cp@mm.unknown
article id 4811, category Article
Raimo Lehto. (1970). Opetustoiminnan taustaa ja työnopetus Hirvaan metsäkonekoulussa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4811. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14600
English title: Background of education and occupational instruction at the Hirvas Forest Machine School.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; Lappi; koulutus; Suomi; Hirvaan metsäkonekoulu; koneenkuljettaja; metsäkoneet; oppiminen; työnopetus; ammattikoulutus
English keywords: Finland; Lapland; forest education; Hirvas Forest Machine School; technical school; forest machines; teaching; learning; vocational education
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The share of occupational instruction at the Forest Machine School varies between 70 and 80%. The paper describes organization of the education, curriculum, teaching methods, practical training, machinery, and learning experience of the students. It discusses the influence of teaching programme, and school environment on attitudes and motivation of the students.

The school employs an adaptation of the TW I method in its actual methods of occupational instruction. The method of demonstration is also employed. The size of a training group has been restricted to 10 pupils, and the school has attempted to acquire plenty of instruction components, material for repair, and practice worksites. In this way the repetition of essentials can be guaranteed. The minimum factor in driver training is the competence to use a grab loader. In the training of mechanics the core competence is the diagnostics of defects and the making of adjustments.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehto, E-mail: rl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.
Original keywords: metsätalous; toinen maailmansota; polttoaineet; Suomi; energianlähteet; tuontipolttoaineet; puu; puutuotteet; säännöstely; poikkeusolot
English keywords: wood products; forestry; Finland; wood; fuelwood; Second World War; fuels; imported fuels; regulation; reserve stocks
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Osara, E-mail: no@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4800, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1969). Metsänhoidolliset mielipiteet ja metsänhoidollinen toiminta maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4800. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14588
English title: Opinions about silviculture in farm forestry in Finland, and practical steps taken.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; maatilametsätalous; Suomi; metsänomistajat; asenteet; asennetutkimus; Jämsä; Karstula; metsäneuvonta; mielipidetutkimus
English keywords: forest management; silviculture; Finland; forest owners; farm forestry; attitudes; opinion poll; opinions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.

The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).

However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.

In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4795, category Article
Martti Takala. (1969). Suomen tiedepolitiikan lähiajan tavoitteita. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4795. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14581
English title: Objectives for short-range science policy of Finland.
Original keywords: tutkimus; Suomi; yhteistyö; tiedepolitiikka; tutkimuspolitiikka
English keywords: Finland; research; science policy; research policy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the aims of the policy of science from three different viewpoints: 1) financing research activity, 2) organizing research activity, and 3) listing and prioritizing research program.

In 1968 about 0.6–0.8% of the gross national product was used for research. In the basis of investigations, aims are set up for the increase of the research activity; this gives more emphasis to the research serving economy and industry. The influence of different systems of financing research is examined with special attention to the anticipated productivity of industrial research and development and the economic risks included therein.

The tasks of independent research institutes and universities should not be kept clearly apart. Research work in a small country can be productive only when concentrated to a sufficient degree. Cooperation between various institutes might be the most important means from the viewpoint of productivity of research. The State Commissions representing the main branches of science and the expert committees appointed by them can best carry out listing of large research programs and fields of special research and put them in order of priority.

  • Takala, E-mail: mt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4794, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1969). Valtion laitosten ulkopuolella tapahtuvan metsäntutkimuksen kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4794. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14580
English title: Development of forest research outside the state-owned institutes.
Original keywords: tutkimus; tutkimuslaitokset; metsäntutkimus; tutkimustoiminta; yhteistyö; säätiöt
English keywords: Finland; forest research; funding; research funding; research institutes; cooperation; foundations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In addition to the research carried out by the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Forest Research Institute, and the State Committee for Agriculture and Forestry, applied forest research is performed in Finland by the Forest department of the Work Efficiency Association, Metsäteho, the Forest Work Study Section of the Central Association of Finnish Woodworking Industries, the Logging Technical Office of the State Board of Forestry (today the Development Section of the Organization Bureau), and Uittoteho, research body for floating questions in Northern Finland.

These establishments are concerned chiefly with the development of and experimentation with working methods, tools and machines in wood harvesting and with the analysis of wage and payment bases for timber preparation and haulage jobs.

An endeavour has been made to coordinate the forest technological research in these institutes and the University of Helsinki and the Forest Research Institute. Each institute is presented in a cooperation organ formed by the Society of Forestry in Finland. This organ also functions as the Finnish section of Nordiska Skogsarbetsstudiernas Råd (NSR). These bodies agree about the division of the research tasks and discuss the research programmes jointly.

In addition, some foundations give notable support to forest research, in particular the Foundation for Forest Tree Breeding, Foundation for Research of Natural Resources in Finland, and SITRA, the Fund for the Jubilee Year 1967 of Finland’s Independence.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4791, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1969). Metsäntutkimuslaitos tehostuvan metsätalouden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4791. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14577
English title: The Finnish Forest Research Institute in the present period of increasing intensity of forestry.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; Suomi; metsäntutkimuslaitos
English keywords: Finland; forest research; forest science; Finnish Forest Research Institute
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Foundation of the Finnish Forest Research Institute in 1917 was one step in the plans of A.K. Cajander to organize Finnish forestry research. Already earlier the highest forestry education had been incorporated into the University of Helsinki (1908) and the Finnish Society of Forestry founded (1909). In conformity with statute of 1962, the task of the Forest Research Institute is “to perform studies and experiments in order to develop Finnish forestry in a manner adapted to the purpose”. Consequently, the task of the institute is to carry out studies explicitly serving practical forestry.

The article describes the actual and required development of the Forest Research Institute. Concerning the most recent steps of development, for instance, four new professorships has been created: Forest Zoology, Tree Breeding, Forest Yield Science and Mathematics. In addition, a few regional research and experimental stations were established.

Strengthening the Forest Research Institute, i.e. increasing its staff of research workers and its funds, must still be continued to make it possible for the Institute to satisfy the great demand for research work of present-day practical forestry. The article also gives attention to the internal scientific development of the institute. Particularly, there is reason to stimulate the extended studies of young research workers as well as international exchange.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4790, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1969). Suomen Metsätieteellisen Seuran kuudes vuosikymmen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4790. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14576
English title: The sixth decade of the Society of Forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura
English keywords: Finland; forest research; forest sciences; 1959-1968; the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Sciences) was founded in 1909. A comprehensive history of the society has been published earlier (Acta Forestalia Fennica 40) which covers the first 50 years of is activity. The tasks of the Society are to work for the development of forestry research in Finland and to be a link between research workers in the field of forestry.

This article summarises the activity with regards of the meetings during the 60th year of the Society, and the two scientific series, Acta Forestalia Fennica and Silva Fennica, it publishes. The characteristics of the development of the publishing activity has been its’ becoming livelier and a shortening of the studies published. In 1960s funds have been granted for the execution of even larger projects. The Society has also treated many questions within the field of policy of science.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4762, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1968). Kehitysvaihtoehtoja Suomen metsätalouden organisaatioketjuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4762. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14546
English title: Development alternatives in the organization chains of Finnish forestry.
Original keywords: metsäteollisuus; kilpailu; puumarkkinat; metsänomistajat; organisaatiot; edunvalvonta
English keywords: forestry; Finland; competition; forest owners; forest industry; organizations; timber sales; timber market; lobbying
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The aim of this paper was to shape and analyse certain alternatives in the development processes in the organization chains of Finnish forestry. The material was collected by analysing market structures and characteristics of competition with regard to raw wood and forest industry products.

The paper presents two alternative ways to rationalize the organization chains between the forest owner’s organizations and forest industry. In the price mechanism of raw wood originating from Finnish private forests there there has been increasing influence of the central organizations of the private forest owners and forest industry. In their relationship, the model of bilateral monopolistic competition can be chosen as a conceptual framework.

Under bilateral monopoly price is fixed as a result of negotiations between competitive parties, and the position and tactics within the negotiations are of great importance for the negotiating parties. Because of the competition, Finnish forest industry cannot compensate the increase in the production costs by raising independently the export prices of its products. This and the fact that the annual earnings of forest workers are fixed by law to the earnings of the workers in wood-processing industry, will cause pressure on stumpage prices.

In the paper two schemes are outlined. In the Scheme 1 a development alternative is described in which the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the industry growing direction. In the Scheme 2 the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the organizational orientated direction.

It is concluded that as long as the forest owners’ organizational orientated central organization is too weak to form a monopoly as counterweight to the monopsol of forest industry (except the industries of forest owners), it will consider the industry growing direction superior to the organizational orientated alternative.

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  • Rinkinen, E-mail: ir@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4757, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1967). Suomen metsäntutkimus ja sen kehittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4757. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14541
English title: Forestry research in Finland and its further development.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; Suomi; tutkimusrahoitus; tutkimustoiminta
English keywords: Finland; forest research; research funding; research institutes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In 1965, the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) appointed five working groups representing various fields of forestry to get a general view of the present stage and future need of development of forestry research. The present paper gives a summary of the reports prepared by the working groups and presents some suggestions concerning improvement of the general condition for forestry research.

First, an account is given of the present stage of forestry research; this is done in the form of a list including the institutes where forestry research is practiced. The most important of these institutes are the University of Helsinki, which in 1966 employed 42 research workers, and the Finnish Forest Research Institute which employed 52 investigators. The total number of research workers was 114. The funds available and the financial sources are also dealt with, as well a as the aftergrowth of research workers and the publishing activity.

In addition, a review is presented of the most important tasks of research according to the reports of the working groups. Finally, an account is given of the program of development. According to the program, the number of new researcher’s positions required has been estimated as being rather large. Development of the research activity organization presupposes establishment of some new departments at the Finnish Forest Research Institute and at the University of Helsinki; moreover, a common laboratory as well as a forest-machine station are required. The funds needed at the most important state institutions will be about 90% higher in 1970 and 190% higher in 1980 than at present. The aftergrowth of research workers should be essentially increased and its distribution of the fields of forestry should be more even. No new series of publication have been considered necessary.

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  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4734, category Article
Yrjö Kangas. (1966). Valtion metsien hakkuupoistuma ja sen rakenne : Vuosiin 1954-1958 kohdistuva selvittely. Silva Fennica vol. no. 120 article id 4734. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14292
English title: Felling volume and its structure in the Finnish State Forests in 1954-1958 .
Original keywords: hakkuut; valtionmetsät; hakkuumäärät; jätepuu; 1954-1958; hakkuupoistuma; hakkuukertymä
English keywords: Finland; state forests; waste wood; loggings; merchantable timber; felling volume
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this investigation was to study the felling volume and its structure in the State forests of Finland. Special attention was paid on the proportion of waste wood within the felling volume. This information was in demand for the general plan of the State forests that was being prepared at the same time. The survey was performed using a sampling method, and it represented the districts in the northernmost Finland, Ostrobothnia, Eastern Finland and Western Finland of the Forest Services.

The proportion of merchantable timber of the total felling volume was lowest in the northernmost Finland, less than 2/3 of the total cut. In Ostrobothnia the share was ¾, Eastern Finland 4/5 and in Western Finland 5/6. When the tree species were compared, the proportion of waste wood was largest in broadleaved trees, especially in the Northern Finland, while for Scots pine it was lowest. For Norway spruce the share of merchantable timber is markedly lower in the northernmost part of the country, where, for instance, decay increases the proportion of waste wood. For birch, demand of wood influences most the proportion of waste wood.

In general, the proportion of waste wood and merchantable timber in the felling volume was influenced by changes in the demand of timber, structure of the stands, and the felling method. The demand of the timber assortment affects most in the amount of waste wood. The more valuable the timber assortment is, the less waste wood is left in the cutting area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, E-mail: yk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4733, category Article
Mikko Ilvessalo, Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1966). Suomen pienmetsätalouden tutkimuksessa v. 1930 inventoitujen pienmetsälöiden kehityksestä vuodesta 1930 vuosiin 1963-64. Silva Fennica vol. no. 119 article id 4733. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14291
English title: Development of small forest holdings between 1930 and 1963–64 in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; metsävarat; pientilat; Suomi; pienmetsätalous
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest resources; private forests; small holdings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the 1930s studies showed that state of the standing crop and forests of small private forest holdings in Finland was weak. In 1960s it was regarded necessary to study the possible change in the silvicultural state of these forests. Therefore, sample stands of the small holdings surveyed in 1930 by Osara were surveyed anew in the areas of Karelia and Savo, and in Central Finland in 1963–1964. A line plot survey was combined with ocular estimation as in 1930, but in 1963–1964 the lines and sample plots were placed denser than in 1930 to reach similar number of sample plots.

In 1930 the state of the forests of the small holdings was in average very weak, but according to Osara, the age classes younger than 50 years had similar stand volume than in the all the forests of the southern half of the country. The results of this survey show that the volume, structure, growth and development class structure of the forests in average have improved since 1930. In many respects the forests have reached the average state of forests in the southern half of Finland. The most serious problem is the large proportion of broadleaved trees. Thus, the silvicultural state of the forests should be further improved.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: mi@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown
article id 4724, category Article
Seppo Ervasti, Lauri Heikinheimo, Viljo Holopainen, Kullervo Kuusela, Gustaf Sirén. (1965). The development of Finland's forests in 1964-2000. Silva Fennica vol. no. 117 article id 4724. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14282
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsänhoito; metsätalous; puunkäyttö; metsäteollisuus; metsävarat; Suomi; ennusteet; puuntarve
English keywords: forest management; Finland; forest resources; allowable cut; wood utilization; 1964-2000; forecast; removal
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Economic Council asked Heikinheimo, Holopainen and Kuusela to prepare a report on the development of Finland’s forest resources up to the beginning of the next century. The expansion of forest industry beyond the level foreseen in earlier forecasts, the large-scale removal and neglect of the basic improvements required have weakened the condition of the wood production to such an extent that extensive measures are needed to ensure the continuity of the supply of wood. The results of the calculations are formed in three separately analysed alternatives.

Alternative I: Realisation of the Teho programme and the removal corresponding to it. The development of the growing stock according to the programme would only permit a cut amounting to an annual drain of ca. 51 million m3 up to the year 2000. After that it would be possible gradually to increase the removal. This drain would not itself to utilise fully the already existing production capacity of the industry.

Alternative II: Consequences of the predicted removal if the Teho programme is realised as such. The wood utilization forecast based on the premises given to the team show that the annual drain will grow in 1964–1975 from 52 to 58 million m3, and thereafter by 0.5% annually. This would lead to over-cutting, and exhaust the present growing stock by the turn of the century. If annual total drain of ca. 58 million m3 would after 1975 be sufficient, exhaustion of the growing stock would be postponed for 4–5 years.

Alternative III. Teho programme expanded in conformity with the removal forecast. A new programme is proposed, which includes, among others, large scale fertilization of fully grown firm forest land at about the rate of 100,000 ha/year, intensified artificial regeneration, assurance of the supply of planting stock and seed, increase of forest drainage from the present 155,000 to 250,000 ha/year by 1970, site preparation of the cutting areas for artificial regeneration, increase of tending or seeding stands to 300,000 ha/year, replacement of fuelwood by other fuels, increase of wood import and new forest roads.

  • Ervasti, E-mail: se@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown
  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Sirén, E-mail: gs@mm.unknown
article id 4723, category Article
Toivo Matilainen. (1965). Kasvutappiosta ja sen määrittämisestä Etelä-Suomen talousmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 117 article id 4723. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14281
English title: The increment loss and its determination in economically exploited forests in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; menetelmät; vajaatuottoiset metsät; kasvutappiot; uudistaminen
English keywords: regeneration; Southern Finland; methods; under-productive forests; deficient stock volume; increment loss
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present study is an attempt to clarify the decrease in growth, or the increment loss, caused by sudden reduction of growth of the growing stock below a certain level, and to find a method for its determination. Increment loss is defined as a decrease in growth during the rotation due to a deficient stock volume. The material consists of Koivisto’s yield tables for repeatedly thinned stands in Southern Finland, and the results of the Third National Forest Inventory concerning the mean volume and increment in the productive sites.

For the calculation of increment loss three formulae were constructed where the increment loss is calculated 1) as the difference between the removal by thinnings in normally developed stands during a time equal with the period of deficient stock and the suddenly removed stock, 2) according to the compound interest calculation principle as the sum of the differences which are obtained by subtracting from the removal in each thinning during the period of deficient stock its initial value, and 3) as the straight interest of the stock deficiency during the period of deficient stock.

According to the calculations, the increment loss is greatest in stands to be grown, viz. 50 m3 solid measure excluding bark per hectare tended Norway spruce stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus type sites at 40% deficiency below minimum stock. In stands to be regenerated the losses are, too, greatest in the similar stands. It exceeds 200 m3/ha when stands younger than 50 years have to been regenerated and the removal amounts to 50% of the stock. In stands to be regenerated the increment loss for spruce, due to the slow initial development by the species, is greater than for Scots pine and birch. The loss is the same at different period of age if the relative deficiency of the stock is of equal size.

According to the study, each stand has a characteristic variation in the increment loss which depends mainly on the relative degree of deficiency from the minimum stock. The formulae and methods can be used to determine the increment loss in average and better stands in Southern Finland when the stock suddenly decreases.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Matilainen, E-mail: tm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4722, category Article
Metsäverokomitea. (1965). Metsäverokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. no. 116 article id 4722. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14280
English title: Report of the forest taxation committee.
Original keywords: komiteanmietinnöt; metsäverotus
English keywords: Finland; forest taxation; taxation
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The Finnish Government appointed a committee in 1959 to study the drawbacks of the present system of forest taxation, and to make recommendations for their elimination. It was not within the Committee’s terms of reference to decide whether the present taxation procedure, which is based on assessment per unit of area, should be replaced entirely by another system.

The committee made several proposals to mitigate the hardships entailed in the collective nature of Finnish forest taxation. It also proposed tax relief for areas which are to be the main target of forest improvement work. Among the other recommendations of the committee, can be mentioned simplification of the taxation in Northern Finland by having only two yield classes for that region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsäverokomitea, E-mail:
article id 4717, category Article
Aarne Laitakari. (1964). Suomen metsien tila 1730-luvulla ruotsalaisen geologin ja vuorimiehen, Daniel Tilas’in kuvaamana. Silva Fennica vol. no. 115 article id 4717. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14275
English title: The condition in Finland’s forests in the 1730s as described by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish geologist and mineralogist.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; historia; Suomi; 1730-luku
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; history; 1730s
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The present article reviews a geological report given by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish mining manufacturer, towards the end of the 1730s as the report regards information on the Finnish forests. His report gives at hand that forests in several localities southwest of the region demarcated by the towns of Loviisa, Äänekoskei and Kristiina were seriously diminished or burdened by tar burning and shifting cultivation. Larger saw log stands were found mainly in the scaterly populated parishes of Central Finland. Thus, in the chain of ridges between Orivesi and Ruovesi, covering an area of about 4,000 km2, there was a heavily stocked Scots pine forest, as reported by Tilas.

The report given by Tilas is kept in the files of the Geological Research Institute in Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4715, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Leo Heikurainen, Viljo Holopainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kullervo Kuusela, Tatu Möttölä. (1963). Metsätalouden parannusten työllisyys- ja tulovaikutukset. Silva Fennica vol. no. 114 article id 4715. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14273
English title: Effects of forest improvement on employment and income.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäpolitiikka; komiteanmietinnöt; metsätyö; työllisyys
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland; employment; forest work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The agricultural committee appointed by the Finnish Government in 1958 pointed out a problem that the rural population needed to be ensured employment and earnings from forestry. A forestry study group was called to investigate the effects of forest improvement on employment and income, on four fields: a) forest drainage, b) afforestation, c) thinning of young stands, and d) construction of forest roads. Items a, b and c increase output, and d creates outlets for timber and increases stumpage value.

The study outlined three alternative silvicultural programmes. The Basic Programme corresponds average forest management in Finland in 1953–1959. The Medium Programme can be seen conditional to the realization of the felling plan worked out in a study group Heikurainen-Kuusela-Linnamies-Nyysönen in 1961 in a committee report of Forestry Planning Committee. Finally, according to an Intensive Programme to which forest management, especially afforestation and forest drainage, will be raised to the highest possible level.

The costs of different silvicultural measures of the three programmes were estimated. The allowable cuts were calculated corresponding to the silvicultural programmes for the period 1961–1970 and 2001–2010. After calculating labour input and costs, could the increase in employment and income be estimated for the whole economy, and separately in forestry, communications and industry. When calculating the labour input required for the forest management work and road construction, the probable rise in productivity following mechanization and rationalization has been taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown
  • Keltikangas, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Möttölä, E-mail: tm@mm.unknown
article id 4707, category Article
Oiva Suominen. (1963). Metsiköiden alttius lumituhoon. Tutkimus Etelä-Suomessa talvella 1958-59 sattuneesta lumituhosta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 112 article id 4707. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14234
English title: Susceptibility of stands to devastation by snow. Investigation into snow devastation in Southern Finland in winter 1958-59.
Original keywords: lumituhot; mesätuhot; etelärannikko
English keywords: Finland; snow damage; forest damages; stem breakages
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Exceptionally widespread snow damages occurred in January 1959 in the southern coastal region of Finland. An inquiry showed that significant devastation had occurred over an area of 42,620 ha. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the susceptibility to snow damages of different stands in different locations. Only the stem breakage was recorded. 924 stands along 92 one-kilometre lines were studied in the western continuation of Salpausselkä ridge in the summer 1960. A supplementary study was carried out in 1961 in separate stands.

Most heavily damaged stands were found in a damage zone closest (31–40 km) to the coast of Gulf of Finland. The damages were 39% fewer in the zone 61–70 km from the coast. No stands over 140 m above sea level escaped damage. Stands on the edge of an open area such as a field, lake etc. fared better than areas within the forest. Eastern slopes were more susceptible for snow damages in these weather conditions. Also, conifers were more frequently damaged than deciduous trees. Dense stands, and stands aged 61–100 years had most damages.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suominen, E-mail: os@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4699, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1961). A century of Finnish state forestry 1859-1959. Silva Fennica vol. no. 112 article id 4699. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14230
Keywords: forestry; Finland; Forest Service; state forests; history; administration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper is a short presentation in English of the activities of the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State Forests of Finland, during its first century. The article gives a short history of the Forest Service and description of the forest property, development of the Forest Service, forest conservation work and business activity of the organization.

A complete presentation of the history and activities of the organization since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time is published in Finnish in Silva Fennica No. 107.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4697, category Article
Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea. (1961). Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 110 article id 4697. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14228
English title: Report of the forest planning committee.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäpolitiikka; komiteanmietinnöt
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present publication concerns the report of the committee appointed by the Finnish Government to draft a programme or the development of Finnish forestry and increase of its production.

Part I of the paper reviews the development of forestry and forest policy in Finland. After the World War II – following the land settlement – ca. 1.5 million hectares of land, mostly owned by the state, was transferred to private ownership. The committee states that because the division of small farms and land settlement policy private forests have tended increasingly to become small forests. The decrease in size of forest units has interfered development of forestry. In part II, the forest utilization programme for the period 1963–1972 is outlined. In the country, logging in 1953–1958 was carried out on a fairly sustained yield basis. The regional picture is, however, not as good, and in Southern Finland there has been over-cutting.

A long-term logging plan was prepared on the request of the committee. The allowable cut following this plan would suffice the calculated wood requirement for the years 1963–1972. In the part III, the committee introduces a silvicultural program for the years 1963–1972 to increase the yield of wood. The targets of logging, sowing and planting, and silvicultural work are considerably greater than what was achieved in the 1950s. To speed up the realisation of the silvicultural programme, working plans should be prepared on a large scale for forest enterprises, afforestation and forest drainage should be increased, and a national seed storage should be established.

Part IV discusses the forest work situation from the stand point of the realisation of the forest utilisation programme and silvicultural programme. Part V introduces a host of recommendations concerning forest policy and economic policy.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea, E-mail:
article id 4690, category Article
Metsäntutkimuskomitea. (1960). Metsäntutkimuskomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 109 article id 4690. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14222
English title: Report of the forest research committee.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; metsäpolitiikka; Helsingin yliopisto; komiteanmietinnöt; metsäntutkimuslaitos; tutkimusrahoitus
English keywords: forest policy; Finland; forest research; University of Helsinki; forest sciences; research funding; Forest Research Institute
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In 1956 the Finnish Government appointed a committee to plan the promotion of forest research in accordance with the needs of the national economy. The present publication contains an account of the committee’s work and its recommendations.

Attention is drawn to the fact that forestry in Finland is a natural and important means of livelihood. Hence forestry research must be effective and versatile, for extensive forestry calls for intensive research. In the subsequent chapters, a historical survey of forest research in Finland is presented, including a list of the institutes, organisations and other bodies active in this work. Finnish forest research is mainly centred around Forest Research Institute, which was founded in 1918, and similar research is also pursued at the University of Helsinki, as well as by many other institutes and scientific societies.

After a reviewing the present needs for research and the demands intensive forestry sets upon scientific investigation, the committee concludes that contemporary forest research in Finland cannot completely satisfy these demands. Consequently, the country’s research institutes should be expanded and developed considerably.

The recommendations concern mainly the development of the Forest Research Institute. The committee suggests doubling the personnel of the institute, creating several new departments and increasing the financial allocation to the institute. Certain reforms in the administration of the institute is also recommended. Special attention is drawn to the development of the publicity service. Also, the research in the forestry departments University of Helsinki should be developed. National and international co-operation between various research institutes and organizations should be improved.

The report is supplemented by a draft proposal concerning legislation on the Forest Research Institute, a plan for developing the training of research workers and a recommendation on the retention of certain land areas for scientific and experimental work carried out by the Forest Research Institute.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsäntutkimuskomitea, E-mail:
article id 4704, category Article
V. A. Kolehmainen. (1961). Lehtikuusenviljelys Tuomarniemellä. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4704. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9139
English title: Cultivation of larch in Tuomarniemi, Finland.
Original keywords: viljely; Suomi; lehtikuuset; ulkomaiset puulajit; Tuomarniemi
English keywords: larch; Larix; Finland; cultivation; Larix decidua; foreign tree species; Larix sibirica; Larix gmelinii; Larix americana; Larix laricina
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Foreign tree species have been planted in Finland since 1900s, the most famous being Larix sibirica plantations in Raivola in Karelia, which now belongs to Soviet Union. One of the largest larch plantations of Finland today is situated in Tuomarniemi, in Central Finland. Ten larch stands were established in Tuomarniemi between 1912 and 1937 mainly by planting. The stand established in 1937 was sown. The trees represent five larch species: Larix sibirica Ledeb. (5 stands), Larix gmelinii var. kurilensis (2 stands, current name probably Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii), Larix americana Michx. (1 stand, now Larix laricina), Larix decidua Mill. (1 stand) and Larix occidentalis Nutt. (1 stand). The total area of the larch stands is 82.5 ha. This paper reports the studies made in the plantations in 1958.

In Tuomarniemi larch grows well in many types of soil from Vaccinium type sites to fresh mineral soil sites. The age of the stands varies from 19 to 48, height from 12 to 24 metres and annual growth from 5 to 12 m3/ha. Larix sibirca has the best stem form of the species, followed by L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. Easiest to split is the straight-grained L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. L. sibirica is almost as easy to process. The wood of L. decidua, on the other hand, is often spiral-grained and tough. The trees are seldom infected with decay fungi.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kolehmainen, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1961). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.
Original keywords: metsätalous; maatalous; asutus; maatilat; pientilat; 1950-luku; elinolot; kääpiöviljelmät; pienviljelijät; tulot
English keywords: forestry; Finland; agriculture; settlement; farms; small farms; income; living conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halmekoski, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4696, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1960). Suometsätieteen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4696. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9135
English title: Swamp forestry research in Finland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; suot; suometsätiede; soiden kuivattaminen; soiden ojitus
English keywords: forestry; Finland; peatlands; forest research; draining of peatlands; research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About one third of the land area of Finland is covered by peatlands, furthermore, some mineral soils are troubled by excess water. Due to the prevalence of peatlands, forest drainage has been the most important form of forest improvement work. Consequently, peatlands have been an extensively studied topic within forest sciences in Finland. This paper gives a review on the central research subjects in science of peatlands, introducing little less than a hundred of the hundreds of publications published in the field. The author describes in more detail research on the formation and area of peatlands, peatland types and their suitability for forest draining, site factors on peatlands, techniques of forest ditching and the management of peatland forests.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4689, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1960). Metsähallinnon vuosisataistaival 1859-1959. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 107 article id 4689. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14130
English title: A century of Finnish State forestry 1859-1959.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; historia; metsähallinto; Suomi
English keywords: Finland; Forest Service; forest administration; state forests; history
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This book deals with the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State forests of Finland, since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time. Attention is paid especially to the following topics: the area of State Forests and its changes; the organisation of Forest Administration; the promotion of transportation conditions for State forestry; silvicultural treatment of State Forests, their management and commercial activity; the Forest Service as an employer; the State Schools for training forest foremen; the activity of the Forest Service as regards private forests.

The PDF includes a short summary in English, a more comprehensive history of the Forest Service is published in Silva Fennica no. 112.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4694, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1960). Metsäntuotteet Ison-Britannian rakennusaineiden mainonnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 104 article id 4694. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9133
English title: The position of forest products in advertising of building materials in Great Britain.
Original keywords: Suomi; Iso-Britannia; rakennustuotteet; markkinointi; mainonta
English keywords: Finland; building materials; Great Britain; marketing; advertising; sawn goods; wood-based panels
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper concentrates on analysing advertising of building materials used in residential, agricultural and factory building, power station construction, warehouse building and the joinery industry in Great Britain, concentrating on advertising to consumers, including architects, engineers, building entrepreneurs, farmers and do-it-yourself practitioners. The material is based on questionnaires answered by 8 professionals of the field, and assessment of two leading English paper in the field of construction in January 1 – June 30, 1959.

It was concluded that forest products were clearly less advertised than other building materials. The unweight average degree of advertising of all forest products was. 1.7, while the score was 2.6 for other materials. Of the different forest products stand out advertising of plywood and sawn good. The most extensively advertised materials were metals, concrete and cement, and some covering materials. Forest products accounted only ¼ of the advertising space in the publications.

The most important media used in advertising building materials were trade journals, calendars and yearbooks, courses and lectures, exhibitions and fares and direct advertising. The most important audience of advertising were architects, followed by the entrepreneurs. It is suggested that the advertising of Finnish products in Great Britain might be best organized by placing it in the hands of two organizations: the sales organisation and a separate body for advertising. The producers would manage the advertising of individual brands to sales level, while the other levels (agents, importers, merchants) would manage the joint advertising of the forest products to the lower sales levels and consumers. A Finnish market research and information offices might be established in Great Britain.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ervasti, E-mail: se@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4680, category Article
Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea. (1959). Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 102 article id 4680. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14123
English title: Report of the organizing committee for timber floating in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; uitto; komiteanmietinnöt; puunkuljetus; uittoväylät; vesivoima
English keywords: northern Finland; floating; wood transport; timber transport; floating channels; hydroelectric power; hydroelectric power plants
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Hydroelectric plants are being planned or already built in Northern Finland. The complete terracing and regulation of watercourses necessary for the power plants will mean great changes in floating conditions and hence for forestry, for which floating is the principal means of transport. Consequently, the Cabinet appointed a committee in 1958 to ascertain the economic, technical and legislative questions connected with timber transport in the area.

The committee has found that about half of the country’s forest area and two thirds of its water power resources are situated in Northern Finland. A prerequisite for the wise utilization of the forest in Northern Finland is an increase in fellings. This can only be put into effect by improving the means of transport, especially the floating channels. The financing required by the organization of floating connected with the building of the hydroelectric power plants amounts to about 10,000 million marks over a period of 20 years.

The committee has suggested that an advisory committee on floating should be established. Its most important task would be to try to produce a general programme for the organization of floating under the changed conditions, and that the State should participate in the expenditure caused by the organization as regards the capital investment needed for changing over to bundle floating.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea, E-mail:
article id 4676, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1958). Eräitä havaintoja keskisuomalaisen ja paikallisen mäntyrodun biologisista ja teknillisistä ominaisuuksista Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 96 article id 4676. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9122
English title: Biological and technical properties of the local Scots pine and proveniences of Central Finland in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; mänty; Pinus sylvestris; kasvu; alkuperä; tuotos; taudinkestävyys; provenienssi; Keski-Suomi
English keywords: Scots pine; northern Finland; growth; resistance; provenience; pathogen resistance; disease resistance; Central Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out if it is possible to use Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed from Central-Finnish origin in Northern Finland to supplement supply of local seeds. The principle has been to limit transfer of seeds to 200 km. According to this study, it seems possible to permit 300-400 km transfer of seeds at the same height above the sea level, not including the timber line area.

The author’s observations indicate that the trees originating from seeds of Central Finland at 20-35 years age withstand damage caused by snow and pine blister rust as well as the local provenience. However, the seedlings seem to be more susceptible to snow blight. Spraying of 2-3% sulphurated lime in the autumn before the arrival of snow proved to be most effective way to prevent the damage.

Southern proveniences have been found to grow faster than the local proveniences in Northern Finland. The stands of Tuomarniemi (Central Finland) and Rovaniemi (Northern Finland) provenances had no distinct difference in the summerwood percentage, and the volume weight of the Tuomarniemi provenience was higher than the weight of the provenience of Rovaniemi. The Tuomarniemi stand also gave largest yield, but the difference was probably due to partly at age difference of the sample trees. The naturally regenerated local provenance showed the greatest volume weight.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, E-mail: gs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4667, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1957). Metsätalouden edistämistoiminta Suomessa : Tapio 1907-1957. Silva Fennica vol. no. 94 article id 4667. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14126
English title: Promotion of private forestry in Finland, Tapio 1907-1957.
Original keywords: metsätalous; historia; yksityismetsät; Tapio; Keskusmetsälautakunta Tapio
English keywords: forestry; Finland; private forests; promotion of forestry; Central Forestry Association Tapio; Tapio
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

For many decades Finland’s forest policy has been focused on private forestry, accounting for approximately 60% of Finland’s forest area. The objective has been to regulate forest management by legislation and to promote private forestry. The aim of the study was to explore the role of the Central Forestry Association Tapio in promoting private forestry.

A detailed synthesis of Tapio’s 50 years long history and activities is drafted. According to the three forest inventories (in 1921-24, 1936-37 and 1951-53), big improvements have been made in cutting methods, mainly in the sense that selective cuttings have decreased. The condition of private forests is, however, not as good as that of the state and company forests. Improvements introduced in the legislation in 1928 have had great influence in forestation and drainage of peatlands in private forests. The private forests, however, suffer from a lack of planning.

Through Intensified forest policy it has been possible to ensure supply of roundwood for forest industry. An efficient information service on timber markets have been organized, and the measurement of roundwood has been standardized. Progress in the promotion of forestry has suffered from unfavourable trends in forestry, mainly from the nearly doubling of the number of forest holdings in the present century and from the contraction of their size.

The article includes an English summary.

  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4656, category Article
P. O. Väisänen. (1957). Maatilojen perustaminen ja niiden elinkelpoisuus erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa maatalouden harjoittamisen kannalta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 92 article id 4656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14057
English title: Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; kannattavuus; metsäopetus; maatalous; jatkokoulutus; asutus; maatilat; maatalousmaa
English keywords: northern Finland; arable land; profitability; forest education; agriculture; settlement; farms
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The main part of arable land that could be cleared out into fields lies in Northern Finland, where climate conditions restricts agriculture. This presentation discusses conditions for profitable agriculture and settlement activities in the north.

  • Väisänen, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4651, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1956). Outlines of cartographical and timber surveying unit. Silva Fennica vol. no. 90 article id 4651. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9113
Keywords: Finland; remote sensing; forest mensuration; aerial surveying; forest surveys
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

After the Second World War Finnish Forest Service was faced with large e-mapping and timber surveying project in Northern Finland. The funds for mapping were very limited. In order to re-map the large areas, the only way was to look for alternative methods for the ground methods. The photogrammetric equipment of Finnish Army was made available to the civil service. Consequently, since 1947 several forest mapping projects were carried out in co-operation between the Forest Service and the Army Topographic Service.

When more funds were coming available for the project, new instruments were acquired. The article describes the present mapping procedure and suggests alternative ways in procedure and utilization of new equipment. It concludes that if the forest area under modern timber management plans is several million acres, the ideal implemental framework for mapping and timber surveying unit in Finland should be the following: Radial Secator RS I and slotted templates for the radial line plot, Stereotope Plotter for drafting general maps, the old Delft Scanning Stereoscope for photo interpretation, and Aero-Sketchmaster for transport of the photo details.

  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4642, category Article
Einar Maliniemi. (1954). Tilastollinen tutkimus sahapuiden hakkuusta ja ajosta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 82 article id 4642. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9103
English title: Statistical analysis on felling and haulage of sawlogs in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; Perä-Pohjola; metsätyö; puunkuljetus; palkkaus; tukkipuu; puunkorjuu; työntutkimus
English keywords: northern Finland; work study; timber harvesting; sawlogs; haulage; forest work; wages; wood transportation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The wages of logging and haulage has been dependent on the decisions of foremen. The aim of this study was to provide better insight on how working conditions in a logging site affect productivity of the work. Six working sites operated by Forest Service, Veitsiluoto Oy and Kemi Oy in the communes of Salla, Muonio and Kolari in Lapland were studied. The forests in the area were mostly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

The effect of average volume of the stems, the average daily haulage over distances of various lengths, density of the stand and shape of the stem on effectivity was calculated. The size of the team was of considerable importance to the felling and haulage result in the Northern Finland where the feller assists in loading of the logs. One of the aims of the study was to find out what size of team is most advantageous for each haulage distance. The results show the optimum distance of haulage for teams of different sizes.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Maliniemi, E-mail: em@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4640, category Article
Jaakko Jalas. (1953). Rokua : suunnitellun kansallispuiston kasvillisuus ja kasvisto. Silva Fennica vol. no. 81 article id 4640. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9102
English title: Vegetation and flora in the planned national park of Rokua in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kasvillisuus; kasvisto; luonnonsuojelu; kansallispuistot; Rokua; Rokuan kansallispuisto; Suomi
English keywords: lichen; vegetation; Finland; northern Finland; nature conservation; vascular plants; national parks; flora
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The 4.4 km2 sized area of Rokua is a sandy ridge situated in the transitional zone between Central and Northern Finland. It has been suggested to become a new national park due to its, in the area unique landscape and geological characteristics.

The vegetation of the area has been little studied. A vegetation analysis was performed in 1945, 1947 and 1949. Due to low nutrients in the sandy soil, the number of species is relatively low, including 236 vascular plants. The climate is continental. Lichen covering of soil in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests is mostly intact compared to the more northern areas, because grazing of reindeer has been little. Fellings have increased in the surrounding areas of the planned national park. The article includes a detailed description of vegetation and flora in the area.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Jalas, E-mail: jj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4628, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1952). Havaintoja Peräpohjolan valtion mailla vuosina 1948-50 suoritetuista männyn kylvöistä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 78 article id 4628. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9100
English title: Observations on stands of Scots pine sown in state forests in Peräpohjola in northern Finland in 1948-50.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; valtionmetsät; kylvö; mänty; metsänviljely; Peräpohjola; uudistuminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; Scots pine; northern Finland; state forests; sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The most common way to artificially regenerate cutting areas in Northern Finland has been sowing, which has, however, often given poor results. The aim of the study was to assess the success rate of sowing and study the causes of poor regeneration.

An inventory was made of 28 areas on Empetrum-Myrtillus and Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type sites sown with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds in 1948-1950. In addition, to study the effect of substrata, a sowing experiment was established. According to the inventory, regeneration failed completely in 8 and partially in 6 of the 28 sown areas. Factors that explained the poor regeneration included unfavourable weather conditions in 1948-1952, insufficient clearing of sowing spot especially when the humus layer was thick, and insect damage by Otiorynchus dubius weevil.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, E-mail: gs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4607, category Article
U. Metsänheimo. (1951). Metsäojitustoiminnasta Perä-Pohjolan valtionmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4607. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14003
English title: Forest drainage in state forests in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; valtionmetsät; ojitus; metsäopetus; Perä-Pohjola; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsäojitus; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: peatlands; forest education; state forests; drainage of peatlands; Northerh Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the history and present stage of forest drainage in Northern Finland. The first peatlands were drained in the area in 1909. About 6% of the 600,000 hectares of peatlands suitable for drainage was drained at the time in Perä-Pohjola. The areas to be drained are characteristically very large.

  • Metsänheimo, E-mail: um@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4606, category Article
Antti A. Aho. (1951). Metsähallituksen osuus Pohjois-Suomen jälleenrakennuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4606. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14002
English title: Contribution of Forest Service to the reconstruction of Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; Metsähallitus; valtion metsät; metsähallinto; sota-aika; toinen maailmansota; jälleenrakentaminen; Lapin sota
English keywords: northern Finland; Lapland; Forest Service; forest administration; state forests; world war II; reconstruction
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Lapland war in the end of the World War II left Northern Finland in destruction. This presentation describes in detail the work and expenditure of Forest Service in the reconstruction of the settelement in the area.

  • Aho, E-mail: aa@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4605, category Article
Arvo Kivelä. (1951). Pohjois-Suomen uitot ja niiden tehoa haittaavat tekijät. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4605. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14001
English title: Floating in Northern Finland and factors reducing its efficiency.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; uitto; puunkuljetus; uittoväylät; vesikuljetus
English keywords: northern Finland; floating; wood transportation; floating channels; water transportation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Floating channels of Northern Finland have been unable to fulfill all the needs of wood transportation of the area. This presentation presents diferent ways to improve the efficiency of floating by improving working methods and the channels, and thus decreasing costs of wood transportation.

  • Kivelä, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4603, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1951). Suurten mittasuhteiden työmaita. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4603. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13999
English title: Large scale worksites.
Original keywords: hakkuut; Pohjois-Suomi; valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: northern Finland; fellings; Forest Service; forest education; state forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses forest resources and felling potential of the state forests in different parts of the country, and how centralized fellings could be arranged. Most potential for increasing fellings is in Northern Finland.

  • Lihtonen, E-mail: vl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4597, category Article
Lauri Teivainen. (1949). Pisavaaran luonnonpuiston metsäkasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 65 article id 4597. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13978
English title: Forest vegetation and flora of Pisavaara national park.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; kasvillisuus; luonnonpuistot; putkilokasvit; metsätyyppi; Pisavaaran luonnonpuisto; Tervola; metsät; kasvupaikkatyyppi
English keywords: vegetation; northern Finland; forests; vascular plants; national parks; Pisavaara national park; forest type; vegetation type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A vegetation survey was conducted in the Pisavaara national park in Northern Finland in 1946 and 1947. The national park (49,9 km2) includes southern half of the Pisavaara hills. The rock is quartzite. The most common vegetation type is dry upland forest type, but also fresh mineral soil sites are typical for the area.

The most common forest type, Empetrum-Myrtillus type coveres almost as much of the area as all the other forest types combined. The article describes in detail the vegetation of all forest types and gives a complete list of all plant species found in the survey. Total of 291 vascular plants was found, 242 of which were native to the area. In addition, 49 anthropochores had spread to the area when the forest ranger’s cottage was built. Number of species growing in the northern edge of their natural range is. Southern species can be found in the southern slopes of the hill.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Teivainen, E-mail: lt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4582, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1946). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran julkaisusarjojen sisällysluettelo. Silva Fennica vol. no. 62 article id 4582. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9086
English title: Publications of the Society of Forestry in Finland (Suomi) index.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; bibliografiat
English keywords: forest sciences; bibliographies; Finnish Society of Forest Sciences; Society of Forestry in Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article includes an index of articles published in the series Acta forestalia fennica, Silva fennica and Commentationes forestales by Society of Forestry in Finland (now Finnish Society of Forest Science). The index is divided into four parts, first of which contains a list of treatises, second contains authors and the publications of the authors, third is a systematic index, and fourth alphabetical index according to subject headings.

The article includes an abstract in English and in German.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4560, category Article
L. A. Mäkelä. (1939). Piirteitä Länsi-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 52 article id 4560. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13967
English title: Forestry in conservancy of Western Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsähallinto; jatkokoulutus; Länsi-Suomi
English keywords: forest management; Forest Service; forest administration; forest education; state forests; professional development courses; Western Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the reform of localized forest administration executed in 1923 and describes in detail forest management in the conservancy of Western Finland.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: lm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4546, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1938). Kuusen latvus- ja runkomuodosta Maanselän lumituhoalueella. Silva Fennica vol. no. 47 article id 4546. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9071
English title: Crown and stem form of Norway spruce in the snow damage areas of Maanselkä in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; Picea abies; latvusmuoto; lumituho; runkomuoto
English keywords: Norway spruce; northern Finland; Lapland; stem form; stem diameter; snow damage; crown form; crown shape; crown width
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Finnish tree species have adapted differently to heavy snow loads that occur especially in fell areas in Kuusamo and Salla as well as Maanselkä area in Sotkamo and Rautavaara in Northern Finland. Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. L) is adapted better than Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The aim of this study was to investigate how crown and stem form of Norway spruce in the snow damage area of Maanselkä area differ from other areas in the same region.  

Relatively broad crown at the base of the stem, quickly tapering crown and narrow and even upper crown were typical for trees growing in the snow damaged areas. The higher the altitude is, the stronger tapering the crown is. The tapering begins usually in a height of 4-5 meters. Even the stem diameter begins to taper strongly at this height. In the areas where heavy snow does not cause snow damage, top of crown is broader. Also, in the snow damage areas the damaged trees seem to have broader crown shape than the trees with little damages.  

Height of the trees decreases in the snow damage areas compared to forests in lower altitudes, which can be caused both by wind and snow load. 

The article includes a German summary. 

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4538, category Article
V. Huuhtanen. (1938). Piirteitä Itä-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4538. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13947
English title: Forestry in the county of eastern Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäteollisuus; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; Itä-Suomi
English keywords: forest management; forestry; forest industry; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; professional development courses; eastern Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes forest management in the state forests in the county of Eastern Finland.

  • Huuhtanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4524, category Article
Risto Sarvas. (1937). Havaintoja kasvillisuuden kehityksestä Pohjois-Suomen kuloalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. no. 44 article id 4524. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9069
English title: Observations on development of vegetation in burned areas in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; kasvillisuus; kuloala; metsäpalo; metsätyyppi; sukkessio
English keywords: succession; vegetation; northern Finland; forest fire; forest site type; dry upland forest site
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to follow development of vegetation in dry upland forest sites after forest fire. The sample sites were situated in the counties of Muonio, Kolari, Sodankylä, Pelkosenniemi, Savukoski, Kemijärvi and Salla, in the northernmost Finland.
The growth of plant communities can arise either from the vegetation and seeds that survived the fire, or from seeds that spread from the surrounding areas. The development of vegetation in the burned areas was unexpectedly independent of the surrounding areas, which indicates that role of the seeds from the outside of the burned ares is small. The occurence of different species of lichens, moss, scale moss and vascular plants in the burned areas are described in detail. The development of vegetation was strongly dependent on the forest site type. The thin humus layer of Cladina site type burns usually evenly, and also the vegetation develops more evenly than in the more fresh site types. Vegetation typical for burned areas was fully developed within 10-15 years, and after 25 years it began to resemble the vegetation of Cladina site type forests. The ground vegetation of Calluna type burned area was more patchy. It developed quicker than in Cladina type. Absense of lichens made it seem more fertile than is usual for Calluna type. The humus layer of Empetrum-Myrtillus site type burned unevenly, and if the area was lightly burned, the vegetation recovered quickly. The vegetation was often patchy.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarvas, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4521, category Article
V. M. Klemola. (1937). Finnish game and hunting. Silva Fennica vol. no. 40 article id 4521. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9066
Keywords: Finland; distribution; game preservation; hunting; game zones; game species
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Finland possesses climatic and botanical conditions that can make it rich in game. Several species, for instance blue hare (Lepus timidus L.), squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.), red fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) and ermin (Mustela erminea L.), and several migrating bird species are distributed in almost in every parts of the country. Hunting is still unorganized, but restrictive regulations have been established, and the central organization of hunting clubs (Suomen Yleinen Metsästäjäliitto) has member clubs in different part of the country. There is about 70-80,000 hunters in the country. Hunting has influenced the abundance of many species. For instance, European beaver (Castor fiber L.) has been hunted to extinction, and lynx (Lynx lynx L.), wolf (Canis lupus L.), otter (Lutra lutra L.), bear (Ursus arctos L.) and wolverine (Gulo gulo L.) are threatened. Also the distribution of elk (Alces alces L.) is patchy due to hunting.

The article shows distribution and abundance of forest birds, and describes the six game zones in Finland. The game zones correspond the vegetation zones, and have distinctive differences in distribution of the game species. Hunting has previously been important livelihood in Finland, but has this role only in the north in Lapland, Kainuu and Perä-Pohjola, and near the eastern border of the country. The number of hunted small game in the hunting season 1933-1934 are presented by the species. The monetary value of the game is estimated at about 30-40 million Finnish marks annually.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Klemola, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4451, category Article
Pekka Urho Sakari Tikka. (1928). Havaintoja kuusen esiintymisestä ja kehityksestä Pohjois-Suomen kuivissa kangasmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 10 article id 4451. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8399
English title: Observations on Norway spruce growth and development in dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; luontainen uudistuminen; kuiva kangas; kuusi; Picea abies; taimi
English keywords: Norway spruce; natural regeneration; seedling; northern Finland; dry upland site
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is rarely the dominant species on dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland. These sites are, in general, too poor and dry for spruce, and suit better for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). According to the study, the natural regeneration of spruce is in Northern Finland poor. In the sample plots, cones could be found in 35% of spruce trees in the stands in natural state and 46% in the harvested stands. Compared to the spruce areas in Northern Finland, or fresh mineral soil sites in Southern Finland, cone and seed production of Norway spruce was in dry mineral soil sites very low due to scarcity of seed trees and their low cone number. There were few spruce seedlings in the sample plots, but according to the observations, spruce is able to regenerate on lichen and heath covered sites. The seedling growth was, however, poor on dry sites. Spruce seedlings were often found near fallen trees and stumps. The growing trees prevent growth of seedlings of all species. Norway spruce seems, however, to be able to spread also to the poor sites. The success depends on the vegetation and dryness of the site. For instance, spruce can spread to dry mineral soil sites from seed trees of nearby peatlands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4449, category Article
Oskari Jalmari Lukkala. (1928). Metsähallinnon suonkuivatustoiminnassa saavutettuja kokemuksia sekä suuntaviivoja suonkuivausta koskevan tutkimustyön kehittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. no. 8 article id 4449. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8397
English title: Experiences on draining of peatlands in the State forests in Finland by Forest Service and lines along which research on the draining of peatlands should proceed.
Original keywords: valtionmaat; ojitus; ojituskelpoisuus; suo; metsänparannus; metsäntutkimus
English keywords: Finland; state forests; draining of peatlands; forest improvement
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Systematic draining of peatlands begun in the state forests of Finland in 1908. It was considered necessary, because 41.4% of the state forests, 5.6 million hectares, consist of peatlands. Of the peatlands, 1.9 million hectares was estimated to be suitable for draining. Furthermore, paludification still continues in the forest lands. By the year 1926, a total of 52,275 hectares of peatland had been drained in the state lands.

Certain factors decide whether the peatland is suitable for draining: the growth increment capacity after draining, technical difficulties in draining, and difficulties in regeneration. Peatland type indicates the growth capacity of the drained peatland. The peatland should turn at least to Vaccinum forest site type or better type to be worth of draining. If the peat layer is thin, the quality of peat is an important deciding factor. The peatland may also be too expensive to drain due to, for instance, long ditches, main ditches difficult to dig, small inclination, uneven surface, and deep cavities at the bottom. The younger the trees of the stand, the faster the growth of the stand revives. The peatlands usually regenerate naturally provided there is sufficient seed trees, and there is seldom need for artificial regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lukkala, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4445, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1927). The scientific foundation of forestry as exemplified by Forest Research Work in Suomi. Silva Fennica vol. no. 4 article id 4445. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8393
Keywords: inventory; Finland; North America; forest mensuration; forest research; forest site type; line plot survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a lecture given by A.K. Cajander in the International Congress of Plant Science. The lecture describes results of Finnish forest research that might be regarded significant also for North America. Because of similarities in nature and forest management, forest research may use similar methods in both areas.

For instance, line plot survey in the form used in Finland could well be applied in North America. In Finland, lines were drawn at 26 kilometer intervals. Visual estimates about, for instance, species, tree growth and productivity class, were made along the lines and sample plots were taken every other kilometer. To gain full advantage of the method, a productivity classification and yield tables are needed. When these are known, it is possible to find out how to increase the productivity of forests with suitable tree species and proper forest management. This kind of inventory of forest resources and the state of forests provides reliable information for forest policy. Another important issue for forest research is forest management, which requires understanding on their biology. At the same time, research must provide methods for practical forestry.

A summary in Finnish is included in the PDF.

  • Cajander, E-mail: ac@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4444, category Article
Toivo Wilhelm Paavonen. (1927). Forest fire insurance in Suomi. Silva Fennica vol. no. 4 article id 4444. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8392
Keywords: Finland; forest fire; insurance; fire insurance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Establishing an insurance company for insuring the private forests was suggested already in 1911 in Finland. In 1925 two companies, the Suomen Metsänomistajain Keskinäinen Metsäpaloapuyhdistys (The Forest Owners' Mutual Forest Fire Insurance Company) and the Keskinäinen Vakuutuslaitos Sampo (The Sampo Mutual Insurance Company), operated in forest fire insurance. They both had similar conditions, rates and principles for estimating losses caused by forest fire.

A total of 2,18 million hectares (16,4%) of the 13.3 million hectares of private forests in Finland were insured in 1925. Of the insured forests, 0.01–1.35% burned annually in 1916–1925. The insured forests were classified either small forests (size of the trees less than 18 cm in diameter), large forests or forests in general. The basic insurance compensated the stump value of the timber felled and lying in the forest up to 25% of the volume in the area. In case the fire decreases productivity of the land, the insurance covered the forest soil up to 50% of the value of the land. Larger losses could be compensated by paying an additional premium.

A summary in Finnish is included in the PDF.

  • Paavonen, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4435, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsien säilymisen turvaaminen Karjalan kannaksen Suomenlahden rannikolla. Silva Fennica vol. no. 2 article id 4435. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8383
English title: Ensuring preservation of forests on the coast of Gulf of Finland in the Karelian Isthmus.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; metsien hävittäminen; männikkö; ylihakkuu; metsänkäyttö; hakkuut
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; deforestation; forest utilization; Southern Finland; overcutting; fellings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Metsähallitus (Forest Service) commissioned a study about condition of forests on the coast of Gulf of Finland in the Karelian Isthmus. The study was made because of a growing concern on overcutting of the private forests in the area. Dominant tree species in the area is Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In fresh mineral soil sites Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grows in mixed forest with pine or as pure stands. The forests are in average 50 to 70 years old. Younger or older stands are less frequent.

At the beginning of 18th century the local peasants sold plots for Russians, and a villa area was created along the coast. When Finland became independent, many of the properties changed owners. Timber harvesting of the forests increased and many small sawmills increased the demand of wood. Because of the cuttings, productivity of the forests decreases and danger for wind damage in the forests increases.

The author suggests that legislation created to prevent deforestation as well as counselling should be applied to improve forest management. In addition, a protective area should be formed in the Karelian Isthmus where forest preserving directives should be followed.

A summary in German is included in the PDF.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: li@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4434, category Article
Kaarlo Linkola. (1926). Suunnitelma luonnonsuojelualueiden erottamiseksi Pohjois-Suomen valtionmailla. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 1 article id 4434. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8382
English title: Plan for establishment of protected areas in state-owned lands of Northern Finland.
Original keywords: luonnonsuojelualue; Pohjois-Suomi; valtionmaat; rauhoitus; suurpeto; petoeläin
English keywords: northern Finland; protection; protected area; state-owned lands; predator; large carnivore; nature concervation; nature reserves
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article gives a proposal for areas that would be suitable for protected areas, situated in state-owned lands in Northern Finland. Eight areas are described in the article, namely Oulankajoki area in Northern Kuusamo, Kutsajoki area in Kuolajärvi, Pyhätunturi in Kemijärvi, Pisavaara in Rovaniemi, Pallastunturi and Ounastunturi area, Malla fells in Kilpisjärvi, Pääskyspahta area in Petsamo and Heinäsaari in Petsamo.

Each of the areas possess special features in Finnish nature, samples of which should be reserved in pristine state. Furthermore, costs of the protection are small. The resident population is, however, in general against protection. The protection should therefore be organized in a way that minimizes the disadvantages caused by limitations to land use, for example grazing, reindeer husbandry, fishing and hunting.

According to Finnish Nature Conservation Act, all wildlife in the conservation areas should be protected. Protection of wolverine and wolf is, however, difficult because of the damages they cause for domestic animals. Protection of bear is regarded to be possible in most of the proposed protected areas.

  • Linkola, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7170, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1967). Luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kehityksestä Kainuussa ja sen lähiympäristössä. Silva Fennica vol. 81 no. 5 article id 7170. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7170
English title: The development of natural normal forest stands in southeastern Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsätyypit; mänty; kasvu; tuotos; luonnonnormaalit metsät; Kainuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; yield; Scots pine; northern Finland; growth; forest types; natural stands; natural normal stands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Examination of stands developed under natural conditions can be used to provide basis for comparison for study of the development and yield of stands treated with intermediate fellings. In Finland, the first investigation and the yield and the structure of natural normal stands were published in 1920. This investigation on development and yield of the natural forests of Kainuu in southeastern Northern Finland is based on 92 sample plots on three forest types; Empetrum-Vaccinium type (EVT), Empetrum-Calluna type (ECT) and Vaccinium-Myrtillus type (VMT).

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots represented variation of age classes for construction of mean development series. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) of the region are so old that development series could