Current issue: 56(2)

Under compilation: 56(3)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'metsätyyppi'

Category: Article

article id 5253, category Article
Carl Johan Westman, Matti Leikola, Tapio Nummi. (1985). Käytännön typpilannoituksen vaikutus varttuneiden kuusikoiden kasvuun ja tuotokseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5253.
English title: The effect of large-scale nitrogen fertilization on growth and yield of mature Norway spruce stands in south-western Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; kannattavuus; metsätyyppi; tilavuuskasvu; lannoitus; typpilannoitus
English keywords: Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; volume growth; profitability; nitrogen fertilization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method for calculation of the effect of practical fertilization for economic evaluation is presented and discussed. 55 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus type sites were surveyed five to eight years after fertilization with nitrogen (90-170 kg/ha). The relationships between the fertilization effect and various stand characteristics were discussed. Fertilization increased the growth of the stands on an average by 2.2 m3/ha/year. In total the increase of tree growth during the research period was 17.5 m3/ha. This corresponds to a yield of 525–659 FIM/ha.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown
  • Nummi, E-mail: tn@mm.unknown
article id 5190, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Mustikan varvuston biomassamäärän vaihtelusta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5190.
English title: The distribution of blueberry biomass in different forest stands.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsätyyppi; kasvupaikka; pintakasvillisuus; aluskasvillisuus; biomassa; peittävyys; mustikka; varjostus; puulajisuhteet
English keywords: biomass; Norway spruce; habitat; distribution; shading; ground vegetation; Vaccinium myrtillus; forest types; blueberry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study deals with the distribution of above-ground biomass of Vaccinium myrtillus L. along the vegetation continuum segregated by using phytosociological classification method composite clustering. The qualitative characteristics of forest sites corresponding to different vegetational clusters were defined on the basis of indirect gradient analysis of vegetation data and description of tree stand properties in stands in 160 sample areas in Southern Finland.

Six vegetation types differing from each other mainly in abundance of the most constant and dominant plant species were formed. Sample areas with rich grass-herb vegetation, as well as sample areas representing comparatively dry, barren site type were clearly separated from other groups of sample areas. Stand characteristics, particularly the proportional distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seems to be another important factor affecting the vegetation composition.

The lowest biomass values of blueberry were connected with herb-rich vegetation and shady spruce-dominated stands. Comparatively low values were connected to also other spruce-dominated sample areas. Pine-dominant or mixed pine-spruce stands the biomass values were significantly higher. Even if the site quality is essentially equal, the abundance relationships between Vaccinium myrtillus and other components of the ground vegetation may vary in wide ranges and cause difficulties in practical site classification.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusipalo, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4597, category Article
Lauri Teivainen. (1949). Pisavaaran luonnonpuiston metsäkasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 65 article id 4597.
English title: Forest vegetation and flora of Pisavaara national park.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; kasvillisuus; luonnonpuistot; putkilokasvit; metsätyyppi; Pisavaaran luonnonpuisto; Tervola; metsät; kasvupaikkatyyppi
English keywords: vegetation; northern Finland; forests; vascular plants; national parks; Pisavaara national park; forest type; vegetation type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A vegetation survey was conducted in the Pisavaara national park in Northern Finland in 1946 and 1947. The national park (49,9 km2) includes southern half of the Pisavaara hills. The rock is quartzite. The most common vegetation type is dry upland forest type, but also fresh mineral soil sites are typical for the area.

The most common forest type, Empetrum-Myrtillus type coveres almost as much of the area as all the other forest types combined. The article describes in detail the vegetation of all forest types and gives a complete list of all plant species found in the survey. Total of 291 vascular plants was found, 242 of which were native to the area. In addition, 49 anthropochores had spread to the area when the forest ranger’s cottage was built. Number of species growing in the northern edge of their natural range is. Southern species can be found in the southern slopes of the hill.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Teivainen, E-mail: lt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4524, category Article
Risto Sarvas. (1937). Havaintoja kasvillisuuden kehityksestä Pohjois-Suomen kuloalueilla. Silva Fennica vol. no. 44 article id 4524.
English title: Observations on development of vegetation in burned areas in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; kasvillisuus; kuloala; metsäpalo; metsätyyppi; sukkessio
English keywords: succession; vegetation; northern Finland; forest fire; forest site type; dry upland forest site
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to follow development of vegetation in dry upland forest sites after forest fire. The sample sites were situated in the counties of Muonio, Kolari, Sodankylä, Pelkosenniemi, Savukoski, Kemijärvi and Salla, in the northernmost Finland.
The growth of plant communities can arise either from the vegetation and seeds that survived the fire, or from seeds that spread from the surrounding areas. The development of vegetation in the burned areas was unexpectedly independent of the surrounding areas, which indicates that role of the seeds from the outside of the burned ares is small. The occurence of different species of lichens, moss, scale moss and vascular plants in the burned areas are described in detail. The development of vegetation was strongly dependent on the forest site type. The thin humus layer of Cladina site type burns usually evenly, and also the vegetation develops more evenly than in the more fresh site types. Vegetation typical for burned areas was fully developed within 10-15 years, and after 25 years it began to resemble the vegetation of Cladina site type forests. The ground vegetation of Calluna type burned area was more patchy. It developed quicker than in Cladina type. Absense of lichens made it seem more fertile than is usual for Calluna type. The humus layer of Empetrum-Myrtillus site type burned unevenly, and if the area was lightly burned, the vegetation recovered quickly. The vegetation was often patchy.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarvas, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7470, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1957). Metsän kasvattamiseksi ojitettujen soiden aluskasvillisuudenrakenteesta ja kehityksestä Suomen eteläpuoliskossa. Silva Fennica vol. 65 no. 7 article id 7470.
English title: Understorey vegetation and its development in drained peatlands in the southern half of Finland.
Original keywords: ojitus; kasvillisuus; metsätyyppi; sukkessio; suotyyppi; aluskasvillisuus; turvekangas; kasvillisuustyyppi
English keywords: succession; vegetation; drained peatlands; peatlands; ground vegetation; peatland type; forest type; plant communities; understorey; mire type; transformed peatlands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to studies following the development of vegetation of drained peatlands, it seems that they have transformed to a relatively stable plant communities during the succession. In earlier studies it was assumed that after drainage a mire type would develop to a corresponding forest site. This investigation studies what kinds of plant communities are formed during succession of different mire types on peatlands drained for forestry in the southern half of Finland. Understorey vegetation was studied in 18 sample plots established by Forest Research Institute on drained peatlands. In addition, sample plots were studied on peatlands in natural state.

The results suggest that understorey vegetation on peatlands drained for forestry have developed into plant communities, the most advanced of which are the so-called dry plant communities. They represent transformed site types, which are the following: drained peatlands with upland herb-rich vegetation, drained peatlands with upland grass-herb vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Myrtillus site type vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Vaccinium site type vegetation, and drained peatlands with upland Calluna site type vegetation. Drained peatlands with upland Cladonia site type vegetation seem to be a temporary type caused by incomplete drainage. The transition between Myrtillus and Vaccinium dominated dry plant communities is not clear, but especially the pure Vaccinium vitis-ideae communities justify its place as an independent plant community. The dry drwarf shrub plant communities are also stable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarasto, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7451, category Article
Helge Gyllenberg, Pauli Hanioja, Unto Vartiovaara. (1954). Havaintoja eräiden viljelemättömien maatyyppien mikrobiston koostumuksesta. Silva Fennica vol. 62 no. 2 article id 7451.
English title: Observations on the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils.
Original keywords: metsätyyppi; metsämaa; bakteerit; mikrobit; sienet; mykobakteerit; hajottajat; typensitojabakteeri
English keywords: forest soil; decomposition; fungi; forest type; bacteria; microbes; nitrogen fixing bacteria
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this investigation was to obtain a preliminary picture of the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils on forest land in Finland. Four different forest types were studied, Oxalis-Myrtillus type birch (Betula sp.) stand, Oxalis-Myrtillus type Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand, Vaccinium type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, and drained pine bog. In addition, a flood meadow was selected as a comparison.

The methods used captured only part of the fungi growing in the soil. Rapidly growing types, especially Mucor and Penicillium species, were mainly isolated. In addition, fungi showing activity of decomposition, such as Fusarium, Monosporium and Spicaria, as well as an ascomycete of the genius Ascobolus, were isolated. Autochthonous bacteria were most abundant in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests and in the flood meadow. In the birch stand 90% of the autochthonous bacterial flora were gram-negative bacteria, in the Oxallis-Myrtillus spruce and Vaccinium type pine stand 60% were gram-negative, while the share was only 25% in the pine bog. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the type Clostridium pasteurianum were found in all soils. Actinomycetes were found in all sites. The numbers of protozoa were highest in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests.

There were no big differences between the forest soils and the flood meadow. Some groups of micro-organisms seem to be absent from the forest soils, which is probably due to the more favourable pH in the meadow. The occurrence of myxobacteria is interesting since no earlier data exist of this organism in Finnish soils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Gyllenberg, E-mail: hg@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hanioja, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Vartiovaara, E-mail: uv@mm.unknown
article id 7395, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Metsätyypit ja niiden merkitys. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 7395.
English title: Forest types and their significance.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsätyypit; kasvupaikka; metsätyyppiteoria; A.K. Cajander
English keywords: forestry; forest types; site class; forest type theory
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This PDF includes his article on forest types in Finnish. The translation of the text in English can be found in a separate PDF (article id 7396).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

  • Cajander, E-mail: ac@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7384, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1945). Ojitettujen soitten viljavuus eli puuntuottokyky metsätyyppiteorian valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 7384.
English title: Fertility of drained bogs and their production capacity in relation to the theory of forest types.
Original keywords: ojitus; ojituskelpoisuus; metsätyyppi; suot; suotyyppi; ojitetut suot; turvekangas; ravinteikkuus; kuivatuksen tehokkuus
English keywords: peatlands; fertility; draining of peatlands; peatland type; forest type; economical drainage value
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to the theory of peatland types, particular peatland types, after sufficient drainage, change into certain forest types. It has been found, that the range of forest types in peatlands in different stages of draining is as large as on mineral soil; and comprise Cladina, Calluna, Vaccinium, Myrtillus Oxalis-myrtillus and grove types. Poor peatland types change into poor forest types, better for better types. However, a Swedish scientist Mellin suggested that after effective drainage especially oligotrophic bogs, when well drained, change usually into Myrtillus type.

The different conclusions are due to the fact that the same bog type may develop into different forest types according to the effectiveness and duration of the drainage. Greater the decay of the peat bog layer, the more exacting is the type of vegetation which appears. Bog types of classes V, IV and III (Finnish classification of site quality) change into a Myrtillus type, as do the poorer peatland types of class II. The types vary, however, in their economical drainage value. The fact that bogs which in their natural stage are clearly different in their site quality change after through drainage into the same forest type, is explained by the chemical quality of the peat. However, class I and the best types of class II bogs change into better forest types because they as eutropchic bogs are richer in nitrogen and lime. This difference persists despite of effective draining.

It has been shown that the development of eutrophic peatland types at the forest type stage also differs clearly from the development of oligotrophic peatland types. The Finnish classification of drainage value shows correctly the relative drainability when using normal spacing of ditches. The notes on forest types on mineral soil should, however, be replaced by corresponding notes on the transitive types between bog and forest types.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish and English.

  • Keltikangas, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7344, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1939). Maan arvo metsätalouden tuloksenlaskennassa. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 7344.
English title: Value of forest land in the financial accounting of forestry.
Original keywords: metsätyyppi; metsämaan arvo; metsätalouden tuloslaskenta
English keywords: forest site type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The valuation of forest land for financial accounting purposes is usually performed only when using methods that are based on wood resources. In the yield based methods, the book value of forest land and wood resources form one totality. In the first case, forest land in a separate land account usually has same value in the beginning and end of the accounting year. For instance, the costs of forest improvement are considered capital costs. Forest land can be valued either by multiplying the average hectare price of land with the hectares, or using separate unit prices for the different forest site types. Different ways to value forest land are presented, comparing the forest site type classification developed in Finland and the traditional method based on average height of the trees used in Central Europe. The study shows that values of forest land has relative nature.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7315, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1934). Koivun juuristo. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 7315.
English title: The root system of birch (Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa).
Original keywords: metsätyyppi; sekametsä; juuristo; koivu; Betula sp
English keywords: forest site type; mixed stand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About 40% forest in Finland are mixed stands that have birch (Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa) as one of the species. The aim of this research was to study the structure of root system of birch and compare it to the other main tree species in Finland.

The root systems were dug out and measured in 28 sample plots in Southern and Central Finland, representing different forest site types. Birch roots correspond 30‒100% of the volume of the stem, the largest root systems being in the sandy soils or peatlands. Also the longest lateral roots can be found at these sites. The size variation of root system of birch is larger than in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and the vertical root system is in general smaller in birch. Birch seems to be better than pine able to adapt its root system to the existing conditions. The smallest root systems were found in the good forest site types, but the roots grow in the good sites denser than in the poor sites. The lateral roots of the main tree species in Finland, birch, Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grow in different depths, which decreases the competition between the species. This finding gives support to cultivation of mixed stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7288, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1934). Metsä- ja suotyyppien esiintymisen keskinäisestä suhteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 11 article id 7288.
English title: The mutual relation between the occurrence of forest site types and swamp types.
Original keywords: kasvillisuus; metsätyyppi; suotyyppi; ravinteikkuus
English keywords: peatland; paludification; fertility
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The relation between the occurrence of forest site types and swamp types was studied using data collected in the national line survey of Finnish forests carried out in 1921‒1924. The majority of peatlands in Finland has been formed by forest land becoming paludificated. When the peat layer is thin, the fertility of the peatland depends on the underlying mineral soil, consequently, good swamp types occur on fertile subsoil and poor types on poor subsoil. When the peat layer becomes thicker, the relationship weakens. The surrounding mineral soils influence the quality of the peatland by the runoff from the catchment area. The direct comparison of forest site and swamp types is not possible, because for one forest site type there are several swamp types that have different levels of humidity. According to the study, a very distinct mutual relation can be seen between occurrence of forest site types and swamp types.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7259, category Article
I. Lassila. (1929). Metsätyypin vaikutuksesta puun painoon. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 7259.
English title: The influence of forest site type on the weight of wood.
Original keywords: mänty; Pinus sylvestris; metsätyyppi; puuaineen paino
English keywords: Scots pine; wood; basic density; weight of wood
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Earlier research has presented contradictory results of the influence of forest site type on the weight of wood. In this study, dominant trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was chosen as sample trees on four forest site types: Calluna, Vaccinium, Myrtillus and Oxalis site types. The trees were felled in autumn, when the water content of the wood is low. Weight of the test samples was measured weigh before and after drying. Undried wood, both sapwood and heartwood, is heavier in Myrtillus type than in Vaccinium type. The weight of the air-dried heartwood did not differ between the two forest site types. Air-dried- sapwood was heaviest in Myrtillus site type. Air-dried heartwood was heaviest in Vaccinium site type, and lightest in Oxalis type. Owen-dried sapwood was heaviest in Calluna site type, where the tree growth is slow, but weight differences were small in owen-dried heartwood. It can be claimed that forest type affects wood quality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lassila, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7256, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1929). Tutkimuksia kuusen esiintymisestä alikasvoksina Raja-Karjalan valtionmailla. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 7256.
English title: Studies on Norway spruce undergrowth in state forests in Karelia.
Original keywords: kuusi; Picea abies; valtion metsät; metsätyyppi; alikasvos; Karjala
English keywords: natural regeneration; forest site type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The abundance of Norway spruce (Picae abies (L.) H. Karst.) undergrowth is common for the state forests in Karelia near the Russian border, in Finland. In the survey, the occurrence of the undergrowth was studied. The article includes a review on the ownership of the forest, forest soils in the area, and the state of forests in the area. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominative species in 67%, Norway spruce in 27% and Betula sp. 6% of the state forests. Only 2% of the forests are 1‒20 years of age. Stands in the age group of 61‒80 years are the most common (25%). Norway spruce undergrowth is most abundant in the municipality of Salmi. The forests are typically moist forest site types or grass-herb site types. If the stands are allowed to develop naturally, even the Vaccinium sites become Norway spruce dominated. Spruce undergrowth is formed seldom under a spruce forest unless the stand is thin or has openings. Because Norway spruce is often rare in the mineral soil sites, the undergrowth is often regenerated from seeds that spread from spruce swamps. Earlier practiced shifting cultivation and its frequent fires prevented regeneration of spruce undergrowth. Similarly, the common felling method used, clear felling in strips, does not promote spruce undergrowth. Consequently, their occurrence is likely to decrease in the future.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7192, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1925). Metsätyyppiteoria. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 7192.
English title: The theory of forest types.
Original keywords: metsätyyppi; kasvupaikka; pintakasvillisuus; hyvyysluokka; boniteetti
English keywords: ground vegetation; forest site type; quality class; forest type; forest vegetation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, E-mail: ac@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7068, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1921). Tilastoa Pohjois-Suomen metsä- ja suotyypeistä. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 7068.
English title: Statistics of forest and peatland site types in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyyppi; suotyyppi
English keywords: forest site type; peatland type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The vegetation of the forest and peatland site types in Northern Finland differ markedly from those in Southern Finland, also the vegetation of the subtypes in the north is distinctive. A line survey was conducted to study the distribution of forest and peatland site subtypes in Northern Finland.

The vegetation of rich grass-herb forest types differs little from the poorer grass-herb forest types in Northern Finland. They abundance decrease towards north. The main fresh mineral soil sites are Myrtillus site type, Hylocomnium-Myrtillus site type and their paludified forms. The abundance of the fresh mineral soil sites decreased towards north so that in Kemi the proportion was 20.5 and in Lapland 12.0%. A transition from the fresh to the drier site types is gradual. The Vaccinium site type that is dominant in the south, is rare in the north, where it is replaced by Empetrum-Vaccinium type. The proportion of dry forest sites increase towards north, in average their distribution is 25% of the lands. There are numerous subtypes, which can be merged in to four main site types: Calluna, Cladina-Calluna, Myrtillus-Cladina and Cladina site type. The peatlands are more abundant in the southern part of the study area. The most common peatland types are pine swamps.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, E-mail: sm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7057, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1921). Havaintoja Kuusamon ja sen eteläpuolisten kuusimetsäalueiden metsä- ja suotyypeistä. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 5 article id 7057.
English title: Observations of forest and peatland site types in Norway spruce areas in Kuusamo.
Original keywords: kuusi; Picea abies; kasvillisuus; metsätyyppi; suotyyppi; kuusimetsäalue
English keywords: ground vegetation; forest site type; peatland type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The forest and peatland site types can be identified based on the ground vegetation. Grazing, forest fires, fellings and other interferences, altitude and soil, however, change the species composition. In Kuusamo area, the land is mountaneous, but the moraine layer is mostly continuous. Thus, there is relatively little rocky sites. In addition, the calcareous soil is more fertile than in the most parts of the country. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is common on Hylocomium-myrtillus site type, where vegetation differs to some extent from the corresponding forest site types in the southern parts of the country. These changes seem to be caused by the thin stands in the north. In the southern parts of the Kuusamo area, the stands are denser which affects the vegetation. In areas that have been burned, the dominant tree species is mostly Betula sp., and Norway spruce may grow in understorey, and the ground vegetation is herb-rich. The forest become thinner, the higher the altitude. This changes also ground vegetation. Norway spruce is also dominant species in the spruce swamps and transition zones between spruce swamps and the open peatland types.
  • Kujala, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7042, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1920). Kasvu- ja tuottotaulut Suomen eteläpuoliskon mänty-, kuusi- ja koivumetsille. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 7042.
English title: Growth and yield tables for the Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch in the southern part of Finland.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; kuusi; Picea abies; mänty; Pinus sylvestris; metsätyyppi; koivu; Betula sp.; Keski-Suomi; kasvu- ja tuotostaulukko; runkolukusarja
English keywords: Southern Finland; forest site type; stem frequency distribution series; Central Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The first proper growth and yield tables were prepared in Finland already in 1872, but they have been used little as the needs of forestry and forest sciences increased. One of the problems of the old yield tables was how the site quality classes are determined. The new growth and yield tables use the forest site type classification, which enables the use of same site types for all tree species. This makes it possible to compare the growth of different tree species in same kind of sites. The tables also use stem frequency distribution series. In the first stage, the tables were prepared for Southern and Central Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7037, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1920). Tutkimuksia Pohjois-Suomen metsätyypeistä. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 7037.
English title: Studies on forest site types in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyyppi; kasvupaikka; kasvillisuusanalyysi
English keywords: ground vegetation; forest site type; vegetation analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The forest site classification system used in Finland is based on ground vegetation rather than the wood production capacity. A. K. Cajander has presented a detailed classification of different forest site classes in different parts of the country. This study focuses on the forest site types of Northern Finland, which are less well defined. The article presents detailed vegetation analysis and lists of plant species in different forest site types in Northern Finland. In contrast to southern parts of Finland, both the natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) stands are uneven-aged in the north. The forests are also relatively thin. There is a marked difference in height of trees between the richest and poorest sites, but the dominant trees of the same site type were of similar height both in the north and south part of the study area. The differences in the height of dominant trees seem to be smaller than in Southern Finland. Also, in windy areas prone to snow damage, climate conditions can affect tree growth more than the forest site type. In more sheltered areas forest site type determines forest growth.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7020, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1919). Tutkimuksia metsien tilasta Savossa ja Karjalassa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 7020.
English title: Studies on state of forests in Savo and Karelia.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; linja-arviointi; metsävarat; metsätyyppi; metsänarviointi; puulajisuhteet
English keywords: forest management; forest resources; forest mensuration; forest site type; strip survey; distribution of tree species
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A strip survey was made to define the forest and peatland site class distribution and the condition of the forests in Savo and Karelia in central and eastern parts of Finland. According to the survey, 24% of the forested lands are peatlands. Fresh mineral soil sites (26%) were the most common mineral soil site type. Intermediately dry forest soil sites covered 22% of the area, forest sites with grass-herb vegetation 12,79%, rich grass-herb forest soil sites 3,16% and dry forest soil sites 9,59% of the forested area. The most common tree species were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 39%, Betula sp., 26%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), 18%, and grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), 10% of the forest land. The article includes a review about the wood harvesting in the forests, and their present silvicultural state. According to the study, about 30% of the forested lands (not including peatlands) were unproductive; mostly mixed alder and birch stands of poor quality or open lands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, E-mail: sm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7019, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1919). Tutkimuksia viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta etenkin Savossa ja Karjalassa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 7019.
English title: Studies on distribution of fertile lands in Savo and Karelia.
Original keywords: viljavuus; metsätyyppi; kasvupaikkatyyppi; kasvillisuustyyppi; maalaji
English keywords: soil; fertility; peatland type; vegetation type; site class; forest soil type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article presents a survey on distribution of fertile lands, soil types and site classes in Savo and Karelia in the central and eastern parts of Finland. The survey was based both in existing publications and statistics, a line survey, and visual observations during field trips. The site quality classification is based on the vegetation and occurrence of indicator plant species. The article lists distribution of indicator species in different forest site types on maps of the area. In addition, a review of history of land use and agriculture give indications of the location of the fertile lands in the area. A map of the forest site types in different parts of the area illustrate the data collected from the different sources.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lukkala, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)

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