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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'forestry'

Category: Article

article id 5636, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Jyrki Kangas, Matleena Kniivilä, Anne-Mari Tiainen. (1997). Integrating forest-level and compartment-level indices of species diversity with numerical forest planning. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5636. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8538
Keywords: simulation; heuristics; biodiversity conservation; forestry decision-making; environmental planning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study proposes a technique which enables the computation of user-defined indices for species diversity. These indices are derived from characteristics, called diversity indicators, of inventory plots, stand compartments, and the whole forest holding. The study discusses the modifications required to be made to typical forest planning systems due to this kind of biodiversity computation. A case study illustrating the use of the indices and a modified forest planning system is provided. In the case study, forest-level species diversity index was computed from the volume of dead wood, volume of broadleaved trees, area of old forest, and between-stand variety.

At the stand level, the area of old forest was replaced by stand age, and variety was described by within-stand variety. All but one of the indicators were further partitioned into two to four sub-indicators. For example, the volume of broadleaved trees was divided into volumes of birch, aspen, willow, and other tree species. The partial contribution of an indicator to the diversity index was obtained from a sub-priority function, determined separately for each indicator. The diversity index was obtained when the partial contributions were multiplied by the weights of the corresponding indicators and then were summed. The production frontiers computed for the harvested volume and diversity indices were concave, especially for the forest-level diversity index, indicating that diversity can be maintained at satisfactory level with medium harvest levels.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kangas, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown
  • Kniivilä, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Tiainen, E-mail: at@mm.unknown
article id 5569, category Article
Esa-Jussi Viitala. (1996). Assessing the effectiveness of non-profit forestry organisations: An ultimate goal approach. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5569. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8504
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; Finland; forest owners; evaluation; forestry management associations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper is an assessment of what in Finland are referred to as local forest management associations (LFMAs); the local units of a non-profit, forestry-promotion institution. First, the concept of organisational effectiveness is explored and an attempt is made to define it with respect to the LFMAs. The study then seeks to identify the environmental constraints, organisational characteristics and managerial practices differentiating the most effective and least effective associations. Discriminant analysis revealed four determinants of effectiveness: agrarian prosperity in the given area, activeness in marketing services to forest owners, the board of governors' role, and goal setting practices. The results thus indicate that the comparison of managerial policies and practices among LFMAs can provide useful information for improving their effectiveness.

  • Viitala, E-mail: ev@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5603, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1996). Tasks of forest biodiversity management and monitoring deriving from international agreements. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5603. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9248
Keywords: forest management; biodiversity; forest protection; sustainable forestry; international agreements; criteria of sustainability; Helsinki process; Montreal process
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Four governmental efforts are underway to reach consensus on indicators of sustainable forestry. Through the Helsinki process, European countries have developed and reached a pan-European, binding consensus, The Montreal process includes non-European Temperate and boreal forest countries, the International Tropical Timber Organization (lTTO) have developed guidelines for the sustainable management of natural tropical forests, and the countries around the Amazon basis have developed a joint initiative for creating guidelines of sustainable forest management of the Amazonian tropical rain forests. It is estimated that as many as 15–20 distinct processes are under way in the private sector by non-profit organizations and for-profit companies, some domestic and other international in scope. Perhaps the most wide-ranging definition work of non-governmental organizations is the undertake by the Forest Stewardship Council, FSC. The paper discusses the Helsinki and Montreal processes and the tasks for research.

  • Parviainen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5594, category Article
Anssi Niskanen, Tapio Rantala, Olli Saastamoinen. (1996). Economic impacts of carbon sequestration in reforestation: examples from boreal and moist tropical conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5594. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9239
Keywords: boreal forests; carbon; forestry; Finland; Philippines; profitability; tropical forests; forest plantations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The impact of carbon sequestration on the financial profitability of four tree plantation cases in Finland and the Philippines were examined. On the basis of stem wood growth; the accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, the formation and decomposition of litter, and the carbon flow in wood-based products were assessed for each reforestation case representing boreal (Finland) and moist tropical conditions (the Philippines). Using different unit values for carbon sequestration the profitability of reforestation was estimated for a fixed 100-year period on a per hectare basis. The financial profitability of reforestation increased notably when the sequestered carbon had high positive values. For example, when the value of carbon sequestration was set to be Twenty-five United States Dollar per megagram of carbon (25 USO/Mg C), the internal rate of return (IRR) of a reforestation investment with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Finland increased from 3.2% to 4.1 %. Equally, the IRR of reforestation with mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in the Philippines increased from 12.8% to 15.5%. The present value of carbon sequestration ranged from 39–48% and from 77–101% of the present value of the reforestation cost in Finland and the Philippines, respectively when a 25 USO/Mg C shadow price and a 5% discount rate were applied. Sequestration of one mg of carbon in reforestation in Finland and the Philippines was estimated to cost from 10.5–20.0 and from 4.0–13.6 USO, respectively.

  • Niskanen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Rantala, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
  • Saastamoinen, E-mail: os@mm.unknown
article id 5593, category Article
Malle Mandre, Jaan Klõseiko, Vaike Reisner, Hardi Tullus. (1996). Assessment of CO2 fluxes and effects of possible climate changes on forests in Estonia. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5593. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9238
Keywords: climate change; CO2; forestry; Estonia; carbon dioxide; forest composition; Forest Gap model
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present study is the first attempt to carry out an inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in the forests of Estonia. The emission and uptake of CO2 as a result of forest management, forest conversion and abandonment of cultivated lands in Estonia was estimated. The removal of GHG by Estonian forests in 1990 exceeded the release about 3.3 times. Changes in the species composition and productivity of forest sites under various simulated climate change scenarios have been predicted by using the Forest Gap Model for the central and coastal areas of Estonia. The computational examples showed that the changes in forest community would be essential.

  • Mandre, E-mail: mm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Klõseiko, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown
  • Reisner, E-mail: vr@mm.unknown
  • Tullus, E-mail: ht@mm.unknown
article id 5551, category Article
Jyrki Hytönen, Pekka Rossi, Anna Saarsalmi. (1995). Biomass production and nutrient uptake of short-rotation plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 5551. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9202
Keywords: Betula pendula; biomass production; Betula pubescens; Alnus incana; short-rotation forestry; Salix phylicifolia; Salix x dasyclados; Salix 'Aquatica'; nutrient uptake; Salix triandra
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The biomass production and nutrient uptake of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Erhr.), grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), native willows Salix triandra L. and S. phylicifolia L. and exotic willows S. x dasyclados and S. ’Aquatica’ growing on a clay mineral soil field (Sukeva) and on two cut-away peatland areas (Piipsanneva, Valkeasuo) were investigated.

Biomass production of downy birch was greater than that of silver birch, and the biomass production of the native willows greater than that of the exotic ones. The performance of S. phylicifolia was the best of the studied willow species. Exotic willows were susceptible to frost damage and their winter hardiness was poor. The production of all species was lower on the clay mineral soil field than on the cut-away peatland areas. Fertilization of birches and alder – on the double dose given to the willows – increased biomass production. After 6 growing seasons the leafless biomass production of fertilized silver birch at Piipsanneca was 21 t ha-1 (at Valkeasuo 34 t ha-1) and of grey alder 24 t ha-1, and that of S. triandra after five growing seasons 31 t ha-1, S. phylicifolia 38 t ha-1 and of S. x dasyclados 16 t ha-1.

6-year-old stands of silver birch bound more nutrients per unit biomass than downy birch stands. Grey alder bound more N, Ca and Co but less Mn and Zn per unit biomass than silver and downy birch. On the field more P was bound in grey alder per unit biomass compared to downy birch. The willows had more K per unit biomass than the other tree species, and the exotic willow species more N than the native ones. Less N, K and Mg were bound per unit biomass of S. phylicifolia compared to the other tree species.

  • Hytönen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Rossi, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
  • Saarsalmi, E-mail: as@mm.unknown
article id 5550, category Article
Jyrki Hytönen. (1995). Effect of repeated fertilizer application on the nutrient status and biomass production of Salix ’Aquatica’ plantations on cut-away peatland areas. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 5550. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9201
Keywords: biomass production; fertilization; fuelwood; peatlands; short-rotation forestry; Salix 'Aquatica'
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of repeated fertilizer treatment on biomass production and nutrient status of willow (Salix ’Aquatica’) plantations established on two cut-away peatland areas in western Finland were studied over a rotation period of three years. Comparisons were made between single fertilizer applications and repeated annual fertilization.

The annually repeated fertilizer application increased the amounts of acid ammonium acetate extractable phosphorus and potassium in the soil as well as the concentrations of foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compared to single application. Depending on the fertilizer treatment and application rate, annual fertilizer application resulted in over two times higher biomass production when compared to single fertilizer application over a three-year rotation period. The effect of phosphorus fertilizer application lasted longer than that of nitrogen. The optimum fertilization regime for biomass production requires that nitrogen fertilizer should be applied annually, but the effect of phosphorus can last at least over a rotation of three years. Potassium fertilizer treatment did not increase the yield in any of the experiments during the first three years. The leafless, above-ground yield of three-year-old, annually NP-fertilized willow plantations was 9.5 t ha-1 and the total biomass, including stems, leaves, roots and the stump, averaged 17 t ha-1.

  • Hytönen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5544, category Article
Jyrki Hytönen. (1995). Effect of fertilizer treatment on the biomass production and nutrient uptake of short-rotation willow on cut-away peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 5544. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9195
Keywords: biomass production; fertilization; fuelwood; nutrients; peatlands; short-rotation forestry; Salix; consumption
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of fertilized treatment on the soil nutrient concentrations, biomass production and nutrient consumption of Salix x dasyclados and Salix ’Aquatica’ were studied in five experiments on three cut-away peatland sites in western and eastern Finland during three years. Factorial experiments with all combinations of N (100 kg ha-1 a-1), P (30 kg ha-1 a-1) and K (80 kg ha-1 a-1) were conducted.

The application of P and K fertilizers increased the concentrations of corresponding extractable nutrients in the soil as well as in willow foliage. N-fertilization increased foliar nitrogen concentration. An increase in age usually led to decreases in bark and wood N, P and K concentrations and increases in bark Ca concentrations. N-fertilization increased the three-year biomass yield 1.5–2.7 times when compared to control plots. P-fertilization increased the yield only in those experimental fields whose substrates had the lowest phosphorus concentration. K-fertilization did not increase the yield in any of the experimental fields. The highest total biomass yield of NPK-fertilized willow after three growing seasons, 23 t ha-1, was distributed in the following way: wood 42%, bark 19%, foliage 17%, stumps 6% and roots 16%. As the yield and stand age increased, more biomass was allocated in above-ground wood. Three-year-old stands (above-ground biomass 18 t ha-1) contained as much as 196 kg N ha-1, 26 kg P ha-1, 101 kg K ha-1, 74 kg Ca ha-1 and 37 kg Mg ha -1. By far the highest proportion of nutrients accumulated in the foliage. The bark and wood contained relatively high proportions of calcium and phosphorus. With an increase in age and size, the amount of nitrogen and potassium bound in one dry-mass ton of willow biomass decreased while that of phosphorus remained unchanged.

  • Hytönen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5541, category Article
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio. (1994). Performance of micropropagated plants of silver birch (Betula pendula) in a field trial. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 5541. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9181
Keywords: Betula pendula; forestry; growth; mortality; seedlings; clones; tissue culture; clonal propagation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Micropropagated and seed-borne plants of sliver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were compared for survival and growth in a field trial at the age of six years. Three clones for micropropagation were selected from open-pollinated progenies of selected southern Finnish plus trees at the age of 17 and 20. The three seed-borne lots were of southern Finnish stand origin. The best two lots of the experiment as regards the height and diameter growth at the age of six were the clones. The best of these differed significantly from the best-growing seed-grown lot. The weakest lot of the experiment was also a clone which was clearly slow-growing with a dense and bushy crown. Survival of the material was high (mean = 94%), and there was no damage caused by voles and elks, for example. The results clearly show that the selection of material for clonal propagation should be done carefully. The clones should also be tested for performance in the field before propagation on a large scale.

  • Viherä-Aarnio, E-mail: av@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5532, category Article
Anu Honkanen. (1994). Selection of Salix myrsinifolia clones for biomass forestry in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5532. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9172
Keywords: biomass; selection; diameter distribution; short rotation forestry; fuelwood; production; clones; Salix phylicifolia; Salix myrsinifolia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

For biomass forestry in the inland parts of Southern and Central Finland, the obvious choice of willow species is Salix myrsinifolia. However, selection of clones of indigenous species has not yet been completed and more research and selection is needed. In the Piipsanneva old peatland trial, indigenous species of willow, mostly clones of S. myrsinifolia and S. phylicifolia, were compared in terms of biomass production, coppicing, height growth and diameter distributions. In this trial, the mean annual biomass production was not particularly high; more important results were attained in the ranking of clones. The trial strengthens the hypothesis that, over the long-term, the biomass production of S. myrsinifolia is higher than that of S. phylicifolia. It was supposed that behind the highest yield there was a clone with uniform quality, one whose diameter distribution would be narrow and positively skewed. Comparisons of parameters of Weibull functions showed that the distributions of the best clones were wide, indicating that those clones use the whole growth space better than those with narrow distribution.

  • Honkanen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5531, category Article
Anneli Viherä-Aarnio, Anna Saarsalmi. (1994). Growth and nutrition of willow clones. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5531. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9171
Keywords: biomass; short rotation forestry; fuelwood; nutrients; clones; hybridization; Salix
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Growth and nutrition of 20 clones representing different species and interspecific hybrids of willows (Salix spp.) growing on an abandoned field were studied. There were highly significant differences between the clones as regards the survival, number of sprouts per stool, sprout mean height and diameter and stem biomass production per stool. The differences between the clones in the concentration of all nutrients in both the leaves and stems were highly significant. 

  • Viherä-Aarnio, E-mail: av@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saarsalmi, E-mail: as@mm.unknown
article id 5401, category Article
Akmal S. Hyder, Lars Lönnstedt, Markku Penttinen. (1994). Outline of accounting for non-industrial private woodlots. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5401. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9167
Keywords: non-industrial private forestry; financial accounting; net profit of the enterprise; calculated profit of the property; cost accounting; forest management strategies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

For non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners land with its timber production is an example of a capital asset. Developments in the asset’s value and yield depend not only on forest management but also on other factors that the owner cannot control, for example timber prices and the production circumstances, such as soil and climate. One important basis for decision making related to management strategy and, in the short run, to cutting and silvicultural activities is economic analysis and accounting. The owner has to decide whether to invest more in his property (planting, cleaning, building of forest roads) or disinvest (sell timber or the holding). He has to find ways to increase revenue and cut costs.

However, generally accepted accounting practices for NIPF owners are lacking. Applying business economic accounting principles and forestry accounting traditions, we outline a proposal for a profit and loss accounting and balance sheet for NIPF holdings with a view towards increasing economic awareness among private owners. Key concepts are net profit of the enterprise and calculated profit of the property. Other profit measurements that are used are gross margin, forestry margin, operating margin and operating profit. Calculated profit is based on adjusted net profit. The main concern, however, is to consider the change in the holding’s market value caused by changes in stock volume, quality and price. The contents of the accounting framework development here are applied to three management strategies. The return on investment (ROI) of forestry is compared with other investment alternatives.

  • Hyder, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
  • Lönnstedt, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown
  • Penttinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown
article id 5516, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1993). Yksityismetsätalous ja arvojen muutos. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15677
English title: Private forestry and the changing values.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsätalous; metsänomistajat; arvot
English keywords: forest management; forestry; values; Finland; forest owners; private forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forests have been economically important for Finnish private forest owners at all times, but the use of forests has changed markedly since 1920s, when forests were mainly used for collecting household timber, and the cuttings were often exploitative because of the farmer’s need for money. The present situation is totally different. Need for household timber is marginally small, and private forestry produces mainly timber for sale. The sales of timber have increased, but due to better forest management the growing stock in the private forests has increased. The article discusses how the changes in values of forest owners has and will affect the stage of private forestry.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5515, category Article
Seppo Vehkamäki. (1993). Metsien käytön muutospaineet. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5515. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15676
English title: Pressures for changes in the use of forests.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsien monikäyttö; kestävyys; tuottavuus; tehokkuus
English keywords: forest management; productivity; sustainability; forestry; multiple use of forests; effectiveness
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper discusses how the general trend towards increasing growth and productivity in the European societies is expressed also in forestry. It is reflected, for instance, in the increasing production and productivity of forest industries. Technological progress and call for economic growth require great flexibility from all resources. These pressures for effectiveness and production also concern Finnish forestry and forest management. Industrialization, urbanization and development of forestry have increased the pressure to use forests in recreation, preserving human environment and nature conservation in addition to production of timber. Through the development the definition of sustainability has become wider.

  • Vehkamäki, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5514, category Article
Walter Sekot. (1993). Forest dynamics. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5514. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15675
Keywords: forestry; simulation; forest decline; operations research; risks
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper deals with the application of forest dynamics. Reference is made to two studies, which have been carried out at a national level. The simulations of forest decline as well as the production of exceedingly thick timber of spruce and fir provide various examples of the major problems of forest simulation and of some possible solutions. It is pointed out that the statistical analysis of empirical data is most important for modelling and it might bring about even more valuable results than the ultimate simulation itself.

  • Sekot, E-mail: ws@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5499, category Article
Niels Elers Koch. (1993). Outlines of environmental policy concerning forests in the European Community. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5499. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15660
Keywords: forest policy; forestry; European Community; EC; Forestry Action Programme; environmental policy; forestry strategy; conservation of habitats
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the effects of first Forestry Action Programme in the European Community, UNCED 1992, the European Community’s new Forestry Strategy and the second Forestry Action Programme directives of conservation of habitats on forestry within the EC.

  • Koch, E-mail: nk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5498, category Article
Ernst Wermann. (1993). Outlooks of forestry in the European Community with special emphasis on recycling. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5498. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15659
Keywords: forest policy; forestry; Europe; recycling; subsidies; European Community; EC; Forestry Action Program
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the meaning of the European Community for the forestry sector, putting a special emphasis on recycling. Subsidies and the so-called ”Forestry Action Program” are among the topics that have raised controversial discussions within the EC. In addition, wood fibre recycling and the EC draft directive on packaging waste includes ambiguous targets for recycling.

  • Wermann, E-mail: ew@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5489, category Article
Markku Penttinen, Matti Kinnunen. (1992). Profitability of forestry in jointly-owned forests of Northeastern Finland and Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5489. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15650
Keywords: forest management; forestry; northern Finland; profitability; co-ownership; jointly owned forest holdings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The profitability of jointly owned forest holdings in the two northernmost forest board districts of Finland was studied by means of ratio analysis. A time series of profit and loss statements and balance sheets from 33 holdings covering the fiscal years ending 1981–1990 served as the database. The studied area was 348,038 ha, the allowable cut 304,300 m3 per year and the average turnover, deflated by the wholesale price index, FIM 57.6 million per year. The key result obtained was that the average annual profit was FIM 107 per hectare and FIM 110 per m3. The time series showed that the ratios had increased significantly over the calculation period.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Penttinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kinnunen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5485, category Article
Pekka Ripatti. (1992). Yksityistilojen metsäalan muutokset Kaakkois-Suomessa 1986-1991. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5485. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15646
English title: Forest area changes of non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991.
Original keywords: yksityismetsät; yksityismetsätalous; Kaakkois-Suomi; tilakoko
English keywords: Finland; private forestry; farm size; forest holdings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to describe the total change of forest area in non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991. The average gross decrease of forest area was 1.7 hectares, whereas the average gross increase was 1.2 hectares. Consequently, the average size of holdings decreased from 32.5 to 32.0 hectares. The most important factors affecting the changes of forest area were the inheritance system, resulting in a decrease of 0.7 ha, and reclassification of forestry land, producing an increase of 0.4 ha per holding. The increase of small, under 10 ha holdings accounted for much of the structural change.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Ripatti, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5467, category Article
E. K. Morgenstern, Y. S. Park. (1991). Breeding of Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.: seed orchard and clonal approaches. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5467. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15625
Keywords: Picea mariana; breeding; Canada; seed orchards; clonal forestry; breeding programs; backward selection
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

During the past 30 years, genetics research has accumulated much information on black spruce (Picea mariana). The adoption of less intensive and faster plustree selection, establishment of seedling seed orchards and family selection significantly increased the rate of progress in improvement of the species. In New Brunswick this approach made it possible to obtain substantial quantities of seeds 10 years after the initiation of the program, and now all the seeds used in reforestation are derived from seed orchards.

Fourteen years after beginning the black spruce breeding program, second generation breeding is underway. The possibility of implementing alternative breeding strategies using ”breeding – cloning” procedures are explored for the advanced generation. Until somatic embryogenesis techniques become fully operational, ”backward selection” schemes and crossing in breeding halls followed by vegetative multiplication using serial rooted cuttings can be adopted. Larger genetic gains than those from conventional breeding are expected not only from the utilization of both additive and non-additive variances, but also from the elimination of inefficiencies of large conventional seed orchards.

  • Morgenstern, E-mail: em@mm.unknown (email)
  • Park, E-mail: yp@mm.unknown
article id 5448, category Article
Markku Penttinen. (1991). Metsäkirjanpidon ja kustannuslaskennan toteuttaminen - 20 vuotta metsätalouden kannattavuuden kenttätutkimusta Itävallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15602
English title: Implementing forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting – 20 years of field research on the profitability of forestry in Austria.
Original keywords: metsätalous; kannattavuus; yksityismetsät; kirjanpito; metsäekonomia; kustannuslaskenta; kirjapitotilat; Itävalta
English keywords: forestry; profitability; private forests; bookkeeping; forest economics; cost accounting; private forest holdings; accounting holdings; Austria
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The profitability of forestry in the context of recent economic developments in Finland suggest a more systematic analysis of the profit and the cost structure of small-scale forestry than is normally made today. The domestic and international pressure on farming emphasizes the development of rural areas by means of other business than agriculture, in practice this may mean forestry. Financing in terms of the new law concerning agriculture requires projects to be profitable. Thus, the profitability of different lines of production, including forestry, needs to be reported more carefully than is the practice today.

A network of forestry bookkeeping farms covering the whole Austria has existed for 20 years. The organization and the operation of the forestry bookkeeping and the cost accounting system is based on the scientific cooperation and exchange of information between the organizations in charge. The practical experience and recommendations based thereon might be useful for Finland, when implementing a country-wide network of forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Penttinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5426, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1990). Pohjoisen havumetsävyöhykkeen suot ja niiden metsätaloudellinen hyväksikäyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5426. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15580
English title: Peatlands of the boreal zone and their utilization in forestry.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäojitus; suot; soiden ojitus; havumetsävyöhyke
English keywords: forestry; peatlands; drainage of peatlands; boreal zone
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper is a review on utilization of peatlands in forestry in the countries of boreal zone: Finland, Norway, Sweden, Canada, the United States and the Soviet Union. First, the concept of peatlands, the types of peatlands throughout the zone are defined, and the use of natural peatlands is described. Finally, the drainage of peatlands for forestry purposes in the countries is reviewed. According to the statistics, a total of 13 million ha of peatlands have been drained in Fennoscandia and the Soviet Union.

  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5394, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1989). Kestävä metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5394. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15552
English title: Sustainable forest management.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäekonomia; kestävä metsätalous
English keywords: forestry; sustainable forest management; forest economics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper is a review on the development of sustainable forest management and what has been meant with the term in different times. The article summarises the birth of sustainable use of forests in the world and in Finland, and discusses sustainability in forest management, for instance from the point of view of one forest holding, large clearcuttings performed in Lapland, biological sustainability, business economics and overall planning.

  • Kilkki, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5393, category Article
Erkki Annila. (1989). Metsien kunto ja bioottiset tuhonaiheuttajat. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5393. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15551
English title: Condition of forests and biotic damages .
Original keywords: metsätalous; hyönteistuhot; ilmastonmuutos; ilmansaasteet; sienituhot
English keywords: forestry; climatic change; insect damages; air pollution; fungal pathogens
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This review discusses whether forests are affected by biotic damages due to present or future environmental disturbances, and do environmental threats, such as air pollution and climatic change, weaken the condition of forest in a way that makes them vulnerable to damages by fungi and insect. The defence mechanisms of trees and factors affecting the development of an outbreak are described. Finally, the ways that air pollution and climatic change may affect biotic damages are discussed. 

  • Annila, E-mail: ea@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5372, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo, Mari-Anna Berg, Marja Mikkola, Helena Niemensivu. (1989). A cross-sectional population survey on the consumption pattern of berries and berry products in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5372. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15531
Keywords: wild berries; berries; berry products; consumption behaviour; garden berries; multiple use forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study is based on a questionnaire sent to 5,000 randomly sampled persons representing the adult population in Finland. The results give a picture of the amounts of berries preserved for home use and the consumption patterns of berries and berry products in the population and its various subgroups. Non-commercial berry consumption accounts for a considerable part of the total use of fruits and berries. However, use of berries and berry products decreases with the degree of urbanization and from older age classes to young. The results support the view that imported fruits and commercial juices are substitute products to domestic berries. It would appear that the consumer’s choice between fruits and berries is primarily regulated by the availability of berries.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Berg, E-mail: mb@mm.unknown
  • Mikkola, E-mail: mm@mm.unknown
  • Niemensivu, E-mail: hn@mm.unknown
article id 5366, category Article
Pekka Ollonqvist. (1988). Resurssien jakautumisen tehokkuuden ja päätöksentekijöiden tavoitteiden mittauksessa tapahtuneista muutoksista metsäekonomiassa. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5366. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15523
English title: The quarter century development in the paradigms of forestry economics.
Original keywords: tutkimus; metsätalous; metsäekonomia; päätöksenteko
English keywords: decision making; forestry; research; forest economics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The two introductory books written by emeritus professor William Duerr provide an opportunity to scope the research progress in the forest economic discipline during almost a quarter century. This paper gives a presentation of the books (Fundamentals of Forest economics, 1960, and Forestry Economics as Problem Solving, 1984), and the development of forest economics during the period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollonqvist, E-mail: po@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5359, category Article
Olli Haltia, Markku Simula. (1988). Linkages of forestry and forest industry in the Finnish economy. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5359. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15516
Keywords: forestry; Finland; employment; national economy; forest industries; input-output analysis; sectoral growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose was to analyse the importance of forestry and forest industry in the Finnish economic development since the 1950’s, and to find out how the sector has contributed to the growth of the national economy through other sectors. Data were derived from the input-output tables of 1959, 1970 and 1980. Information provided by Hirschmanian linkages was expanded by taking into account e.g. induced, consumption, final demand and absorption linkages. The linkages of forestry and forest industry had multiplied during the study period. Both final demand linkages and intermediate product linkages were significant. The sector’s contribution to the development of metal and machinery and equipment industries as well as that of energy/water supply was significant. Integration with most other sectors has increased. Indirect production coefficients of forestry and forest industry were larger than on average in manufacturing. Because of labour productivity growth, production and employment coefficients were different.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Haltia, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Simula, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown
article id 5346, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1988). Methods to incorporate the amenity of landscape into forest management planning. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5346. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15503
Keywords: forest management; landscape management; multipurpose forestry; multiobjective planning; computer simulation; mathematical optimization; management plan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study presents methods that incorporate the amenity of a forest area into the management planning. The management plan is based on treatment schedules simulated for each compartment over the 20-year planning period. The best combination of treatment schedules is selected by multi-objective optimization. The amenity is divided into two parts: (1) within-stand amenity and (2) the amenity of landscape when viewed afar (distant scene). The within-stand amenity is expressed in terms of adjective sum which is estimated from stand characteristics. The adjective sum of the whole area in a selected year can be taken as an objective or constraining variable of optimization. The assessment of the distant scene is based on computer illustrations which show the predicted temporal change of landscape according to a particular management plan.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5342, category Article
Ilari Lumme, Timo Törmälä. (1988). Selection of fast-growing willow (Salix spp.) clones for short-rotation forestry on mined peatlands in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5342. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15499
Keywords: biomass production; breeding; Salix spp.; short-rotation forestry; willows; Salix viminalis; Salix myrsinifolia; winter hardiness; clone selection; mined peat areas
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Possibilities of developing suitable willow (Salix spp.) clones for short-rotation forestry on mined peatlands in the north-western area of Finland were studied in a field experiment in which 300 willow clones were tested during 1985–87. Most of the tested clones started to grow from cuttings on limed and fertilized peat soil. Salix viminalis L. clones of southern origin had a higher leafless above ground biomass production than the well adapted control clone and the local Finnish willows, but their winter hardiness was not satisfactory. The growth habit of some southern willows was also better than that of the control clone. It was also possible to select clones with good sprouting capacity. There were few Salix myrsinifolia Calisb. clones of Finnish origin, which had better cold tolerance than all other willows tested and higher biomass production than that of the control clone. The most critical factor to be selected for this is the optimal combination of winter hardiness and biomass production. This is attempted by selecting clones on the basis of this experiment for a breeding program.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lumme, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
  • Törmälä, E-mail: tt@mm.unknown
article id 5332, category Article
Aarne Reunala. (1987). Metsä arkkityyppinä. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5332. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15489
English title: Forest as an archetype.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsä; kansanperinne; aineettomat arvot; symboliikka
English keywords: forestry; forest; folklore; archetypes; folk tradition; symbolism; intangible values
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to universal primitive beliefs, there was a huge pole or tree in the centre of the universe to support the sky. These beliefs gave rise to innumerable customs where both trees and wood have been used to promote health and good luck. Even today, many such customs exist: the Christmas tree, maypole, Midsummer birches, birch whisks in the Finnish sauna, ritual tree plantings etc. In addition to the tree, also the forest as both a protecting and a frightening maternal symbol can be considered as an archetype. Intensive forestry diminishes the archetypal contents of forests, which may be one reason behind critical attitudes towards modern forestry.

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Reunala, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5313, category Article
Pentti Lähteenoja. (1987). Effects of forestry extension courses. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5313. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15470
Keywords: forestry; forest owners; private forestry; extension activities; forest advisory service
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The attitudinal, behavioural and cognitive effects of four forestry extension and training courses were evaluated. The courses produced positive effects on the participants’ forestry knowledge. Further new forestry skills were adopted, and the courses had some positive behavioural effects. The attitudinal effects of the courses were mainly inconclusive. Differences between the evaluated courses were remarkable.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lähteenoja, E-mail: pl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5309, category Article
Veli Pohjonen. (1987). Salix "Aquatica Gigantea" and Salix x dasyclados Wimm. in biomass willow research. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5309. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15466
Keywords: biomass; short rotation forestry; Salix spp.; willow systematics; Salix 'Aquatica Gigantea'; Salix burjatica; Salix x dasyclados
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Salix 'Aquatica Gigantea', widely experimented and promising species for temperate zone short rotation forestry, has since 1950 recorded in Finland 23 times with different clone numbers. Salix x dasyclados Wimm., by morphological, cultivational and productivity characteristics similar willow has been recorded 16 times.

The nomenclature and origin of both willows have remained unclear in field research. Recent observations, based on morphological analyses and chromosome studies suggest that ’Aguatica gigantea’ and most S. x dasuclados clones can be collected under one Siberian species: Salix burjatica Nasarov. The true Salix x dasyclados Wimm. is a female hybrid S. x viminalis x cinerea, famous West-European basket willow that has been very little experimented in Finland.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pohjonen, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5300, category Article
Takuro Kishine. (1986). Optimizing simulation model on forest policy. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5300. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27756
Keywords: forest policy; forestry; welfare; environment; Japan; simulation system model; policy formation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper designs an Economy-Welfare-Environment Adjustment System model (EWEAS model or EWE model in short) which consists of the circular flow of the economic, the welfare, and the environment system of forestry. That is, this model builds the relationship between the systems for material wealth and that for mental wealth.

The EWE model is designed as a complete open system model which describes the economy-welfare-environment circular system in forestry by linking up the internal system of forestry with the surrounding external systems. The EWE model can be manipulated as a policy formation or a policy decision model, and it is available for policy evaluation in the economic, the welfare and the environmental phase of forestry. The model is a basic simulation system model which is reliable in its reproductive fitness, stability and universality. Thus, this model ought to be useful in any country in the world as well as in Japan.

  • Kishine, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5299, category Article
Shigeru Shimotori. (1986). Private and municipal forests and the forestry planning system in Japan - trends and problems after World War II. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5299. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27755
Keywords: forest management; forest owners; forest resources; private forestry; Japan; forestry policy; forestry planning system
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this paper, the author explains the characteristics of the Japanese forestry planning system and points out some of the problems found therein from the viewpoint of the management of privately-owned forests relating to the economic background and governmental policy.

The forestry planning system is a centralizes type of planning, the planning begins at the top and flows downward and outward the periphery. In order to make this planning system an effective instrument, the district forestry planning founded under the system must approach the problem of how to combine the resources of the forest with the district’s inhabitants and the forest owners; and further, the extent of the effective union of the district and the local timber manufacturing must be examined.

  • Shimotori, E-mail: ss@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5298, category Article
Frederick W. Cubbage, Donald G. Hodges. (1986). Public and private technical assistance programs for non-industrial private forest landowners in the southern United States. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5298. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27754
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; private forestry; United States; forest extension; forest advisory services; forest consulting; forest management plans; supervision
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Non-industrial private landowners hold about two-thirds of the forest land in the southern United States. The types of public (state) and private (consulting and industrial) assistance offered to these owners is reviewed. In total, about 1,600 foresters in the South provide management assistance to non-industrial private forest owners. They assist at least 72,000 owners annually, including provision of management plans for about 10 million acres and supervision of over 4 million acres of leased lands.

  • Cubbage, E-mail: fc@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hodges, E-mail: dh@mm.unknown
article id 5297, category Article
P. A. Harou. (1986). The EC context for private forestry incentive evaluation. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5297. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27753
Keywords: forest policy; evaluation; European Community; forestry incentives
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A brief overview of forestry in European Community (EC) of the 9 is presented. Forestry incentives seem necessary for increasing timber production on private ownership in order to avoid possible price inflation.

In the economic analysis of the program evaluation method proposed here to assess the efficiency of such incentives, a broad EC perspective is recommended to avoid erroneous conclusion. The evaluation made from the prospect of a member country only is artificial and is influenced by EC policies anyway. The evaluation changes depending on whether these EC policies are considered given and immutable or not.

  • Harou, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5296, category Article
Russell K. Henly, Paus V. Ellefson. (1986). Cost and effectiveness of legal mandates for the practice of forestry on private land. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5296. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27752
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; forest legislation; private forestry; United States; forest laws; regulation of forest practices; protection of forest resources
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Comprehensive state laws regulating the practice of forest management on private lands are in effect in seven of the United States. Established to protect a wide range of non-timber forest resources and to ensure reforestation after harvest, these laws may impose significant administrative costs on states and significant compliance costs on landowners and timber operators. Total state administration costs for 1984 are estimated at $10.1 and total private sector compliance costs are estimated at $120.5 million, for a total regulation cost of $130.6 million.

The resource protection effectiveness of state forest practice regulation is difficult to quantify. However, agreement is strong that regulation has led to significant improvements in forest resource conditions and has helped to increase reforestation.

  • Henly, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ellefson, E-mail: pe@mm.unknown
article id 5295, category Article
J. E. de Steiguer, J. P. Royer. (1986). Increasing forestry investments by means of public policy programs. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5295. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27751
Keywords: forest policy; forest owners; timber supply; timber prices; nonindustrial private forestry; timber demand; NIPF behaviour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In 1979, the Federal Research in the United States instituted a so-called ”tight money” policy which led to a decrease in the demand for stumpage. The decrease in demand brought about lower stumpage prices and, consequently, a waning interest in policies to stimulate NIPF production. The authors report on five recent studies on NIPF behaviour and raise concerns that increases in demand for housing may bring new pressure upon NIPF as a source of wood.

  • Steiguer, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Royer, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown
article id 5294, category Article
Gordon D. Lewis. (1986). The role of policy in forest resource development. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5294. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27750
Keywords: forest policy; sustainable forestry; forest resources; social forestry; exploitation; resource protection; natural resource development
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A nation that wishes to enhance its social and economic well-being through more intensive utilization of its forest resources must develop a rather comprehensive policy statement to ensure that the expanded exploitation does not lead to the destruction of these resources. The policy must specify the goals to be achieved, provide general direction on how these goals can be achieved, and develop a system of checks-and-balances to ensure achievement of the long-term objectives. The policy must consider resource protection, the economic needs at the various levels of government, the social impacts of utilization on ways of life in all areas of the nation, and the infrastructure needed in the short and long terms.

  • Lewis, E-mail: gl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5293, category Article
Claude Gendreau. (1986). Historical considerations and evolution of the forest policies for small woodlot owners of Quebec. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5293. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27749
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; Canada; non-industrial forest owners; private forestry; forest programs; timber marketing; small-woodlot forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In order to understand the present forest policies for the small woodlot of Quebec, it is essential to understand the history of settlement of Quebec. Following this brief description, the author introduces the various forest policies (programs) which have been initiated in Quebec by various levels of governments in order to deal with the management of these lands.

  • Gendreau, E-mail: cg@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5292, category Article
Ryoichi Handa. (1986). On the principles of Japanese forest policy since 1950. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5292. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27748
Keywords: forest policy; forestry; timber supply; timber production; history; Japan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Japan many governmental projects have been promoted during 35 years since 1950, which were most active in the history of our forestry and wood industry. They were pushed forward for and by high economic growth. This article refers to the development of our forest policy and projects in those days. But as for the future of the forest economics, it is an urgent question to develop the comparative study between every nation’s experience. In order to contribute to this problem, the forest policy is divided into three fields and experiences are discussed.

  • Handa, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5289, category Article
Karl Gustaf Löfgren. (1986). Effects of permanent and non-permanent forest policy means on timber supply. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5289. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27745
Keywords: forest policy; forest legislation; forest owners; Sweden; subsidies; private forestry; natural resource economics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

To conduct an efficient forest policy, both a normative and a positive theory are necessary. In addition, however, the explicit intertemporal considerations in natural resource economics demand that it is made crystal clear which means are permanent and which are non-permanent. The permanent case is far from easy to solve.

That the theoretical problems have practical relevance is shown by Swedish experience. A practical course of action is to weight possible positive effects from a permanent subsidy against possible deleterious outcomes. It is also desirable to avoid jerkiness in forest policy, which is likely to create uncertainty about the permanence of permanent means.

Law may sometimes be more efficient in creating ”credibility” than economic incentives. Regeneration has been mandatory in Sweden since 1903, and nobody refrains from cutting because he believes that regeneration duty will be abolished in some near future.

  • Löfgren, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5285, category Article
Aino-Marjatta Metz. (1986). Influence of forest owners as an interest group in achieving the forest policy goals in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5285. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27741
Keywords: forest policy; forestry; Finland; forest owners; neocorporatism; forestry program
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The importance of forestry and forest industries to the Finnish economy led, at a very early stage, to a close cooperation between the interest organizations concerned and the government which founded the economic advisory council. The development of the social system in Finland since the 50’s can be described with the help of the neocorporatist theory. This can also apply in part to the forest and forest industry policy. According to Olson’s group theory the representation of interests of the forest owners as a free association was forced to use various incitements to win new members or to maintain old ones. This led to tension with the forest industry which had developed its own activities to approach forest owners. Following the economic crisis, the wish was expressed for an official forestry policy programme. In response to indirect requests to the state, a project committee was formed by the economic advisory council in order to work towards a long-term plan to solve the problems and to carry out the objectives of the forestry and the forest industries. In formulating phase of the policy, the marked neocorporatist consensus between the associations and the state became evident. Certain controversial questions were, however, postponed and thereby remained unresolved. The interest organization of forest owners held an important position throughout all the phases of program design up to their realization.

  • Metz, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5283, category Article
Vasilios P. Papanastasis. (1986). Policy analysis and integrated land use. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5283. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27739
Keywords: forest policy; forestry; environment; policy analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Land use problems are very often a serious obstacle to forestry development in several countries of both developed and developing world. To overcome these problems an integrated land use policy is needed for designing and implementing innovative programs aimed at the integrated development of forestry with other land uses and the social, cultural, political, ecological and economic environment involved. Policy analysis can assist in the success of such programs by identifying the people’s needs and concerns, by gathering information about land capacity, land tenure and the traditional production systems, by testing alternative polices and by evaluating the programs after their implementation so that the necessary readjustments are made.

  • Papanastasis, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5280, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1986). Future challenges of forest policy analysis. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5280. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27717
Keywords: forest policy; developing countries; developed countries; goal setting; rural forestry; social forestry; development strategies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This is a discussion paper on certain trends in forestry, and society as a whole which may constitute a major challenge for forest policy analysis in the future. Developed and developing countries are treated separately. In developed countries, one of the problems requiring policy analysis is the rising opportunity cost of forestry and the consequent weakening interest in commercial forestry among nonindustrial private forest owners. In developing countries, the most acute problem is the depletion of forests. While looking at the relative merits of the remedial means actually applied or suggested, major guidelines are needed for a proper balance between commercial timber production and forestry for rural development. Evaluation of past forestry projects is also desirable.

  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5260, category Article
The Forest 2000 Programme sub-commitee. (1986). The Forest 2000 Programme in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5260. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15439
Keywords: forest management; forest policy; Finland; timber production; forest industries; annual cut; forestry development; cutting target
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Forest 2000 Programme is a long-term programme for forestry and the forest industries in Finland. It attempts to obtain a better integration of timber production and other forms of forest use. The total annual cut is to be increased by 15 million m3 by the year 2010. This is almost one third greater than the level during the first few years of the 1980’s. In order to achieve the cutting targets, the cut area will have to be increased by almost one third by the turn of the century. The area of thinnings will experience the greatest increase. Considerable changes are proposed in silvicultural and basic improvement work. According to the programme, the growth of the raw-material base and the consumption of the wood-based products will permit an annual increase of about 3% in the production of the forest industries as a whole until the end of the century. This would be the same as the target growth rate of the GNP.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • The Forest 2000 Programme sub-commitee, E-mail:
article id 5250, category Article
P. A. Harou. (1985). Comparison of methodologies to evaluate aid programs to nonindustrial private forests. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5250. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15429
Keywords: forest policy; timber supply; United States; aid programmes; privat forestry; privat forests; forest programs; Massachusetts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A methodology to evaluate forestry programs aimed at increasing timber supply from nonindustrial private forests is presented that aggregates the marginal social cost and marginal social benefit of a sample program participants and compares them in a benefit-cost efficiency ratio. The paper exposes a methodology followed to evaluate several forestry programs in Massachusetts, USA, and discusses its advantages and inconveniences compared to the other methodologies that have been used for the same purpose. The marginal analysis is based on detailed property and landowner behaviour surveys which are costly but represent a good standard to compare the performance of other approaches. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Harou, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5248, category Article
Markku Simula. (1985). Forestry and development - a global viewpoint. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5248. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15427
Keywords: sustainable forestry; forestry; deforestation; developing countries; forest resources; air pollution; developed countries; tropical forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The area of world forests is gradually declining because of various human activities, such as shifting cultivation, uncontrolled logging and industrial pollution. Continuation of the trends would have detrimental ecological, economic and social effects on global scale. The diversity of the problem is wide. The situation in the tropical developing countries differs from that in the industrialized world. With the present rates of population growth and unchanged forest policies, the fuelwood shortage in developing countries is rapidly aggravating. The need for more agricultural land tends to prejudice conscious efforts to increase wood production.

The industrialized countries are experiencing problems in introducing forest policy means to maintain sufficient timber supply. Rapidly increasing pollution problem cause a serious hazard to the existence of the whole forest ecosystem. Forestry has primarily been a national issue of relatively low priority in political decision-making, which has resulted in insufficient action to remedy the situation at national and international level.

The renewability of forest resources represents a strategic asset, the importance of which is bound to increase in the long-run potential for badly needed economic and social change in the world’s poor rural areas will be lost.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Simula, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5240, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Kimmo Piirainen. (1985). Effect of whole-body vibration and driving a forest machine simulator on some physiological variables of the operator. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5240. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15419
Keywords: heart rate; forest workers; ergonomy; occupational health; physical stress; forestry equipment; forest machine drivers; horizontal vibration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The influence of horizontal whole-body vibration of fairly low intensity alone and combined with the mental load and motor action typical for the forest machine drive on heart rate variability (HRV), respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) was studied by testing five subjects. Horizontal vibration had an influence on HR, HRV and RR. ’Control activities’ had the most influence on RR and HRV, but some influence on HR, too. ’Moving the control devices’ (motor action) gave the same response in HR as ’control activities’, but not in HRV and RR. ’Control activities’ together with ’vibration’ had a more effect on HRV and RR than these two factors singly, but not on HR. The possibilities of using these variables in field studies are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Harstela, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Piirainen, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown
article id 5234, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Eero Paavilainen. (1985). Hydrological amelioration and forest practice on drained peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5234. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15413
Keywords: drainage; peatlands; peatland forestry; hydrology; forest research; bibligraphies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This bibliography consists of monographs, papers published in periodicals and journals and collections of scientific papers from research and educational institutes, and transactions from scientific congresses, seminars, symposia and meetings.

The publications have been divided into three basic sections. In each section the publications are listed in alphabetical order by the author(s) or title. The total number of the titles in this bibliography is 465.

  • Mälkönen, E-mail:
  • Paavilainen, E-mail:
article id 5229, category Article
Maija-Liisa Juntunen, Jan Engsås, Lennart Gustafsson, Pekka Mäkinen, Frans Theilby, Tore Vik. (1985). Supervisors in the forestry of the Nordic countries. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5229. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15408
Keywords: forestry; Nordic countries; Finland; Norway; Sweden; Denmark; forest education; wages; supervisors; foremen; pay system
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The goal of this research was to study the position of forest supervisors, their education, number, pay system, professional organizations and work situations in Nordic countries. The study belonged to a joint Nordic project of the Nordic Research Council on Forest Operations. Participating in the actual work the number of forest supervisors were Denmark (year 1978) 715, Finland (1980) 8,000, Norway (1967) 1,055, and Sweden (1975) 6,400. In Denmark, 87% of the supervisors worked in forestry, in Finland 91%, in Norway 98% and in Sweden 86%.

Forest supervisor education started at the end of the last century. In the 1950s and 1960s the forest supervisors’ education has been renewed in all four countries. Supervisors have a special 1 to 4.5 years’ training, but many have a forest technician’s education, too. In Finland and Sweden forest supervisor education was reformed at the end of the 1970s. Supervisors work in functional as well as in regional organizations. In Nordic countries, supervisors are paid monthly salaries. Salaries are a little higher in private than in public sector companies. In 1981 the start salary in Finland was 3,107 FIM and in Sweden in 1980 about 4,425 FIM. Most supervisors in the Nordic countries belong to some union.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Juntunen, E-mail: mj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Engsås, E-mail: je@mm.unknown
  • Gustafsson, E-mail: lg@mm.unknown
  • Mäkinen, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown
  • Theilby, E-mail: ft@mm.unknown
  • Vik, E-mail: tv@mm.unknown
article id 5224, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Suomen metsäntutkimuksen kehittämisohjelma. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5224. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15403
English title: Development programme for forestry research in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; metsätalous; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; Suomi
English keywords: forestry; Finland; forest research; forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) has drawn up this development programme primarily for the authorities and decision-makers. Forestry research has been divided into three areas: A) Biological forestry research, B) Research into the management and utilization of forests, and C) Research into forest economics and forest policy. Key research tasks are presented under the above-mentioned headings. The programme also deals with the organization of research, post-graduate education, library and information services, publishing policy and international co-operation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 5223, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Metsäntutkimus metsätalouden tietopohjana. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5223. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15402
English title: The role of forestry research in providing a scientific basis for practical forestry.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; metsätalous; Suomi
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; forest research; forest sciences
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged on 26th April 1984 a Forestry Science Day centred on the theme ”The role of Forestry Research in Providing a Scientific Basis for Practical Forestry”. Specialists in forestry and forest policy reviewed the role, present situation and future tasks of forest research from different points of view, in their papers. This article includes the talks given in the event in Finnish and an English summary.

  • Mälkönen, E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 5222, category Article
Matti Leikola, Aune Koponen. (1984). Metsätalouden harjoittaminen ja metsien hoito. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5222. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15401
English title: Forestry in Finland. Studia Forestalia 1983.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; luentosarja
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; forest research; course of lectures
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

1983 was the so-called ”Year o the Forest” in Finland. To mark the occasion, the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged a series of Studia Forestalia lectures which covered, in general form, a wide range of subjects. 12 of the 14 lectures given in this series are included in this edition.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail:
  • Koponen, E-mail:
article id 5206, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1984). Miten koivuun tulisi suhtautua metsätaloudessa? Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5206. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15385
English title: The proper attitude towards birch in forestry.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; kannattavuus; koivu
English keywords: forest management; Betula; forestry; profitability
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A literature survey based on Nordic literature deals with the biology, use, harvesting and economy of birch (Betula sp.). According to the results, the easily quantified hard facts are against cultivation of birch: lower growth, poorer production of valuable assortments, lower price of pulp, higher planting costs, and higher harvesting and transport costs than for conifers. The soft facts, which may be true, are not easily measured or their importance evaluated: the possible improvement of soil, decreasing risk of insect and fungi attacks, shelter against frost etc. Due to the differences in the nature of the facts the discussion of cultivation of birch will probably continue.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5192, category Article
Kauko Koljonen. (1983). Inter-industry linkages of forestry and forest industry sectors in the Tanzanian economy. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5192. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15175
Keywords: forestry; agriculture; national economy; hunting; sawmill industry; Tanzania; carpentry; fishing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Sawmilling and Carpentry, Forestry and Hunting, and Food Grains are the economic sectors compared in this study by means of the total input-output coefficient. The coefficient measures the value of direct and indirect demand in the economy caused by a demand worth one monetary unit on the sector in focus. Forestry sector has the weakest linkage to other sectors. The derived coefficients are 1.693 for Sawmilling and Carpentry, 1.183 for Food Grain and 1.167 for Forestry and Hunting.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koljonen, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5119, category Article
Kari Puukko. (1981). Okakaarnakuoriaisen, Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) levinneisyyden nykyinen eteläraja Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5119. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15060
English title: The southern border of the present distribution of Ips acuminatus Gyll. In Finland.
Original keywords: hakkuut; metsätalous; levinneisyys; kaarnakuoriaiset; esiintymisalue; okakaarnakuoriainen
English keywords: bark beetles; forestry; Finland; distribution; Ips acuminatus; loggings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) is a bark beetle that causes deep bluing in thin-barked Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood. It has been shown that this decreases pulp yield. The purpose of this study was to map the southern border of the distribution of Ips acuminatus in Finland. It was found that there have been changes in the distribution of this species during the last three decades. Ips acuminatus has now disappeared from southern Finland. On the basis of the sample plots (134 cutting areas) the southern border of this pest lies on the line running through the towns Vaasa–Seinäjoki–Äänekoski–Jyväskylä–Pieksämäki–Savonlinna–Punkaharju. A certain degree of localisation was observed in the occurrence of I. acuminatus in its distribution area, for instance, differences in its occurrence frequency in cutting areas and even in log and cutting residue piles in the sample cutting area.

It is considered that the most important reasons for these changes in distribution are the increase in logging and changes in the location of cutting sites, and resulting competition for breeding material for the increased population of bark beetles. Furthermore, the long-distance transport of unpeeled logs from the north across the present southern borders may, in the future, contribute to local changes in the southern distribution of Ips acuminatus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puukko, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5117, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1981). Forestry and the timber economy in economic development. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5117. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15058
Keywords: forestry; forest industries; economic development; economic growth; differentiation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article deals with differences in economic growth in different countries and regions and with reasons for these differences. The central role in investments in economic growth and the mechanism of its differentiation are elucidated. The properties of forestry and the forest industries in equation or differentiating economic growth are considered. In the light of the theories of regional differentiation, the mere production of raw material in some region tends to increase differences in economic development if that raw material is processed in some other region – despite the fact that the level of income rises in both regions. It is therefore desirable that afforestation projects in the development countries are accompanied by the development of the forest industries.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5107, category Article
Lars Lönnstedt. (1981). The influence of Swedish forestry policy on the annual cuts of private woodlot owners. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5107. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15048
Keywords: forest policy; forest legislation; forest owners; Sweden; private forests; small-scale forestry; forestry promotion; annual cut; logging policy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect that the various measures by society have on bringing the level of the annual cut by private woodlot owners in line with the forestry policy goal of a long-term sustained yield of wood. The objectives and measures of forest policy in Sweden are described, as well as the central relations which explain the development in the logging policies of the private woodlot owners.

The goal of Swedish forestry policy has long been to safeguard a sustained yield of wood. This demand has successively been tightened, defined and detailed. The principle measure employed by the authorities to obtain the goal has been silvicultural legislation.

The author summarises that of all the means available of influencing the logging policy of private woodlot owners the most effective is silvicultural legislation. However, when viewed in an historical perspective, the legislation has not been able to significantly regulate the level of the annual cut. Nevertheless, at a time when there is a shortage of wood materials the legislation will undoubtedly exert a greater influence. Changes in forest taxation could prove to be an effective means in future of, for example, achieving an increase in the annual cut of private woodlot owners.

  • Lönnstedt, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5106, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1981). Effectiveness of forest taxation reform as a means of economic policy. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5106. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15047
Keywords: forest policy; forest taxation; private forests; small-scale forestry; stumpage revenues; area-based yield
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In dealing with the effectiveness of forest taxation reform as a means of economic policy, the paper starts by recalling certain objectives of taxation, as well as the effect on aggregate demand of taxation in general. The effect of forest taxation depends on such factors as (1) whether the woodland owner has a regular income from a source other than forestry; (2) the system of taxation (whether taxation of actual stumpage revenue or of area-based yield); (3) the progression of taxation; and (4) the woodland owner’s income level.

The problem is illustrated by an example taken from Finland, where forestry revenue is taxed on the basis of area-based yield. A shift to taxation of actual stumpage revenue, as is proposed, is assumed. The effectiveness of this change is studied in terms of how far the assumed change is consistent with the objectives of the national economy. It is assumed that a shift to taxation of actual stumpage revenue would cause a decline in roundwood supply. A sensitivity analysis is then applied to detect the effect on tax revenue and national income of the tax reform. It is likely that a 10% decrease in fellings would bring about a reduction of tax revenue which would not be compensated for by the more perfect exposure of forestry income to taxation brought by the reform. The effect on investment, production, employment, differences in individual and regional income, and on the international balance of payments also disfavour the suggested change.

  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5105, category Article
John Eid. (1981). Forest as a capital asset. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5105. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15046
Keywords: forestry; profitability; small-scale forestry; capital management; capital investments
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper discusses certain aspects of the capital management of forest assets. These aspects are of importance when one wants to consider what means to use to influence the capital management on both small and big forest properties. When quantifying the effects of different uses of capital, one must necessarily have a scale. The rate of return is for this purpose the usual measure of profitability. We will first discuss the differences between nominal and real rate of return, and point out the assumptions which are often implicit in analyses of the profitability of investments in forestry. We will the discuss certain liquidity and risk aspects of capital investments in forestry, and at the end deal with certain consequences of taxation.

  • Eid, E-mail: je@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5104, category Article
H. D. Brabänder. (1981). Subsidies and efficiency in forestry co-operatives. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5104. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15045
Keywords: forest policy; subsidies; private forests; Germany; small-scale forestry; forestry cooperatives; cooperatives; Federal Republic of Germany
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Private forestry in the Federal Republic of Germany mainly consists of small holdings. Out of 534,000 proprietors 97% own 0.01–10.0 ha. This category covers 45% (1.4 million ha) of private woodlands in total. During the last decades cooperation has increased so that now about 50% of the small woodland is managed by voluntary cooperatives. The main aim of the cooperatives is the improvement of management by trying to overcome the disadvantages arising from small size, unfavourable location and splitting up, as well as from insufficient accessibility and other structural difficulties.

An economic analysis of forestry cooperatives was conducted by using a combination of model calculations and field investigations of 20 forestry cooperatives which represented different types of cooperation in all regions of the country. The theoretical calculations showed the amplitude of efficiency improvement in small holdings by means of cooperation. It was shown that there were relatively poor results in the beginning and success could be achieved only in the long-term view by improving quality of stands. According to the analysis of the 20 cooperatives, the possible annual cutting rate was 4.1 m3/ha, but the actual cutting rate reached only 3.7 m3/ha. Aims of the cooperatives manly concerned coordination of production, mechanization, material acquisition and timber sales. The subsidization of forestry cooperatives proved, in general, to be insufficient. A discussion of different ways of subsidization showed that from the microeconomic point of view direct product subsidies of timber production may be more favourable than area-based grants.

  • Brabänder, E-mail: hb@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5103, category Article
Shigeru Tanaka. (1981). Forest cooperatives as a policy measure for small woodlands. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5103. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15044
Keywords: forest policy; forest owners; private forests; small-scale forestry; forestry cooperatives; Japan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Japan, there are 2,990,000 forest owners within the scope of Forest Cooperatives, 60% of which are members of forest cooperatives. These are the largest functional organizations concerning private forests in Japan. The majority of members are small woodland owners with less than 20 ha per person, and 90% of the members are of agricultural cooperatives. The variety of memberships makes it difficult for cooperatives to strengthen its solidarity. The article describes the legislation concerning cooperatives in Japan, characteristics of business, reforestation and logging made by the forest cooperatives, and reorganization of the forest workers of the cooperatives.

Steady expansion of the main activities of the Forest Cooperatives, i.e. logging, marketing and reforestation, has been seen during the past 20 years. Logging and marketing have been taken over from the timber-dealers, and reforestation has been expanded by the Forest Cooperatives on the members’ behalf.

  • Tanaka, E-mail: st@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5102, category Article
G. Madigan, A. R. C. Jones. (1981). The private forest owners of eastern Canada - a survey. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5102. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15043
Keywords: forest policy; forest owners; Canada; private forests; small-scale forestry; forestry promotion; forestry assistance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A study to determine the effectiveness of private forestry assistance programs in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in Canada was conducted among three complementary groups of individuals concerned with the private forest resource. Rural residents, members of woodlot owner associations and extension foresters in the four provinces were surveyed using three different, bilingual questionnaires. The majority of rural residences do not use forestry assistance programs. 45% of the woodlot association members responding used one or more of the several available programs. 54% of these users had a high regard for the assistance provided. Extension foresters felt that the objectives of their respective assistance programs were being met with available resources but performance could be bettered with more staff, increased budgets and an improvement in communications. This was a first attempt to evaluate private forestry assistance programs in a Canadian context

  • Madigan, E-mail: gm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Jones, E-mail: aj@mm.unknown
article id 5101, category Article
Ilpo Tikkanen. (1981). Effects of public forest policy in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5101. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15042
Keywords: forest policy; small-scale forestry; promotion of timber production; forest promotion
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the present study is to explore the applicability of some methodological approaches to empirical policy analysis in evaluating the effectiveness of public forest policy. From the perspective of effectiveness analysis we can distinguish in forest policy, aiming at the promotion of timber production, two principal objective levels in forestry: the quantity of silvicultural investments and their allocation and the quantity (sufficiency) together with the structure of timber supply. This paper is restricted to the exploration of the effect of forest policy measures directed to silvicultural investments in private forestry. First, the effects of state subsidies in silvicultural investments are analysed. The analysis is macro analysis of quantitative forest policy means, in which aggregated time series data are used as study material. Second, an attempt is made to provide a causal interpretation of the impacts of qualitative forest policy means at the woodlot level. This micro analysis utilizes an approach characteristic to the behavioural sciences.

It is concluded that like quantitative forest policy means the qualitative means, coupled with the activities of the forest promotion organizations, play a significant role in attaining the timber production goals. Of these, the professional advice given by forestry experts, has a direct effect on silvicultural activities. Extension and training activities have an indirect effect by increasing the willingness of forest owners to employ experts on their woodlots.

  • Tikkanen, E-mail: it@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5100, category Article
Ilpo Tikkanen. (1981). Causality as a conceptual frame for forest policy analysis. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5100. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15041
Keywords: forest policy; small-scale forestry; causality; empirical policy analysis; public forest policy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The need for the planning and analysing of public policy has increased in economic and social policy, along with the expansion of the public sector, i.e. as the number of aims of the policy has increased and the objects of it have become more versatile, the objects of allocation have likewise been multiplied. In addition, the significance of planning a public forest policy has been emphasized by many economic and social changes in forestry and the timber economy.

The purpose of the present paper is to outline a general frame of reference for empirical policy analysis, upon which the effectiveness analysis of forest policy is also based. The approach serves as a methodological frame for the empirical analysis, presented in the following paper of this issue of Silva Fennica, in which econometric methods are applied to the examination of the effect of public forest policy.

  • Tikkanen, E-mail: it@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5099, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1981). Aspects of research strategy in studying forest owners’ behaviour. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5099. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15040
Keywords: forest policy; forest owners; behaviour; small-scale forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Research concerning the forest owners’ behaviour plays an important role in the evaluation of the effectiveness of forest policy on small woodlots. This is because the effects of forest policy measures on forestry are indirect and channelled through the behaviour of a forest owner. In this paper some basic concepts and methodological problems of forest owner studies are discussed. First, the concepts ’forest owner’ and ’forestry behaviour’ are defined on the basis of general sociological term, social role. Second, the problem of explanation and the selection of the explanatory model in forest owner studies is discussed. In this connection the heuristic nature of the selection of the explanatory model is underlined. It is pointed out that the proper explanatory mode in forest owner studies is decisively dependent on the objectives of the study or on the kind of information that will be obtained by the study. In such studies that intend to serve the planning and implementation of forest policy, it seems necessary to aim at causal explanations, and to analyse the general determinants and factors that can be manipulated in forest owners’ behaviour.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5098, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1981). Effectiveness of forest policy on small woodlands, contributions of working party 4.06.01 to the XVII IUFRO-congress September 6-17, 1981, Kyoto, Japan. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5098. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15039
Keywords: meetings; small-scale forestry; forestry policies; IUFRO
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This collection of nine articles considers theoretical and methodological aspects as well as empirical research problems associated with the elevation of the effectiveness of forest policy measures on small woodlands. The papers presented concern aspects of research strategy in studying forest owner’s behaviour (Järveläinen) and causality as a conceptual frame for forest policy analysis (Tikkanen); an econometric analysis on the effects of public forest policy in Finland (Tikkanen); a survey concerning the private forest owners and the forestry assistance program in Eastern Canada (Madigan and Jones); the forestry co-operative as a policy measure (Tanaka) and the subsidies and efficiency in forestry co-operatives (Brabänder); the forest as a capital asset (Eid) and effectiveness of forest taxation reform as a means of economic policy (Riihinen); and the influence of Swedish forestry policy on the annual cut of private woodlot owners (Lönnstedt).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail:
article id 5087, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1980). Notes on the forests of North-Eastern China and their utilization. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5087. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15028
Keywords: forestry; China; forest industry; forest products industry; forest research; Harbin
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper consists of a report of a study tour made by Finnish forestry students, under the leadership of the author, to Harbin, Changchun, Peking, Nanking and Shanghai in December 1977. In addition, some earlier literature sources concerning forestry in China are briefly reviewed. The paper presents the general geographic characteristics of north-eastern China, as well as the vegetation zones and timber species of this region. Silvicultural methods and the main features of forest technology and forest industry are also discussed. The last chapters describe the forestry administration and current trends in forestry education and research in north-eastern China as observed during the tour.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5046, category Article
Fernando Saravia. (1979). Small-scale sawmills in industrial and social development of backward forestry areas. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5046. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14903
Keywords: forestry; sawmill industry; economic development; Chile; social changes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper analyses the potential of utilizing a previously existing infrastructure of small sawmills in a backward area to enhance planned social development, considering at the same time both social and economic objectives. The paper presents the case of a rural forest region of 352,000 ha in Southern Chile in the period 1970–73. It is concluded that meaningful contributions can be made by this traditional industry to such development.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saravia, E-mail: fs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5045, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1979). Assessment of forest resources for forest management. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5045. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14902
Keywords: forest inventory; forestry; forest mensuration; methods; World Forest Congress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The general requirements for forest information required in forest management include the availability of quantitative data concerning forest areas and timber volume, data describing that structure and quality of the forest by classes, data dealing with the forest dynamics such as increment and mortality, stand-wise data tied to on-the-ground locations, and the timelines of all this information.

A review of the present inventory systems reveals variations in the information used to manage forests. In many cases, there appears to be an inadequacy of information. There may be no inventory system, or sampling may concern only overall features of the forest. The general trend has been towards a more common use of delineation of stands and the estimation of stands characteristics. In European countries, survey techniques have been improved by, for instance, trying to avoid subjective features in stand-wise assessments and through the use of index sub-compartments which are remeasure. In North America, a new approach was recently introduced to generate stand tables which seems to have significant inventory capabilities. In some cases, the advanced inventory systems may simultaneously employ three kinds of inventories.

In designing an inventory and management information system experiences gained elsewhere should be utilized with studies of sampling methods, remote sensing techniques, new instrumentation and computer services. Improved decision making makes it possible to introduce cheaper methods for periodic inventories. The information system should be only as elaborate as is required to do the job. The costs of acquisition of inventory information correlates with a degree of sophistication of the system, but rarely exceeds one percent of the stumpage of the timber cut. Also, the increase in wood production more than compensates the costs of planning on the basis of inventories.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5044, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1979). Forest balance on the national level. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5044. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14901
Keywords: forestry; forest management planning; forest balance; utilization of forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forest balance is a comparison between the growing stock volume at the beginning and end of a balance period and the gross increment and drain during that period. The forest balance of Finland during that period 1967-1973 and the increment and drain balance during the period 1953-1977 are used as examples in the paper. Forest balance is a check of the accuracy of basic estimates. If the discrepancy between the calculated growing stock at the end of the balance period and the growing stock estimated by an inventory is great, it calls for improvements in forest inventory methods and timber utilization statistics.

Balance may reveal possibilities for improving the utilization of forest resources. If natural losses are great, increased thinnings and regeneration cuttings of mature and over-mature tree stands increase the supply of timber. If logging losses are great, the efficiency of harvesting should be improved. An overcutting situation calls forth efforts to increase timber production or to decrease the uses of timber in order to avoid overexploitation. If gross increment is greater than the drain there are possibilities to increase harvesting, forest industrial expansion etc.

Forest balance is a way to check and improve the basic estimates of forestry production, to increase the effective use of timber grown in the forest, to commerce policies and measures concerning increment and to control timber utilization on the basis of sustained yield.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5043, category Article
V. J. Palosuo, M. Heikinheimo, S. Kaurinkoski. (1979). Role of education and professionalism in the developing of forest policies. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5043. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14900
Keywords: forest policy; forestry; forest education; World Forest Congress; professionalism
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

To what extend can the services of forestry fulfil the needs of a nation? The answer depends not only on the natural resources or the stage of development of a country and its forestry, but also on its base of knowledge and know-how. The question is how to maximize the knowledge of forests and its role in human life, how to analyse this knowledge and in due course forward the result to the decision makers.

As an organic part of economy and culture, forest policy must incorporate a balanced and up-to-date program of education which will cover the needs of all forest-based services to the public. This program ought to guarantee a sufficient number of qualified professionals, technicians and workers who for their part should share their knowledge and especially field experiences for the development of the nation’s forest policy.

The forest management must be turned into a profession that will have its permanent role in the general planning of the nation’s economy and welfare. Depending on the structure of the country’s administration, there are different ways to make the professional voice heard by the responsible politicians. In any case a close and continual discussion and cooperation between politicians and professionals will be essential. Discussions must take place in the early phases of the planning in order to minimize erroneous planning caused by eventual lack of factual knowledge among the politicians. Information must be given in clear and uncomplicated terms, understood also by the public which must be well informed about the aims and duties of the professionals as well.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Palosuo, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown
  • Kaurinkoski, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5040, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1979). Social promotion of forest workers. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5040. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14897
Keywords: forestry; mechanization; forest work; forest workers; labour; trade unions; labour policy; World Forest Congress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Alongside the extent of forest production, the demand for labour input in forestry depends on the development of the structure of production and of the productivity of the work. In this, mechanization of harvesting will have long-lasting influence. Despite the growth in forestry production, the number of forestry workers has decreased considerably in many countries, but at the same time the share of professional forest workers has increased. The permanence of work fundamentally affects the life of a forest worker. It has influence on the income level, on the social position of the worker and on the standard of living.

The appreciation of the occupation of a forest worker will be increased mainly within the increasing mechanization of the work. It requires vocational training, and it will improve wages, competition of skilled workers and social appreciation of the vocation. In order to influence their benefits forest workers have organized themselves into trade unions. They activate their members in to helping the unions to attain their aims. Trade unions try to influence the policies of forestry and forest labour. In this respect they are in contact with political parties. The questions of labour policy occupy a central position in the mutual relations of the labour market organizations. Within mutual cooperation much promotion has been achieved concerning wages, working conditions, rationalization, improvement of housing facilities and other living conditions. Especially in some East-European countries attention is being paid to the motivation of forest workers.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kantola, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5039, category Article
Pertti Elovirta. (1979). Forestry as an employer in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5039. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14896
Keywords: forestry; forest industry; rural development; employment; forest work; industrialization; World Forest Congress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article describes the significance of forestry as a source of employment in the rural areas of Finland. The historical perspective of the presentation dates from the 1860’s. This period includes all the relevant stages in the development of the theme in question, the preindustrial age up to the 1890’s, the period of the creation of the forest industries to the end of 1920’s, the period of the forest industries’ expansion to the end of 1950’s and the period of mechanization from the beginning of 1960’s. The long perspective is possible because of the existence of time series data.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Elovirta, E-mail: pe@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5038, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1979). The role of forestry in the fight against desertification. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5038. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14895
Keywords: afforestation; forestry; desertification; congress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper reviews the background documents and the final report of the United Nations Conference on Desertification, held in Nairobi, Kenya, in August/September of 1977. Deforestation for grazing or agriculture has often been the initial step towards desertification. Consequently, tree planting plays a central role in the reclamation of desertified areas. Shelterbelts and other tree plantations protect agricultural land, settlements and communications.

Tree plantations in arid zones need effective protection against grazing and other improper land use. This must be explained to political leaders and local people. As a long-term investment, it requires a high level of education to understand its ultimate usefulness, and also research to choose the best species and techniques for different climatic and soil conditions is needed. In addition, afforestation will contribute to the solution of energy problems. Fast growing trees, even with artificial irrigation, can be the most efficient and economical way to cover energy needs of rural people. To accomplish the task of reclamation of decertified areas, international cooperation and technical and economic support from industrial countries to developing countries is needed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5037, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1979). Environmental content of forestry education in Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5037. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14894
Keywords: forestry; forest education; World Forest Congress; environmental conservation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Traditionally, European forest education has emphasized environmental conservation. Forest education reflects the needs of society. After the industrial revolution, rapidly growing forest industries needed an increasing amount of wood, and the emphasis of forestry education was on timber production on the basis of sustained yield, and on efforts for progressively raising yields.

The technical and economic development of the recent decades introduced two themes in the environmental content of forest education: 1) The changing role of forests in society increase importance of protection and recreational functions of forests, and 2) modern technology has caused great changes in the forestry itself. These changes have to be taken into account also in the forest education. The environmental content of forest education can be divided into two broad fields, the ecological basis and environmental influences of various forest operations, and forest management for non-production uses. In both fields university curricula include a) basic courses, obligatory for all forestry students, b) optional courses, and c) advanced courses for higher degrees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5036, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Päiviö Riihinen. (1979). Forestry and rural development. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5036. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14893
Keywords: forestry; forest industry; rural development; World Forestry Congress; industrialization; economic development; social development
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The development of a society often involves deep-going changes in its economic and social structure. According to the theory of cumulative growth, the economic changes attached to industrialization and modernisation of a society are characterized by the regional differentiation of economic activities. Expansive growth centres, areas with spreading effects, and back-wash areas will develop due to the dynamic forces of cumulative development.

The impact of industrialization and modernization on society as a whole usually manifests itself in an achievement of many of the welfare objectives considered desirable. There are, however, differences between the industries or other economic activities in respect to their effect on the economic or social life of a society or a region. The special feature of forestry and forest industry is that they are more concerned with rural districts than most other economic pursuits. The differentiation effect of forestry and forest industries is not as pronounced as that of certain other industries. Especially the back-wash effects remain rather weak.

In traditional, non-industrialized society the establishment of forestry activities may have an important role in the beginning of economic and social development which is rational from the point of view of the local communities as well as of the society as a whole. However, forestry may also have influences which one can see as socially undesirable. As far as traditional rural societies are concerned, one basic problem is that the establishment of forestry activities may advance the disintegration of ancient social institutions and structures. On the other hand, in a modern, industrialized society one primary function of forestry seems to be to maintain and strengthen the rural social structures and to equalize the regional differences caused by cumulative development. However, the role of forestry in rural development is likely to decrease when the industrialization and modernization progresses, for instance, because the increasing urban population will use forests for purposes other than forestry, such as recreation and nature conservation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
article id 5035, category Article
V. J. Palosuo. (1979). Kehitysmaiden ongelmat metsäkongressin polttopisteessä. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5035. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14892
English title: Forests for people - World Forestry Congress.
Original keywords: metsätalous; kehitysmaat; Maailman metsäkongressi
English keywords: forestry; developing countries; World Forestry Congress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a description of the 8th World Forestry Congress held in October 1978. It gives background information for the papers published in the Silva Fennica issue 13, which includes the Finnish papers sent in the congress from Finland. The paper underlines forest and socio-economic problems of the developing countries, especially in the tropics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palosuo, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5013, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). Tutkimustoiminta Lapin metsien hoidon ja käytön suuntaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1A article id 5013. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14867
English title: The role of forestry in guiding forest policy and management in Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; historia; Lappi
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland; Lapland; history; forestry research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The part played by research work in guiding the management and utilization of Lapland’s forests is examined in this publication. The review has been written to mark the 70th anniversary of the Finnish Forestry Society (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science).

The climate in Lapland is very severe and, owing to the lack of experience abroad, forestry has been forced to follow the guidelines set by domestic research activity in Finland. Research work was very active in Lapland the 1910’s, 1920’s and 1950’s, and the main outlines for forestry utilisation were soon established. In the 1950’s, there was a strong trend prevailing to develop forestry, with the result that a change took place in favour of clear-cutting. The cool climate period in the 1960’s caused considerable damage to young plantations. In order to find means to rectifying the situation and to devise new guidelines for forest management, The Finnish Forest Research Institute established a number of research stations in Lapland.

Research activity has had a pronounced effect on the management and utilization of forests in Lapland. Present-day problems have been caused more by the international situation than by difficulties in the management of forests in Lapland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, E-mail:
article id 4982, category Article
Olli Järvinen, Kullervo Kuusela, Risto A. Väisänen. (1977). Metsien rakenteen muutoksen vaikutus pesimälinnustoomme viimeisten 30 vuoden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4982. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14836
English title: Effects of modern forestry on the numbers of breeding birds in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; linnusto; lintulajit; luonnonmetsät
English keywords: forest management; natural forests; bird populations; commercial forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Pair numbers of breeding land birds were estimated from line transects data collected in Finland in 1936–76. The changes observed in the bird populations are in this paper compared with data obtained in the Finnish forest inventories, particularly made in 1951–53 and 1971–76. It is concluded that modern forestry has considerable impact on the breeding bird fauna. In general, more species have increased than decreased due to changes in the forests. Areas affected by forestry are more favourable habitats for many species than natural forests, but, on the other hand, there are certain species which are greatly harmed by the effects of modern forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järvinen, E-mail: oj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 4977, category Article
C. J. Westman. (1977). Nutrient cycle in tree stands - Nordic symposium. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4977. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14830
Keywords: fertilization; forestry; Nordic countries; plant nutrition; Symposiums
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Nordic working group for forest fertilization is a group of research workers from the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, which has been working on plant nutrition questions and forest amelioration problems. The group has met annually to discuss current problems, hitherto mostly concerning forest fertilization. In 1976 the question of future working forms came up, and the group decided to arrange a symposium on the subject Nutrient cycle in tree stands in 1977.

This symposium took place in Harjavalta and Ikalis in Finland from the 29th of August to 1st of September 1977. During the symposium 12 papers were presented, which are published in the following, either in full or as summaries of a given lecture. Part of the lectures are in English and part in Swedish.

The paper includes the following titles:

A bioelement budget of an old Scots pine forest in Central Sweden

Mobilization of plant nutrients in a Scots pine forest Mor in Central Sweden

Accumulation of organic matter and nitrogen on sand dunes following sand fixation and planting of dwarf mountain pine

Sambandet mellan torvmarkstyp och yttorvens näringshalt

Changes in the amounts of inorganic nutrients in the soil after clear-felling

Plant nutrient balance in decoration greenery cultivation

The effect of forest fertilization on primary production and nutrient cycling in the forest ecosystem

Förändringar i humuslagret efter skogsgödling

Balanserad näringsupptagning och behovet av gödsling i trädbestånd på näringsfattiga torvmarker

Of fertilization on nutrient contents in needles and litter fall of Scots pine on dwarf shrub pine swamp

Micro-nutrient deficiencies cause growth disturbances in trees

Tallarnas växtstörningar, markens näringsbalans och micronäringsbrist

  • Westman, E-mail:
article id 4973, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen. (1977). Economics of forest uses in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4973. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14824
Keywords: forestry; tourism; timber production; berries; recreation; forest economics; forest recreation; reindeer husbandry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The object of the study was to give a tentative indication of the realized economic significance of the principal forest (forestry land) uses in Finnish Lapland. Data concerns the years of the 1970s. Nowadays timber harvesting generates a major part of the total value of production. Recreation (tourism) is in second place. Reindeer husbandry, collection of berries and mushrooms and hunting together produce, in the best years, an output value which is about one fifth of that of timber harvesting. Non-timber uses together produce a rather significant portion on the total value of the integrated forestry output.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saastamoinen, E-mail: os@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4961, category Article
Helmut Schmidt-Vogt. (1977). Keski-Euroopan metsänhoidon kehityssuuntia. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4961. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14812
English title: Trends in the forest management in Central Europe.
Original keywords: metsänkäyttö; metsänhoito; virkistyskäyttö; metsien monikäyttö; Keski-Eurooppa; ympäristönsuojelu
English keywords: forest management; forestry; forest management planning; forest utilization; recreation; Germany; Central Europe; Bavaria; environmental management
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the densely populated Central Europe, forestry has always had different functions than in Scandinavia or Canada. Today the increasing pressures on the environment and more numerous demands of the people have put emphasis on environmental management and the demands of recreation in forest management practiced in the area. This paper outlines the trends in the utilization of forests in Central Europe, and especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, due to these changing targets. The regulations concerning forestry in Baden-Würtenber, and the forest plan of the Bavarian state forests are used as an example to clarify the principals of forest management and planning.

  • Schmidt-Vogt, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4927, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Kantojen käytön kehittyminen Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4927. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14769
English title: Development of stump utilization in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; historia; polttopuu; tervanpoltto; polttoaineet; selluteollisuus; kannot; hyötykäyttö
English keywords: stumps; forestry; fuelwood; history; pulp industry; tar; utilization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The utilization of stump and root wood is analysed in this paper on the basis of literature from middle of 19th century to the present date. According to the information available, the utilization of pine stumps in tar production was small compared to that of peeled Scots pine stemwood in the 19th century. During the 1st and 2nd World War the utilization of stumps for tar production reached its highest levels. Other industrial utilization of stumps has been small up to the present time but now stumps are beginning to be used in the pulp industry.

The greatest amounts of stumps have been utilized by the rural population. Stumps were used as fuel. In the thirties, the yearly amount used was over 200,000 m3 (solid measure), and even in the sixties over 100,00 m3. No industrial utilization method has yet reached these levels.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4923, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1975). Puiden lyhytkiertoviljelyn varhaishistoriaa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4923. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14765
English title: Early history of short-rotation forestry.
Original keywords: historia; lyhytkiertoviljely; vesametsätalous
English keywords: coppice; short-rotation forestry; history
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the first place the term short-rotation forestry is being used in the sense of intensive tree growing during a short rotation time using reproduction by coppice shoots from broad-leaved tree material which has been specially bred for this purpose, or of producing fast-growing varieties from planted stock during the course of somewhat longer rotation time (maximum 20 years). However, short-rotation forestry as such has already a long history.

In the Fertile Crescent in ancient Egypt grew no tree species suitable for short-rotation production, but reeds and bulrushes were used for the same purpose as willow-twigs, e.g. wickerwork or binding. At least in the Fertile Crescent reed harvesting using a rotation of one year was practiced already very long ago. The earliest information about coppice-shoot cultivation is found in Greek literature, but it was the Romans who developed short-rotation forestry based on the trees’ capacity of reproducing through coppice shoots into an extensive economic activity. Willows were by far the most important species used. Twigs intended for wickerwork were harvested once a year and thicker material, to be used for support and in basket framework, every fourth year. Chestnut and oak were used for the production of slightly thicker poles employing a longer rotation. Cypress poles were produced from seedlings using a rotation time of 12–13 years. Roman scholars give us plenty of information concerning the tending of plantations in short-rotation forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4913, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1975). Metsäammattimiesten ja luottamushenkilöiden mielipiteet julkisesta metsähallinnosta ja sen kehittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4913. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14757
English title: Forestry expert’s and appointed representatives’ opinions about official forest administration and its development in Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; yksityismetsät; metsähallinto; metsäammattialiset; luottamushenkilöt; metsäorganisaatiot
English keywords: Finland; state forests; private forests; forestry administration; forest organizations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The task of the study was to describe the opinions of the forestry experts engaged in the State forestry organization and the organization for promotion of private forestry, and of the appointed representatives in the organization for the promotion of private forestry concerning the official forestry administration and its development. The study material was based on two samples, one of 240 forestry experts and the other of 290 appointed representatives. The data was compiled by mail inquiry.

Forestry experts were found to rate the success of the official forestry administration in its tasks lower than did the appointed representatives. Both the forestry experts and appointed representatives were of the opinion that the official forestry administration has been most successful in accomplishing timber production and least successful in the tasks concerning multiple use of forests. The results also indicate that 44% of the forestry experts were of the opinion that the most suitable organization model would be a uniform state organization for both the State, and private owned forests. About a third of the forestry experts considered that the best model would be two different state organizations, one for the State forests and the other for the private forests. 62% of the appointed representatives were of the opinion that the best solution would be to retain the official forestry administration such as it is now.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4909, category Article
Jari Hurskainen, Aarne Reunala. (1974). Metsätalousaluetoiminnan kehitys ja kehittymisen edellytykset Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4909. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14753
English title: Development of regional cooperation of private forest owners in Finland.
Original keywords: järjestöt; metsäteollisuus; yksityismetsät; metsänomistajat; metsätalousalueet; yhteistoiminta; Pohjois-Karjala
English keywords: forest owners; forest industry; private forests; forestry coopearation areas; regional cooperation; interest organizations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Since the end of 1960s some 350 voluntary forestry cooperation areas covering about 10% of Finland’s total private forest area have been established in the country in order to avoid drawbacks of small individual units. The aim of the study was to find out why most of these cooperative areas have been established in the area of northern Karelia forestry board district in Eastern Finland, whereas elsewhere establishing has advanced very slowly. »Soft» research techniques based on free interviews was used to gather the data. Attitudes of the interest organizations of forest owners and forest industry companies, question of organizer of cooperation, and resources for regional forestry planning were found as most important factors to explain the differences in development of cooperation in different areas.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hurskainen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Reunala, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown
article id 4857, category Article
Antti Lappalainen. (1971). Metsät ja verot. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4857. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14659
English title: Forests and taxation in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäverotus; verotus; Suomi; pinta-alavero; tuloverotus
English keywords: forestry; Finland; forest taxation; area taxation; tax on income; gross income from timber sales
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There is no clear picture in Finland of how big the revenues are that the State and the local authorities receive from taxation for the part of primary forestry. Conception of taxation varies from 100% to 50%. The paper presents a comparison between the gross income from timber sales as determined according to the method used at the Central Statistics Bureau and the net revenues as calculated on the basis of forest fee.

At 1920s area taxation was introduced in forest taxation. The system is based on forest types and their timber production capacity. According to the principles of area taxation, no tax is paid for overcuts, whereas timber capital savings should be paid for.

According to the calculations of this study, in 1958–62 the gross income from timber sales was about 506 million Fmk annually in Southern Finland, the costs involved in timber production about 437 million Fmk, and the annual taxable income 231 million Fmk. In the period more valuable timber assortments were harvested than those for which taxes were paid according to the old regulations.

Half a century ago, area taxation was a system suited to its purpose. Now, however, forestry is in the hands of another generation, and accounting has been introduced in practical agriculture and forestry. Therefore, a taxation system based on the real income from timber growing should be introduced. The transition period could even be relatively short. It seems probable that a forest owner does not sell timber at a time when this would be required by silvicultural aspects in order to avoid income taxation, he should have to be present an acceptable working plan.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lappalainen, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4855, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1971). Puuntuotannon ja metsien virkistyskäytön koordinointi Saksan liittotasavallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4855. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14657
English title: Integration on timber production and forest recreation in the German Federal Republic.
Original keywords: Saksa; metsien virkistyskäyttö; metsien monikäyttö; Saksan liittotasavalta; puuntuotanto
English keywords: forestry; timber production; recreation; Germany; Bayerischer Wald; German Federal Republic; Schönbuch; Bavarian Forest National Park
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a report of a study tour of five Finnish foresters in Germany on September 27 – October 2. 1971. As in most industrial countries, the recreation use of forests is rapidly expanding and, therefore, its needs are considered in the management of forests. Two examples of intensively used recreation forests are described, Schönbuch near Stuttgart and the Bavarian Forest National Park at the Czechoslovakian border. These forests are effectively used for both timber production and recreation at the same time. Some other effects of urbanization on forests also are discussed in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4824, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1970). Metsä- ja puutalouden tehtävät luonnonsuojelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4824. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14613
English title: The role of forestry and forest industries in conservation.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäteollisuus; luonnonsuojelu; maisema; ympäristöarvot; vesiensuojelu; metsien virkistyskäyttö; metsien monikäyttö
English keywords: forestry; nature conservation; forest industry; recreation; environmental values; water pollution; multiple use of forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of forestry has hitherto been seen mainly as economic conservation, i.e. the use and management of timber resources on a sustainable yield basis. Along with the rising standard of living, however, amenity values of the environment will become more appreciated, which means that forestry and forest industries will be concerned with conservation of immaterial resources of nature as well. Since inland lakes cover some 10% of the surface area of Finland, and forests occupy more than 70% of the land area, forests and lakes are essential constituents of the Finnish environment during both work and leisure.

The main task of the pulp and paper industry in conservation is the control of water pollution. Today some 10% of Finnish lakes are polluted. Pulp and paper industries contribute 75% of the total waste water load of the Finnish lakes. Increasing water pollution can be prevented by improved processing technology, waste water treatment, and economic use of industrial wastes. Thus, the waste water load of the lakes has not increased in the last 10 years, despite doubling of pulp and paper production. According to the prognoses, by the year 2000 the waste water load from pulp and paper industries will be reduced to one half or one fourth of the present level although the capacity will still be increasing.

In forest management more emphasis should be paid on the aesthetic and recreational values of forests. Along with increasing leisure the need for recreational areas is growing. Scenic and recreational aspects must be considered in the management of industrial forests, too. With wise management, high timber yield is compatible with the maintenance of an enjoyable environment. Good silviculture takes account of timber production, wildlife management and landscape architecture simultaneously. National forestry development programs must be based on the principle of the multiple use of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4815, category Article
Heikki Lindroos, Martti Nenonen, Pekka Pesonen. (1970). Tutkimus metsänomistajien koulutustarpeesta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4815. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14604
English title: Observations on the need for education of forest owners.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; maatilametsätalous; metsänomistajat; metsäalan koulutus; koulutustarve
English keywords: forest owners; forest education; farm forestry; forest councelling; training needs
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish advisory organizations of private forestry provide education for forest owners on the problems concerning farm forestry. It is important that the methods in use would be able to prepare for the future development so that the teaching could lead to the most efficient learning. The present study was a survey research directed to all private forest rangers working in the District Forestry Boards in Finnish-speaking areas of the country. The inquiry was answered by 756 rangers, the returning rate being about 80%.

The results indicate that farm-forest owners have to be further educated. The education should be directed in the first place to method of artificial regeneration, cleaning-thinning, cutting operations and to the methods of physical work achievements. Particularly, it would be important to take care of teaching concerning cost calculation and economic planning. On the other hand, the enquiry indicated that, according to the opinions of the forest rangers, such skills belong most for the forest professionals and not for the farmers. According to the results, there is a need for development in the education given to farm-forest owners, as well as education of professional foresters.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lindroos, E-mail: hl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nenonen, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown
  • Pesonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.
Original keywords: metsätalous; toinen maailmansota; polttoaineet; Suomi; energianlähteet; tuontipolttoaineet; puu; puutuotteet; säännöstely; poikkeusolot
English keywords: wood products; forestry; Finland; wood; fuelwood; Second World War; fuels; imported fuels; regulation; reserve stocks
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Osara, E-mail: no@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4800, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1969). Metsänhoidolliset mielipiteet ja metsänhoidollinen toiminta maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4800. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14588
English title: Opinions about silviculture in farm forestry in Finland, and practical steps taken.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; maatilametsätalous; Suomi; metsänomistajat; asenteet; asennetutkimus; Jämsä; Karstula; metsäneuvonta; mielipidetutkimus
English keywords: forest management; silviculture; Finland; forest owners; farm forestry; attitudes; opinion poll; opinions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.

The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).

However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.

In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4796, category Article
Eino Saari. (1969). Kansainvälinen yhteistoiminta metsäntutkimuksen alalla. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4796. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14582
English title: International co-operation in forest research work.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; IUFRO; FAO; kansainvälinen yhteistyö; International Union of Forest Research Organizations; World Forestry Congress
English keywords: forest research; international cooperation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper gives an overview on international organizations involved with forestry and forest research. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFFRO) was named in a congress in Stockholm in 1929, but the organization has its roots in a German association of forest experiment stations founded in 1872. IUFRO is a non-governmental organization with research institutes as members. As it has no permanent centre, and no own research institutes, its opportunities for carrying out actual research work are limited. A reorganization is being planned.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), established in 1945, has a division for forestry and forest industries. FAO is a governmental organization for international policy in agriculture, fisheries, nutrition, and forestry, and not meant for research work. It has nevertheless been compelled to carry out a great deal of research work, particularly in projects that have proved impossible for other organs. The Timber Trend Studies are the best known in the field of forestry.

World Forestry Congresses are occasions where all kinds of forestry problems can be discussed, and they have also stimulated research work. The first International Forestry Congress was held in 1926 in Rome, but several other international forestry congresses have been arranged since 1873.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, E-mail: es@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4793, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1969). Valtion maatalous-metsätieteellinen toimikunta ja metsäntutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4793. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14579
English title: Forest research and the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; rahoitus; tieteelliset toimikunnat; Valtion maatalous-metsätieteellinen toimikunta
English keywords: forest research; funding; State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The special act passed in 1961 provides for the tasks of the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry. The Commission finances and supervises the activities of the research workers employed by the Commission. In addition, it gives special grants for specific purposes and endeavours to promote progress in research in accordance with the above-mentioned act.

Despite the formal requirement for progress, the real value of the grants given to forest research does not exhibit a rising trend. There seems to be a need for increasing funds both for research and publishing purposes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4773, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen, Totte Vadén. (1968). Ammattitietous ja sen leviäminen maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4773. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14558
English title: Professional insight and its diffusion within farm forestry.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; maatilametsätalous; metsänomistajat; ammatillinen tieto; metsäosaaminen; tiedonlähteet; metsäkoulutus
English keywords: forest professionals; forest owners; forest education; forestry skills; forestry knowledge; farm forestry; information source
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to describe the diffusion of the professional insight in forestry taking place among forest owners and as factors attached thereto. The material is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forest.

Mass media (papers, radio and television) was an important source of information for the forest owners. Forest educational events are specially planned to spread information on forestry to forest owners, but 40% told that they had never participated any such event. Only 8% had got professional forest education. Knowledge concerning forests and forest management may also be inherited from the forest owner’s parents, or in discussions with professional forest officers or neighbours. About 73% of the forest owners had been in touch with professional foresters at least once during the last three years.

A third of the forest owners regarded professional insight their most important source of information on forestry, a little smaller group considered instruction in forestry questions the most important source. The third largest group had achieved their knowledge on forestry on own experience and inherited knowledge. Forest owners favouring mass media, own experience and inherited knowledge were often owners of a small forest holding.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, E-mail: vj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Vadén, E-mail: tv@mm.unknown
article id 4762, category Article
Ilmo Rinkinen. (1968). Kehitysvaihtoehtoja Suomen metsätalouden organisaatioketjuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4762. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14546
English title: Development alternatives in the organization chains of Finnish forestry.
Original keywords: metsäteollisuus; kilpailu; puumarkkinat; metsänomistajat; organisaatiot; edunvalvonta
English keywords: forestry; Finland; competition; forest owners; forest industry; organizations; timber sales; timber market; lobbying
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this paper was to shape and analyse certain alternatives in the development processes in the organization chains of Finnish forestry. The material was collected by analysing market structures and characteristics of competition with regard to raw wood and forest industry products.

The paper presents two alternative ways to rationalize the organization chains between the forest owner’s organizations and forest industry. In the price mechanism of raw wood originating from Finnish private forests there there has been increasing influence of the central organizations of the private forest owners and forest industry. In their relationship, the model of bilateral monopolistic competition can be chosen as a conceptual framework.

Under bilateral monopoly price is fixed as a result of negotiations between competitive parties, and the position and tactics within the negotiations are of great importance for the negotiating parties. Because of the competition, Finnish forest industry cannot compensate the increase in the production costs by raising independently the export prices of its products. This and the fact that the annual earnings of forest workers are fixed by law to the earnings of the workers in wood-processing industry, will cause pressure on stumpage prices.

In the paper two schemes are outlined. In the Scheme 1 a development alternative is described in which the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the industry growing direction. In the Scheme 2 the organization chain of private forest owners is supposed to develop to the organizational orientated direction.

It is concluded that as long as the forest owners’ organizational orientated central organization is too weak to form a monopoly as counterweight to the monopsol of forest industry (except the industries of forest owners), it will consider the industry growing direction superior to the organizational orientated alternative.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rinkinen, E-mail: ir@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4717, category Article
Aarne Laitakari. (1964). Suomen metsien tila 1730-luvulla ruotsalaisen geologin ja vuorimiehen, Daniel Tilas’in kuvaamana. Silva Fennica vol. no. 115 article id 4717. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14275
English title: The condition in Finland’s forests in the 1730s as described by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish geologist and mineralogist.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; historia; Suomi; 1730-luku
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Finland; history; 1730s
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present article reviews a geological report given by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish mining manufacturer, towards the end of the 1730s as the report regards information on the Finnish forests. His report gives at hand that forests in several localities southwest of the region demarcated by the towns of Loviisa, Äänekoskei and Kristiina were seriously diminished or burdened by tar burning and shifting cultivation. Larger saw log stands were found mainly in the scaterly populated parishes of Central Finland. Thus, in the chain of ridges between Orivesi and Ruovesi, covering an area of about 4,000 km2, there was a heavily stocked Scots pine forest, as reported by Tilas.

The report given by Tilas is kept in the files of the Geological Research Institute in Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4715, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Leo Heikurainen, Viljo Holopainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kullervo Kuusela, Tatu Möttölä. (1963). Metsätalouden parannusten työllisyys- ja tulovaikutukset. Silva Fennica vol. no. 114 article id 4715. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14273
English title: Effects of forest improvement on employment and income.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäpolitiikka; komiteanmietinnöt; metsätyö; työllisyys
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland; employment; forest work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The agricultural committee appointed by the Finnish Government in 1958 pointed out a problem that the rural population needed to be ensured employment and earnings from forestry. A forestry study group was called to investigate the effects of forest improvement on employment and income, on four fields: a) forest drainage, b) afforestation, c) thinning of young stands, and d) construction of forest roads. Items a, b and c increase output, and d creates outlets for timber and increases stumpage value.

The study outlined three alternative silvicultural programmes. The Basic Programme corresponds average forest management in Finland in 1953–1959. The Medium Programme can be seen conditional to the realization of the felling plan worked out in a study group Heikurainen-Kuusela-Linnamies-Nyysönen in 1961 in a committee report of Forestry Planning Committee. Finally, according to an Intensive Programme to which forest management, especially afforestation and forest drainage, will be raised to the highest possible level.

The costs of different silvicultural measures of the three programmes were estimated. The allowable cuts were calculated corresponding to the silvicultural programmes for the period 1961–1970 and 2001–2010. After calculating labour input and costs, could the increase in employment and income be estimated for the whole economy, and separately in forestry, communications and industry. When calculating the labour input required for the forest management work and road construction, the probable rise in productivity following mechanization and rationalization has been taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown
  • Keltikangas, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Möttölä, E-mail: tm@mm.unknown
article id 4699, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1961). A century of Finnish state forestry 1859-1959. Silva Fennica vol. no. 112 article id 4699. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14230
Keywords: forestry; Finland; Forest Service; state forests; history; administration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper is a short presentation in English of the activities of the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State Forests of Finland, during its first century. The article gives a short history of the Forest Service and description of the forest property, development of the Forest Service, forest conservation work and business activity of the organization.

A complete presentation of the history and activities of the organization since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time is published in Finnish in Silva Fennica No. 107.

  • Laitakari, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4698, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1961). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran 50-vuotisjuhlallisuudet 29.4.1959. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 111 article id 4698. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14229
English title: 50 years’ jubilee of the Society of Forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: järjestöt; metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; kokoukset; 1909-1959; vuosijuhla
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; Finnish Society of Forest Science; the Finnish Society of Forestry; associations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) celebrated its 50 years’ jubilee in 29th April 1959. This publication includes description of the ceremony. Included are also the greetings, and speeches held at the celebration meeting.

The PDF includes some of the texts in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4697, category Article
Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea. (1961). Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 110 article id 4697. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14228
English title: Report of the forest planning committee.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäpolitiikka; komiteanmietinnöt
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; forestry; Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present publication concerns the report of the committee appointed by the Finnish Government to draft a programme or the development of Finnish forestry and increase of its production.

Part I of the paper reviews the development of forestry and forest policy in Finland. After the World War II – following the land settlement – ca. 1.5 million hectares of land, mostly owned by the state, was transferred to private ownership. The committee states that because the division of small farms and land settlement policy private forests have tended increasingly to become small forests. The decrease in size of forest units has interfered development of forestry. In part II, the forest utilization programme for the period 1963–1972 is outlined. In the country, logging in 1953–1958 was carried out on a fairly sustained yield basis. The regional picture is, however, not as good, and in Southern Finland there has been over-cutting.

A long-term logging plan was prepared on the request of the committee. The allowable cut following this plan would suffice the calculated wood requirement for the years 1963–1972. In the part III, the committee introduces a silvicultural program for the years 1963–1972 to increase the yield of wood. The targets of logging, sowing and planting, and silvicultural work are considerably greater than what was achieved in the 1950s. To speed up the realisation of the silvicultural programme, working plans should be prepared on a large scale for forest enterprises, afforestation and forest drainage should be increased, and a national seed storage should be established.

Part IV discusses the forest work situation from the stand point of the realisation of the forest utilisation programme and silvicultural programme. Part V introduces a host of recommendations concerning forest policy and economic policy.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsätalouden suunnittelukomitea, E-mail:
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1961). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.
Original keywords: metsätalous; maatalous; asutus; maatilat; pientilat; 1950-luku; elinolot; kääpiöviljelmät; pienviljelijät; tulot
English keywords: forestry; Finland; agriculture; settlement; farms; small farms; income; living conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halmekoski, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4696, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1960). Suometsätieteen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4696. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9135
English title: Swamp forestry research in Finland.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; suot; suometsätiede; soiden kuivattaminen; soiden ojitus
English keywords: forestry; Finland; peatlands; forest research; draining of peatlands; research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About one third of the land area of Finland is covered by peatlands, furthermore, some mineral soils are troubled by excess water. Due to the prevalence of peatlands, forest drainage has been the most important form of forest improvement work. Consequently, peatlands have been an extensively studied topic within forest sciences in Finland. This paper gives a review on the central research subjects in science of peatlands, introducing little less than a hundred of the hundreds of publications published in the field. The author describes in more detail research on the formation and area of peatlands, peatland types and their suitability for forest draining, site factors on peatlands, techniques of forest ditching and the management of peatland forests.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4692, category Article
Mauno Forsström. (1960). Maanhankintalain ja siihen liittyvien lakien toimeenpanon vaikutuksista valtion metsätalouteen. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 104 article id 4692. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9131
English title: Influence of the Settlement Act and the related regulations on the State forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; valtion metsät; asutus; Suomi; maanhankinta; maanluovutus
English keywords: forestry; state forests; settlement; Settlement Act; land acquisition
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Settlement Act (332/36) of Finland that regulated land-acquisitions was repealed by the Land Use Act (353/58), effective from the beginning of 1959. This paper deals with the effects land settlement and implementation of the acts has had on State forestry. The investigation concentrates on the magnitude of the losses caused by the land reform, initiated by The World War II, in time period of 5.5.1945–31.12.1957, during which time the evacuees from the areas transmitted to Soviet Union were settled. The first part of the paper summarises the history of landholding and the State Forests in Finland.

According to the study, the total area of cessions of the state forest land, based on land-acquisition legislation, rises to over 1 million hectares, about 10% of the land area. It seems that these lands have been better than the average forest lands of the state. In addition, about 100,000 ha of jointly owned forests were established on former state lands on the basis of the Settlement Act. Timber has also been collected for construction of the settlement from the State forests. The value of the land and the construction timber is estimated to be about 3,759 million Fmk.

It has been stated that settlement has increased supply of forest labour in rural areas, where there has been labour shortage in forestry. On the other hand, the State Forests have given seasonal work opportunities for the rural population.

The state forest holdings in Southern Finland are at present so small that it limits rational forest management in the area. It is concluded that it is possible that the state forests in Southern Finland will be used to provide supplemental land for the small farms. In the State Forests of Northern Finland are plans for establishment of new jointly owned forest and settlement. This poses a threat for the state forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Forsström, E-mail: mf@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4691, category Article
Arvo Seppälä. (1960). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran julkaisusarjojen sisällysluettelo : Acta Forestalia Fennica 51-70 (1942-1959), Silva Fennica 61-103 (1945-1960). Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 103 article id 4691. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9130
English title: Publications of the Society of Forestry in Finland. Index.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura
English keywords: forestry; bibliographies; bibliografiat; The Finnish Society of Forest Science
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present bibliography is an index of publications brought out by the Society of Forestry in Finland (now The Finnish Society of Forest Science) in 1945–1960, a sequel of a similar index published in 1946. It consists a classification of the parts according to subject treated, based on the Oxford system, a system used in international forestry literature. The studies have been provided with Oxford numbers. The index includes the publications of Acta forestalia fennica (AFF), Silva Fennica (SF) and the Commentationes forestales.

The PDF includes a summary in English and German.

  • Seppälä, E-mail: as@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4686, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1959). Puutavaran valmistus- ja metsäkuljetustöiden koneellistumisen vaikutus metsätalouden työvoiman tarpeeseen : ennuste vuoteen 1972. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 101 article id 4686. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9127
English title: Effect of the mechanization of timber preparation and forest transport on the need of labour force in forestry. Prognosis up to 1972.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsätyö; työvoima; puunkorjuu; koneellistuminen; ennusteet; metsäkuljetus
English keywords: forestry; forest transport; mechanization; wood harvesting; fellings; workforce; forest work; prognosis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In 1957 the annual cuttings in Finland were 40.2 million m3 without bark. The aim of the study was to estimate the rate of mechanization of harvesting of timber in Finland, and make a prediction of the state of mechanization by 1972. According to the study, harvesting and transportation of the felling volume in 1957 would have required about 25.5 million working hours. Mechanization of forest work has decreased it only by 0.32 million working hours. The profitability of forest work has improved in 1950s, which is mainly due to changes in harvesting, such as shifting to longer lengths of pulpwood and props and cutting unbarked timber.
The study predicts that in 1972 it will take 14.8 million working hours to harvest and 5.4 million working hours to transport a corresponding felling volume as in 1957. However, a new way of producing timber or a working method of wood may change the picture completely. Reduction in harvesting expenses through mechanization may lead to diminishing the minimum diameter of logs, which affects profitability of work. It is also probable that mechanization of wood transportation will lead to working sites with longer distances of forest transportation. Also, industry using wood as raw material will also obviously expand.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Putkisto, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4681, category Article
A. G. Blomqvist. (1959). The itineraries of G.A. Blomqvist in 1867-1869. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 100 article id 4681. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14124
Keywords: forest management; forestry; travelogue; travel literature
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The founder of forest management in Finland, A.G. Blomqvist, travelled widely around the country when he was collecting data for growth and yield tables. He wrote detailed itineraries of his travels. He describes in his notes the forests and forest management practices, such as shifting cultivation, tar burning, felling methods and forest regeneration. The notes were a part of his assignment for the Forest Service in addition to the growth and yield tables, and helped to understand the state of the forests at the time.

The Finnish Society of Forest Sciences acknowledges the value of A.G. Blomqvist’s itineraries and decided to publishes them in this issue of Silva Fennica to prevent the texts to be forgotten.

  • Blomqvist, E-mail: ab@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4685, category Article
Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain tarkistamiskomitea. (1959). Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain tarkistamiskomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. no. 98 article id 4685. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9126
English title: Report of the committee set out to revise the Law on Forest Management Associations.
Original keywords: komiteanmietinnöt; lainsäädäntö; metsänhoitomaksu; metsänhoitoyhdistykset; Metsänhoitoyhdistyslaki
English keywords: legislation; Forest Management Associations; committees; forestry fee; Forest Management Association Act
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Law on Forest Management Associations was passed in 1950. According to the law, forest owners have to pay a forestry fee, which is used to finance local forest management associatons. The effect of the law on Finnish private forestry is considered to be significant.
The number of consulting forest officers has increased by 95% and the labour input by 107% since the law came into effect. Thus, the guidance available for forest owners has increased markedly. 85% of timber cut from private forests are marked by professional foresters, while the share was earlier less than 30%. The amount of forest management work, such as clearing of felling sites, sowing and care of plantations, has also increased.
On the other hand, experience has pointed out a need for revising some points of the law. To this aim, the Government of Finland appointed a committee to outline the ammendments. The present article contains the report of the committee.
The committee suggests that the forestry fee, that according to the present law is 2-6% of the net yield computed for communal income tax, will be changed to 2-5%. Further, forest holding in which the annual increment is less than 20 cu.m. are at the moment exempt from the fee. It is suggested that holdings with an annual increment of less than 30 cu.m. pay half a fee. In addition, the committee suggests some clarifying provisions to be adopted.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Metsänhoitoyhdistyslain tarkistamiskomitea, E-mail:
article id 4674, category Article
Erkki Kivinen, Erkki Laitakari. (1958). Helsingin yliopiston maatalous-metsätieteellisen tiedekunnan vaiheita 50-vuotiselta taipaleelta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 95 article id 4674. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14110
English title: 50 years of education in agriculture, forestry and home economics at the University of Helsinki.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsätalous; historia; maataloustieteet; yliopisto; maatalous; kotitalous; kalatalous; korkeakouluopetus
English keywords: forestry; forest education; university; agriculture; education; limnology; house education
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Agricultural education in Finland begun in 1840, when an agricultural college started its activity in the estate of Mustiala in Southern Finland. A decree published in 1896 stated that the highest agricultural education should be transferred from Mustiala to the University of Helsinki, and two professorships and an assistant professorship should be established. The first professor of agricultural chemistry was appointed in 1900, and the work to compile the scheme for the agricultural university studies was started. By 1957 the personnel had increased to ten professorships and 23 docents.

In 1924 the section of agriculture of the Philosophical faculty was changed to the Faculty of agriculture and forestry. By the spring 1957 a total of 2,180 Bachelor of Agriculture Examinations, 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations and 1,198 Candidate’s Examinations had been attained. Experimental farms were established in Viik an in Malminkartano in 1931, however, the areas were in the beginning leased to the Prison Administration. The farm in Viik had also laboratories for research purposes. In 1949 it was decided that also the agricultural institutes should be placed in Viik.

The highest forest education was established in a forest college in Evo in Central Finland in 1862. In 1900 it was suggested that also the highest forest education should be transferred to the University of Helsinki. It was affirmed by a decree in 1906. In 1957 there was 8 professors and 15 lecturers in the faculty. A large adjustment in the content of the examination was performed in 1951. Up to spring 1957 a total of 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations was achieved in the faculty.

The education of home economics commenced in the faculty of agriculture and forestry in 1946.

The article includes an English summary.

  • Kivinen, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laitakari, E-mail: el@mm.unknown
article id 4667, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1957). Metsätalouden edistämistoiminta Suomessa : Tapio 1907-1957. Silva Fennica vol. no. 94 article id 4667. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14126
English title: Promotion of private forestry in Finland, Tapio 1907-1957.
Original keywords: metsätalous; historia; yksityismetsät; Tapio; Keskusmetsälautakunta Tapio
English keywords: forestry; Finland; private forests; promotion of forestry; Central Forestry Association Tapio; Tapio
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

For many decades Finland’s forest policy has been focused on private forestry, accounting for approximately 60% of Finland’s forest area. The objective has been to regulate forest management by legislation and to promote private forestry. The aim of the study was to explore the role of the Central Forestry Association Tapio in promoting private forestry.

A detailed synthesis of Tapio’s 50 years long history and activities is drafted. According to the three forest inventories (in 1921-24, 1936-37 and 1951-53), big improvements have been made in cutting methods, mainly in the sense that selective cuttings have decreased. The condition of private forests is, however, not as good as that of the state and company forests. Improvements introduced in the legislation in 1928 have had great influence in forestation and drainage of peatlands in private forests. The private forests, however, suffer from a lack of planning.

Through Intensified forest policy it has been possible to ensure supply of roundwood for forest industry. An efficient information service on timber markets have been organized, and the measurement of roundwood has been standardized. Progress in the promotion of forestry has suffered from unfavourable trends in forestry, mainly from the nearly doubling of the number of forest holdings in the present century and from the contraction of their size.

The article includes an English summary.

  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4657, category Article
Viljo Lilja. (1957). Asutustilojen metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 92 article id 4657. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14058
English title: Forestry on settlement farms.
Original keywords: metsätalous; kannattavuus; metsäopetus; asutustoiminta; jatkokoulutus; asutustilat
English keywords: forestry; profitability; forest education; agriculture; settlement; settlement farms
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses the conditions of forestry in the small resettlement farms in Finland. The silvicultural condition of small farm forests has been found to be worse on average than that of big holdings. A difficult economic situation often forces the owner into excessive fellings. The forest owner of a settlement farm should, therefore, be given possibilities to adequate living opportunities. Therefore, the new Resettlement Act aim at supporting a so-called forest principle, which is based on a view that it is not possible on a small farm to earn a living by agriculture only and some forests must be connected to it.

  • Lilja, E-mail: vl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4670, category Article
Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävä komitea. (1957). Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävän komitean mietintö. 2. Käsittelee pääasiassa metsä- ja sivuansiotuloja. Silva Fennica vol. no. 91 article id 4670. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9117
English title: Proceedings of the committee on economic status of the Finnish agricultural population.
Original keywords: komiteanmietinnöt; metsätyö; metsätulot; maatalousväestö
English keywords: private forestry; forest work; rural population; forest income; farm economy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Finnish Government appointed a committee in 1955 to analyse the economic status of the population living from agriculture. The present paper contains Part II of the proceedings of this committee. It discusses the earnings of the agricultural population from forestry and occasional work.

Agricultural population was defined as all people living from holdings of at least 2 hectares of agricultural land. Forestry income includes, besides the value of stumpage sold, earnings from logging in connection with delivery contracts. Earnings from occasional work include wages for logging made to the account of someone else, as well as wages for agricultural work, floating, carpentry, road construction and maintenance work etc.

In 1951–1954, the farms in Finland received an average aggregate of 29 milliard Fmk for stumpage, 10 milliard Fmk of which consists of the value assigned to the timber consumed by the farms themselves. The average income from stumpage was 110,000 Fmk per farm. The earnings from logging in connection with delivery contracts amounted to 3.3 milliard Fmk, and the earnings from occasional work to 6.7 milliard Fmk. The income from stumpage together with the earnings from delivery loggings amounted to 123,000 Fmk per farm. Adding the earnings from occasional forest work, an aggregate forestry income of 150,000 Fmk per farm has been obtained, 70–75% of which accounts for stumpage price.

The occasional earnings from sources other than forestry were on average 12–13 milliard Fmk, or 45,000–50,000 Fmk per farm. The agricultural income of the farms was 60.4 milliard Fmk, or 230,000 Fmk per farm. Thus, the aggregate income of the farms was 110 milliard Fmk, or 420,000 Fmk per farm.

The financial surplus from forestry per farm for the farms included in the study in 1951–1954 was on average 21, and the income from forestry 18 times as high as in 1934–39. The income from stumpage at the end of the same period was 18, and the earnings from occasional work 27 times as high as at the beginning of the period.

The agricultural income has the greatest relative importance in Southern Finland and Eastern Bothnia. The income from stumpage, in turn, has the greatest relative significance in supporting agriculture in the inner part of Finland, while the occasional income plays its most vital role in northeast Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousväestön taloudellista asemaa selvittävä komitea, E-mail:
article id 4650, category Article
Metsätilastokomitea. (1956). Metsätilastokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica vol. no. 89 article id 4650. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9112
English title: Report on Committee on Forest Statistics.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsätalous; tilastot; komiteanmietinnöt; Suomi; metsätilastot
English keywords: forestry; forest research; statistics; forest statistics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The ministry of agriculture appointed a committee to prepare a proposal for the reorganization of Finnish forest statistics. The committee suggests that the forest statistics will be prepared by forest district board areas. National forest surveys and national wood consumption surveys should be carried out at intervals of 10-15 years by Forest Research Institute.

Felling and price statistics for private forests should be prepared by using a sampling method described in the report. The statistics of total commercial roundwood felling will be obtained by adding to the result the annual felling from state and company forests. Also, wage and employment statistics in forestry will be prepared by a sampling method.

Statistics concerning timber transportation should be improved, and finally, a central organ for forest statistics should be established within the Forest Research Institute to collect and develop forest statistics. The statistics should be published as an annual yearbook. To ensure co-operation between the authorities, a special sub-committee should be appointed to collaborate with the permanent committee of statistics in Finland.

  • Metsätilastokomitea, E-mail:
article id 4646, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1955). Tutkimuksia metsänhoitolautakuntien ja -yhdistysten leimaustoiminnan kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 87 article id 4646. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9108
English title: Studies on crop marking of District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; puukauppa; tukkipuu; leimaus; metsälautakunnat; metsänhoitoyhdistykset; pinotavara
English keywords: logs; silviculture; private forests; timber sales; marking of timber; stacked wood; District Forestry Boards; Forest Management Associations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Wood demand and practices in the marking of trees for cutting have affected the silvicultural state of the forests of Finland in the early 1900s. The aim of the study was to study the development of timber sales and the marking of trees for logging, with a special emphasis on variation in the volume of the sales and assortment range. The study is based on statistics of the District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations about timber marked for cutting in 1931-1953.

The professionals in the District Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations have marked annually in average 9 million stems of heavy timber and about 7 million m3 of stacked wood for sales. The volume  follows business cycles, the changes in the volume of stacked wood being larger than of heavy timber. When demand was high, the number of professional workers limited the supply of wood. There were large differences in the volumes marked within the country. The share of small diameter stacked wood has increased since 1930s compared to heavy timber.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4631, category Article
Toivo J. Komsi. (1953). Oikeustapausten selostuksia metsänhoitajille. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4631. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14046
English title: Forestry related legal cases for forest officers.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäopetus; puukauppa; jatkokoulutus; oikeustapaukset
English keywords: forestry; forest education; timber sales; lecal cased
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses legal cases of the supreme court of Finland that are related to forestry and handle subjects that can be of interest to forest officers working in Forest Service. The subjects vary from sale of timber to unauthorized harvest of timber.

  • Komsi, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4630, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1953). Suhdannevaihteluista, erityisesti metsätalouden kannalta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 80 article id 4630. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14045
English title: Effects of business cycles on forestry.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäteollisuus; metsäopetus; jatkokoulutus; suhdannevaihtelut
English keywords: forestry; forest industry; forest education; business cycles
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation introduces the principles of business cycles and describes how they have affected forestry in Finland.

  • Lappi-Seppälä, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4619, category Article
P. Ennevaara. (1951). Tilastoista ja niiden käyttömahdollisuuksista. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4619. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14015
English title: Use of statistics in forestry.
Original keywords: metsätalous; tilastot; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus
English keywords: forestry; forest education; statistics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation introduces different forestry related statistics and discusses the potential use of statistics on the point of view of state forestry.

  • Ennevaara, E-mail: pe@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4615, category Article
Jaakko Vöry. (1951). Metsäalan rationalisoimistoiminnan nykyinen vaihe. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4615. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14011
English title: The present stage of rationalization.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäopetus; metsätyö; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus; koneellistaminen; rationalisointi
English keywords: forestry; mechanization; forest education; forest work; rationalization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the work and methods of rationalizing forest work and forest management, and the organizations doing work studies. Examples of means to improve the effectivity of practical work are described.

  • Vöry, E-mail: jv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4598, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1949). Piirteitä valtion metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 66 article id 4598. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9088
English title: Forestry in the state forests of Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsätalous; kannattavuus; metsäpolitiikka
English keywords: forest policy; forestry; Forest Service; state forests; profitabilty
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a review on state forests of Finland. The aim of the review is to describe the state and management of the state forests. Low revenue of the stat forests has been criticised, and misunderstandings have led to economic policy that has had negative impacts on state forestry.

The history of forest ownership of the state begins from 1400th century when Finland was part of Sweden. The article describes in detail the different stages in ownership of state forests and development of forest administration.

Forest Service was established in 1859. In 1949 it had two departments, a private forest department and a state forest department, and four local conservancies, Peräpohjola, Ostrobothnia, Western Finland and Eastern Finland. The forests were managed according to a business plan, which was based on a forest survey and a long term silvicultural working plan. The business plan gave a basis for annual working plans.

The state forests are mainly situated far from sites of forest industry and large human settlements. This affects demand and prices of wood. Especially demand of small diameter timber has been low. Floating is the main means of transport of the timber. The article describes in detail the forest resources of state forests, forest management practices and changes in state forestry. Suggestions to improve the profitability of state forestry are given. These include, for instance improving transport infrastructure and the productivity of forestry.

  • Lihtonen, E-mail: vl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4588, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1948). Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 64 article id 4588. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13990
English title: Forestry in Perä-Pohjola, North-East Finland, and Lapland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäopetus; Perä-Pohjola; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; jatkokoulutus; Lappi
English keywords: forest management; forestry; Lapland; forest education
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation describes the forests and their silvicultural state in the areas of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland in the Northern Finland. Forest management work needed to improve the silvicultural state of the forests is suggested.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4582, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1946). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran julkaisusarjojen sisällysluettelo. Silva Fennica vol. no. 62 article id 4582. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9086
English title: Publications of the Society of Forestry in Finland (Suomi) index.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura; bibliografiat
English keywords: forest sciences; bibliographies; Finnish Society of Forest Sciences; Society of Forestry in Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article includes an index of articles published in the series Acta forestalia fennica, Silva fennica and Commentationes forestales by Society of Forestry in Finland (now Finnish Society of Forest Science). The index is divided into four parts, first of which contains a list of treatises, second contains authors and the publications of the authors, third is a systematic index, and fourth alphabetical index according to subject headings.

The article includes an abstract in English and in German.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4580, category Article
Johannes Virolainen. (1943). Karjalan kannaksen metsätaloudesta ja sen merkityksestä alueen pienviljelijöiden ansiotaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 60 article id 4580. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9084
English title: Forestry in the Karelian isthmus and its influence on the economy of small farms.
Original keywords: metsätalous; yksityismetsät; puukauppa; maatilat; metsätulot; liiketalous; maatilametsätalous; Karjalan kannas; pientilat
English keywords: forestry; economics; private forests; agriculture; farms; timber sales; small farms; forest income; wood trade; Karelian isthmus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is based on studies made in the Karelian isthmus in 1936-1938 before the World War II broke in 1939. Further studies were not possible after the war when the area was handed over to Soviet Union. Economic data of agriculture and forestry of the farms had mostly been regarded separately in the early economic studies of small farms in Finland. This survey aimed at studying influence of forestry in the economy of a small farm. 141 farms were included in a more detailed survey.

Forestry accounted for in average 38% of total income of the farms in 1937-1938. The farms had sold wood often, the amounts being often small. Good transport connections in the area facilitated the sales. Over 70% were sales at delivered price, and about half of the wood was small-sized timber. According to the results of the survey, forestry was important for the small farms in Karelian isthmus. The farmers could not have made a living without the forests. Hoveter, the farms had had to overuse the forest resources. The wood resources decreased by 18-22% in 1922-1938. They were, however, at the same level as in average in Finland in 1938.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Virolainen, E-mail: jv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4571, category Article
Tauno Lampimäki. (1939). Nautakarjan laiduntamisesta metsämailla. Silva Fennica vol. no. 50 article id 4571. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9074
English title: Grazing of cattle in forest land.
Original keywords: metsätalous; taimettuminen; metsänuudistuminen; laiduntaminen; laitumet; karja; karjatalous; pintakasvillisuus; taimet; taimituhot; metsälaidun
English keywords: regeneration; forestry; ground vegetation; tree seedlings; grazing; cattle; animal husbandry; woodland pasture
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Finland has a long tradition of grazing cattle in the forests and common land. There are also reports of degradation of forests by grazing already in 1600th century. The aim of the survey was to study which positive and negative effects grazing has in forests.

The study concludes that grazing has caused considerable economic losses through damages to forests. In addition, woodland pastures cannot give the yields required in modern animal husbandry. The quality of woodland pastures have decreased after the woodlands used in slash and burn culture have become wooded.

Grazing has also some positive effects to forests. It increases the diversity of vegetation in the woodland pastures and spreads species to new areas. This is supported by the lists of species found in different woodland pastures. Cattle destroy large grasses like Calamagrostis, which may avail growth of tree seedlings in the pastures. Grazing can also prepare the site for tree seedlings. On the other hand, prolonged grazing destroys tree seedlings and prevents regeneration.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Lampimäki, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4570, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1939). Havaintoja valtion metsämailla suoritetusta asutustyöstä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 49 article id 4570. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9073
English title: Observations on settlement in the state forests in Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; maatalous; puukauppa; kotitarvepuu; asutustilat; maan lunastus; metsätulot; metsienhoito
English keywords: forestry; state forests; agriculture; settlement; parcelling out land; farms; timber sales
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An act passed by the government of Finland in 1922 prescribed that state-owned forest lands will be parcelled out to landless population. A survey was made in 1934-1935 by Forest Service (Metsähallitus) to investigate the success of the establishment of settlements, and which disadvantages it may have had in forestry in the state forests. In the survey 1,194 farms were inspected.

According to the directives of settlement, the farms should be able support a family of four adults. The area of arable land was in average 5-15 hectares. In addition, the farm should have pasture and forest enough to supply it most of the household timber. According to the study, the regulations had been applied variably. Usually the farms had been given more land than was required. It was estimated that farms had been given 110,000 hectares more forest land for gathering household timber than required in the act. Many farms had sold timber, in some cases to that extent it endangered supply of household timber.

Parcelling out land had affected the management of state forests. If a region had surrendered large forest areas for settlement, it could not follow its cutting plan. Also, there was relatively little state-owned forests in southern Finland, and the effects of parcelling out land were stronger. The report concludes that in general it was not appropriate to parcel out forest land. The execution of settlement should have beeb given to Forest Service.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Jokinen, E-mail: pj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4538, category Article
V. Huuhtanen. (1938). Piirteitä Itä-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4538. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13947
English title: Forestry in the county of eastern Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäteollisuus; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; Itä-Suomi
English keywords: forest management; forestry; forest industry; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; professional development courses; eastern Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes forest management in the state forests in the county of Eastern Finland.

  • Huuhtanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4527, category Article
R. Tuhti. (1938). Suomen valtion toiminta maa- ja metsätalouden edistämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. no. 46 article id 4527. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13936
English title: Promotion of agriculture and forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäopetus; maatalous; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsänhoitajat; valtionavut; valtiontuki
English keywords: forest management; forestry; subsidies; Forest Service; forest administration; forest education; agriculture; professional educational courses; public-sector funding
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

 
This presentation discusses the means Finland has used to promote agriculture and forestry in the country. 

  • Tuhti, E-mail: rt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4545, category Article
Metsänhoidon edistämiskomitea. (1938). Yksityismetsätalouden edistäminen. Silva Fennica vol. no. 45 article id 4545. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9070
English title: Promotion of private forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsätalous; metsälaki; metsänhoitolautakunta; metsänhoitomaksu; metsänhoitoyhdistys
English keywords: forest management; forest taxation; legislation; private forests; forest owners’ association; forestry board
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The government of Finland appointed a commission to study how the work of forest owners’ associations could be promoted. In 1936 there was 232 forest owners’ associations in Finland. They had 20,632 members, who owned 1,841,304 hectares of forests. The owners of large forest holdings were overpresented among the members. The associations together with forestry boards were important actors in increasing the productivity of the private forests.

The commission concluded that rational forest management should be extended to all private forests, which could be best achieved through the forest owners’ associations. It suggested that the membership should remain voluntary, and that the financing of the associations would be arranged by self-taxation of the forest owners. The so called forest management tax should be devoted to the local forest owners’ associations. Also the state should continue to support the associations. Both state and the smallest forest holdings would be released from the forest management tax. The companies, estates and other large forest owners that employ their own forest management staff would pay a quarter of the tax. The tax could be based on the area of the forest, income of the timber sold or a combination of these. The commission suggested a forest management law, which would deal with the forest management tax and the forest owners’ associations.
The PDF includes a summary in Swedish and English.

  • Metsänhoidon edistämiskomitea, E-mail: mhek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4520, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1937). Valtionmetsien metsänhoitotöistä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 42 article id 4520. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14098
English title: Forest management in state forests.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit
English keywords: forest management; forestry; forest education; state forests; professional development courses; forest districts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes forest management in state forests in Finland.

  • Ahola, E-mail: va@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4514, category Article
Antti Kilpiö. (1937). Maalaiskuntien tuloista ja menoista. Silva Fennica vol. no. 42 article id 4514. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14092
English title: Revenue and expenditure of rural municipalities.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; maalaiskunta; kuntatalous
English keywords: forestry; local economy; forest education; professional development courses; rural municipalities
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the revenue and expenditure of rural municipalities and the impact of forestry in their economy.

  • Kilpiö, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4509, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1937). Maa- ja metsätalouden välisistä vuorosuhteista Suomen kansantaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 42 article id 4509. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14087
English title: Interaction of forestry and agriculture in the national economy of Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsäopetus; maatalous; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; kansantalous
English keywords: forestry; forest education; professional development courses; agriculture; national economy
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the relationships between forestry and agriculture in the national economy of Finland.

  • Jutila, E-mail: kj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4499, category Article
Sulo Järvinen. (1937). Määrärahain käyttö ja tilitys. Silva Fennica vol. no. 39 article id 4499. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13909
English title: Use and accounting of funds of Metsähallitus (Forest Service).
Original keywords: Metsähallitus; metsäopetus; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; metsähallinto; metsätalouden kirjanpito
English keywords: Forest Service; forest administration; forest education; forestry bookkeeping; professional development courses
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The issue 39 of Silva Fennica includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes the administration of funds and bookkeeping in Metsähallitus (Forest Service) in practical level.

  • Järvinen, E-mail: sj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4471, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1933). Metsätalouden metsänhoitoteknillinen tarkkailu : pääasiassa yksityismetsätaloutta silmälläpitäen. Silva Fennica vol. no. 30 article id 4471. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9043
English title: Forestry bookkeeping from the point of view of private forestry.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; yksityismetsätalous; metsätalouden kirjapito
English keywords: forest management; private forestry; forestry bookkeeping; financial accounting of forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

As the use and value of forests have increased, forests have been managed more as a business. Financial bookkeeping defines the production costs of wood, costs of forest management work, investments in forest improvement, taxes and administrative costs, income from the sales of forest products etc. Bookkeeping reports the annual costs and income in the forestry, but does not give information of the future profits or appropriate organization of the economy of forestry.

The author introduces a system that he calls “metsänhoitoteknillinen tarkkailu” (silvicultural monitoring), which would give economic information of the forestry, and could also replace a forest management plan in the private forests. The bookkeeping system will list in detail the volumes and areas of fellings and silvicultural measures in different years, and deduce the sustainability of the use of forests and future incomes in forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, E-mail: vl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4466, category Article
Maatalousyliopistokomitea. (1932). Ehdotus maatalousyliopiston perustamiseksi. Maatalousyliopistokomitean mietintö n:o 2. Silva Fennica vol. no. 25 article id 4466. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9022
English title: Proposal for the establishment of an agricultural university in Finland.
Original keywords: maatalousopetus; metsäopetus; maatalousyliopisto; eläinlääkintä; Helsingin yliopisto; maanmittaus
English keywords: University of Helsinki; agricultural education; forestry education; veterinary sciences; surveying; university of agriculture
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Agricultural University Committee recommended in its first report that the higher education in agriculture and forestry should be transferred to Helsinki, the capital of Finland. The same arguments that were presented on the education of agriculture and forestry can be applied to education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries.

According to the proposal of the Committee, the Government reserved in 1931 buildings in Wiik and Malmgård estates for the education of agriculture and forestry. Thus, the higher education of agriculture and forestry have been appointed training areas near Helsinki, where also the education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries could be located.

Connections to the University of Helsinki has proven invaluable to the development of higher education of agriculture and forestry. However, the Committee recommends the establishment of separate agricultural university for the sectors, because the other faculties support the separation of the faculty from the university. It seems to the Committee that education in agriculture and forestry no longer poses sufficient opportunities of development within the University of Helsinki. The education in veterinary science should remain in connection to education in agriculture. The education of surveyors and agricultural engineers are at present arranged partly at the Technical University, and their location remains to be decided. A proposal for the organization, staff, education, decrees and professors is included in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousyliopistokomitea, E-mail: my@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4453, category Article
Metsätieteellinen Tutkimuslaitos, Suomen Metsänhoitoyhdistys, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1929). Näkökohtia Suomen metsätalouden tehostamiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. no. 12 article id 4453. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8986
English title: Improving the productivity of forestry in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; puunkäyttö; metsäteollisuus
English keywords: forestry; forest industry; wood utilization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a joint study of the Forest Research Institute, the Forest Association and the Society of Forestry (now Finnish Society of Forest Science) on means to increase the productivity of forestry in Finland.

The study identifies five ways to improve the productivity of forestry in the country. First, the yield of forests should be increased by draining peatlands, reforestating understocked forests, changing tree species, if they are unsuitable for the site, increasing improvement fellings and enhancing regeneration in the cutting areas. Second, the utilization and trade of small-diameter timber should be developed. Third, export of wood should be promoted, while the use of wood as fuel instead of imported fuels should be increased. Fourth, the export of Finnish wood products should be secured, for instance, by reducing manufacturing costs and developing production methods in the industry. Fifth, both the elementary and higher education of forestry should be developed further.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Metsätieteellinen Tutkimuslaitos, E-mail: mtl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Suomen Metsänhoitoyhdistys, E-mail: sm@mm.unknown
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail: fs@mm.unknown
article id 4448, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1927). Ehdotus Suomen metsätieteellisen tutkimustoiminnan kehittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. no. 7 article id 4448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8396
English title: Proposal for the development of forest research work in Finland.
Original keywords: järjestöt; metsätieteet; tutkimus; tutkimuslaitokset
English keywords: The Forest Research Institute; The Society of Forestry; forest sciences
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

National research has important role in creating the basis of forestry in Finland. The Forest Research Institute was established in 1918. In 1927 it had three departments: Department of Silviculture, Department of Forest Mensuration and Valuation and Department of Forest Soils. Each department had one professor and an assistant. Several areas of research are proposed to be expanded, and three new departments are suggested: Department of Swamp Investigation, Department of Forest Utilization and Department of Forest Economics. In addition, research workers should be hired in forest zoology and forest pathology.

The Society of Forestry (now: The Finnish Society of Forest Science) was established in 1909 to promote research in forest and wood science in Finland. It publishes two science journals, holds meetings and gives out grants for research. The society receives an annual state subsidy of 100,000 Finnish marks, which is almost entirely used to cover the costs of maintaining the society's publishing activities. Thus, very small means have been available, for instance, for grants for research work. The annual subsidy should be increased to 225,000 Finnish marks.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: li@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4447, category Article
Oiva Johannes Lakari. (1927). Valtion metsätalouden tehostaminen. Silva Fennica vol. no. 6 article id 4447. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8395
English title: Work for greater efficiency in the state forestry.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsätalous; kannattavuus
English keywords: forest management; forestry; profitability; Forest Service; state forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article proposes a plan to improve the efficiency of forest management in the state forests in Finland. The forests are situated mostly in Northern Finland. In 1926 the state forests covered 39.5% of the total land-area of the country, 13,580,611 hectares in total. A proportion of 52.3% of the land was productive forest land, 21.4% forest land of poor growth and 24.8% waste land. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). predominated 56.9%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) 30.5% and Betula sp. 11.9% of the productive forest land. The fellings have mainly been selective fellings of sawn timber, because the demand for small timber was small. Due to this, there is lack of seedling and young stands. Metsähallitus (Forest Service) has been able to increase the sales of small timber by increasing delivery loggings over standing sales. The net profit of state forestry was 136 million marks in 1929.

Several factors have had negative impact on profitability of state forestry: Major part of the forests are situated in Northern Finland, they are of poorer quality than the private forests, and they are located unfavorable in terms of wood demand. The means to improve financial result of state forest include expanding transport network, such as railroads and floating channels. The yield of the forests can be substantially increased by draining peatlands, improving the effectivity of forest management and increasing the proportion of delivery loggings. Changing the silvicultural practices alone is estimated to increase the productivity of the forests by 50–100%. However, the costs of the peatland draining and silvicultural work are high, and direct profits can’t be expected until later.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lakari, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4438, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1927). Teaching of forestry in Suomi, general features. Silva Fennica vol. no. 4 article id 4438. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8386
Keywords: forest education; forest officer; Master of Forestry; University of Helsinki
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The higher education of forestry in Finland was transferred to the University of Helsinki in 1908 from the Evo Forest Institute, where it was established in 1859. The principal idea was that the University should educate practical forest officials with a scientific education, and that the more talented students should be able to continue their scientific studies. The four main diciplines were silviculture, forest management, forest utilization and forest policy. The studies for the forest officer examination took about 3–4 years. For those students interested in further scientific studies, a Candidate (Master) and Licentiate (Doctor) examination was arranged.

In addition to higher education, elementary forestry education was arranged at five Forest Schools in different parts of the country.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Cajander, E-mail: ac@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7183, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Maatilametsätalouden yhteys taloudelliseen ja sosiaaliseen ympäristöön. Silva Fennica vol. 84 no. 2 article id 7183. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7183
English title: Farm forestry and its socio-economic environment.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; yksityismetsät; maatilat; maatilametsätalous
English keywords: forest management; mechanization; private forests; farms; farm economy; farm forestry
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study is to reveal the links between farm forestry and its economic and social environment. The second-stage factor analysis used was based on factor scores per municipality, representing the dimensions of total farm operation and of its economic and social environment. The population was 17 municipalities or groups of municipalities in the South Karelian Forest Board district.

The conclusions of the results are directly applicable only to the ideal types presented. A socio-economic environment marked by industrialization detrimentally affects both the standard of forest management, as assessed subjectively by field workers, and the productivity of logging, as measured by labour input/m3 of output. This finding holds good even despite the modernization of forest management indicated by the adoption of renewal cuts.

The clearest negative factor for forestry is the irrational distribution of forest holdings. This impedes the rationalization of forest management and the efficiency of loggings. Extensive scattering of forest holdings also delays the mechanization of logging. The spread effects of industrialization relate to a higher level of forest management and labour productivity of logging. Family farming links up closest with features that enhance the importance of the forest to the farmer. Such features include regularity and size of delivery cuts.

Centralized agriculture, mainly village settlement areas, displayed the poorest forest management. Problem farms are typified by small farm units, unemployment and a low degree of forest management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7182, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Hankintahakkuut ja maatilakokonaisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 84 no. 1 article id 7182. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7182
English title: Delivery cuts of timber in farm management.
Original keywords: työvoima; hankintahakkuut; koneistuminen; maatilametsät
English keywords: mechanization; fellings; labour; farm economy; farm forestry; delivery logging; farm forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study links up with the general development of logging on private farm woodlots, practiced by the Work Efficiency Institute (Työtehoseura). It is based on the idea that the promotion of forest management on farms should be integrated with general agricultural development. The aim of the study was to find out the relation between delivery cuts and management of the farm as a whole, including economic and social environment. The first, methodological part develops a model representing farming, based on factor analysis. The second part tests the applicability of the factor analysis in the light of the empirical data, and studies the relation between delivery cuts and total farming and regional differences in farming.

Despite the descriptive nature of the factors obtained, the solution permitted a multi-dimensional examination. It seems that certain aspects typical to scattered settlement accentuate the importance of the forest for the farm. These include a high ratio of forest to arable land, barren soil and forest holdings that form unbroken tract of land. The importance of forestry is accentuated by the self-sufficiency of farms in labour and tractive power. On the other hand, there were lines of production and forms of livelihood and land utilization that compete with forestry, such as off-farm employment and alternative forms of land-use. One factor indicative for small importance of forestry for the farms was the small size in ratio to arable land. Often money for machinery has come from forest revenues.

The factor analysis indicate that a rational parcelling of forest holdings leads to better cutting methods. Also, cutting method improve and the proportion of renewal cuttings increase on moving from remote areas towards population centers. Productivity of delivery cuts is affected by the total employment of labour and tractive power on the farm. Abundance of labour and the use of farm’s own labour are probably detrimental to the productivity of delivery cuts. When the farms grow, the increase in the quantity felled and the rise in the degree of mechanization favour productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7176, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1967). Ancient forestry : an historical study. 1. Facts and information on trees. Silva Fennica vol. 82 no. 3 article id 7176. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7176
Keywords: forestry; tree species; forests; history
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper presents a study on the works of ancient writers that deal with trees, forests and the use of forest before the time of actual forest sciences. The work describes the development of knowledge pertaining to the forest and trees and the progress made on utilizing them. This first part of a series of two articles is primarily concerned with biological information in ancient times. The article first describes the most important sources of information and concentrates then on the information on the structure of trees, on the vital functions of trees, on the factors affecting the growth of trees and tree species.

  • Makkonen, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7140, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Metsänhoidon tason vaihtelu Suomen maatilametsälöillä : tutkimus metsänhoitolautakunnittaisten erojen taloudellisista ja sosiaalisista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 75 no. 6 article id 7140. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7140
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsäpolitiikka; yksityismetsätalous; alueelliset erot; harsintahakkuut
English keywords: forest management; forest policy; private forestry; regional differences; selection cuttings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The forest management practices in Finland are closely related to the industrial history in the country. The selection cutting method used previously has now been gradually disappearing, and differences in the quality of forest management can still be observed between different owner groups. The national forest inventories indicate that farm woodlots show the poorest silvicultural state among the ownership categories. This study analyses social and economic causes responsible for variation in the silvicultural state of farm woodlots managed jointly with a cultivated land holding. The study is based on the data of third national forest inventory in Finland, and a factor analysis was calculated using the data.

Although the model developed explains more than a half of the total variance of the level of silviculture, only less than third of this is clearly explained by economic and social factors. The remaining two thirds are explained by the ’nature factor’, which includes both economic and site factors. This affects the effect of different kinds of forest policy measures. Of the variables in the model, the strongest influence in the level of silviculture have income, size of woodlot, size of land area under cultivation and distribution of forest types. The differences in the level of silviculture between different woodlots and different districts, may be explained by the theory of cumulative process. Regional differences in economic phenomena cannot be explained without taking into consideration the social value hierarchy in each region, which determines the range of variation of economic variables.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7113, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1959). Möjligheterna att med hjälp av bidragsmetoden bedöma skogsbrukets resultat och räntabilitet. Silva Fennica vol. 71 no. 4 article id 7113. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7113
English title: Possibility of calculating results and profitability in forestry with the help of margin costing.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsänomistus; metsätalouden kannattavuus; rajakustannus; marginaalikustannus; metsätalouden tulos
English keywords: forestry; profitability; profitability of forestry; result; marginal cost
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

It is impossible to survey the results and profitability of forestry a hundred years hence of measures taken today. Financial reports in forestry should be kept as separate as possible from stocktaking. Under sustained forest management it is the task of silviculture to supervise the care of growing stock. As long a sufficient money is being used for forest improvement, the situation can be considered satisfactory. To ascertain just what is sufficient, in the analysis of the costs of forestry the investigators should concentrate on establishing which costs are fixed and which are direct (marginal).

Short-time changes of capital can also best be considered by means of a cost analysis of silvicultural measures and other operations. On the other hand, classification of the cost must be correct if the operational statistics are to be of any value. The calculations become much easier if fixed costs do not need to be distributed per production unit. Therefore, there may be good reason to try out marginal costing in forest enterprises. The fixed costs are increasing steadily.

This paper aims at giving ideas in determining the profitability of a forest enterprise. A marginal costing balance sheet mainly illustrates the structure of an enterprise, which gives a general picture of its profitability. If profitability is to be expressed by comparing yield with capital, yield can be treated as interest and capitalized. None the less, this is certain to result in different capital values depending on whether we take the yield to represent 3, 4, or 5% of the capital. A marginal balance is no substitute for the long-term planning which will be needed in a forest enterprise.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish.

  • Runeberg, E-mail: lr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7460, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Toini Ristimäki. (1956). Metsä- ja uittotyövoiman määrä ja rakenne. Silva Fennica vol. 63 no. 7 article id 7460. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7460
English title: Size and structure of forest and log-floating labour force in Finland.
Original keywords: uitto; metsätyö; työvoima; maataloustyö
English keywords: floating; workforce; forestry work; labour force; farm work; rural labour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The investigation is based mainly on the material collected for Finnish rural labour force study in connection with the 1950 Population Census. A total of 44,667 men, aged 15-64, were interviewed in connection of the census, and a sub-group consisting of a sample of the forest and floating labour, 28,850 men, was formed for this study. Finnish rural population typically cultivates the land, tends cattle, works in the forest, builds roads and houses and floats timber without specializing in any of these jobs. The work done in the own farms is called unpaid work in this study in contrast to paid work outside the farm.

The paid forest and floating labour force (308,600 men) includes all forest and floating workers who reported that they have worked for a minimum of one day. Forest work is heavily winter-dominated. Only in the floating work there was a declining trend in the time series of 1933-1934 and 1942-1955. The average forest and floating labour input per man was small, 40-70 days depending on the occupational group. Only 13,000 workers worked over 200 days, and 32,000 worked 150 days. 44% of the paid forest and floating workers were members of families cultivating small farms, 26% had larger farms, and the remaining 30% were farmless or members of a family holding a building lot.

The main difficulty in finding manpower for summertime forest work seems not to be the lack of time for paid work because of the men’s unpaid work. They seem to prefer other, more attractive paid work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ristimäki, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 7459, category Article
Toini Ristimäki, Sulo Väänänen, Lauri Heikinheimo. (1956). Maaseudun elinkeino- ja työttömyysalueet miestyövoiman ajankäytön perusteella. Silva Fennica vol. 63 no. 6 article id 7459. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7459
English title: Distribution by industry and unemployment of the manpower in rural districts in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työvoima; maaseutu; maataloustyö; elinkeinoalueet
English keywords: workforce; forestry work; labour force; farm work; rural areas; rural districts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland the workers engaged in forestry and, in the rural districts, also in construction are seldom occupied with the work throughout the year or even for greater part of the year. Due to this, these industries seem disproportionally small in the statistics of census. The aim of this study was to gain figures that describe better the significance of these industries. Therefore, data was collected by replacing the man unit by a time unit, a day. The results are raised estimates of the activity by the men interviewed in 1950 Census of Finland, aged 15-64, living in rural communes.

In four areas of Finland, namely South-West Finland, Ostrobothnia, South Savo and Savo-Karelia, the male labour input to agriculture as a proportion of the total activity of the male labour was greater than in other parts of the country. In the western part of the country, the conditions of agriculture are favourable and the farms larger than in average in the country and the intensity of farming is greater. In South Savo and Savo-Karelia the conditions are poorer, consequently, the male labour input to agriculture per hectare under plough is greater than in the western areas.

In Finland, forest work is an occupation supplementary to work in agriculture, but the agriculture, based on predominantly small farms, is unable to utilize the entire work potential of the farming population. In Central and Eastern Finland, the forestry districts often coincide with the agricultural districts. In the coastal areas, where agriculture was relatively intense, the labour input to forestry remained small. The best forests are situated in Southern, Central and Eastern Finland, and the labour demand is, therefore, larger. Unemployment was heaviest in Southern Finland in certain densely populated districts with high proportion of urban occupations. It concerned mainly building workers, general labourers and harbour workers. In Northern Finland there was structural unemployment independent of business cycles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väänänen, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown
  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
article id 7458, category Article
Sulo Väänänen. (1955). Ammattimaisten metsätyömiesten asunto-olot. Silva Fennica vol. 63 no. 5 article id 7458. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7458
English title: Housing conditions of professional forest workers in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työvoima; asuminen; metsäammattilaiset; asuinolosuhteet; asumistiheys
English keywords: workforce; forestry work; labour force; forest labour; housing; housing conditions; housing density
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The data on housing conditions presented in this study derives from the general population census of Finland of 1950. The sub-sample of professional forest workers was taken from the sample collected for the larger investigation of rural labour force. The housing density of professional forest workers was considerably higher than the average for the population in general. The total population of the country, according to the 1950 Census, showed a ratio of 154 persons to 100 rooms, while the average weighted with the number of rooms for forest workers was 237:100, and the unweighted 340:100. If three per room is taken as the limit of crowded housing, nearly half of the professional forest workers lived in crowded conditions. Over two-thirds of them owned their dwellings, and only 2% of them lived in dwellings owned by the employer. Three quarters of all the men belonged to the holder-family of small farms. About three quarters of them lived in dwellings of one or two rooms. Also, the size of the family and household affected the housing density. The housing density exceeds the average in the youngest age classes. This is probably because the sons of families with poor economic standing must start work young in forestry, and those families have a high housing density. A quarter of the families had electricity in their dwellings. Few had running water or sewage in their houses.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Väänänen, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7457, category Article
Toini Ristimäki. (1955). Kääpiöviljelmien miestyövoiman käyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 63 no. 4 article id 7457. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7457
English title: Use of workforce of small farms.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työvoima; pientilat; maataloustyö
English keywords: Finland; workforce; small farms; forestry work; labour force; farm work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The investigation into the manpower of small farms is a part of the 1950 rural labour force survey. The purpose of this work was to study the use of manpower of small farms, that have 0.25-0.499 ha under plough. The manpower of the farms refers to men of 15-64 years of age, members of the family, whose input of unpaid labour to farming was not less than 21 days in 1950. The aim was to find out the extent to which the labour input was to farming and to what extent to paid work outside the farm. The data was collected in connection to the census of Finland as a sample.

The men of small farms are primarily temporal workers in the different occupations. Their labour input in the own farms per hectare under plough increased as the size of the farms decreased. This seemingly contradictory result is due to a low decree of mechanization, the organization of work, the quality of the labour force and the great relative importance of maintenance work in small farms. Also, especially in the remote areas there is not available enough paid work for the men living in small farms. Farms in Lapland and the county of Oulu had most forest land, which increased the unpaid work on forestry. Forestry in small farms tends to require more unpaid work, because they use less hired labour and make less sales of standing timber.

This is the workforce in forest and construction industry, that are sensitive to business cycles, and draw additional manpower during boom of trends without affecting unemployment figures. Agricultural income of the men of small farms was estimated by comparing it with wages of a worker. Their income per day for unpaid labour was lower than the daily wage of a farm worker. High number of small farms is a result of agricultural policy in Finland. The aim has been to keep the proportion of agricultural population high since it is considered to be best able to provide work and a decent living. The farms, established in connection with the abolition of tenant farming and through colonization, were mostly small.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7456, category Article
Toini Ristimäki. (1955). Nuorukaisten ja täysi-ikäisten miesten arkiajan käyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 63 no. 3 article id 7456. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7456
English title: Annual round of activity of youths and adult men.
Original keywords: maatalous; metsätyö; työvoima; työntutkimus; maataloustyö; nuoret
English keywords: workforce; work studies; forestry work; labour force; farm work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study is a part of the investigation of the rural labour force in Finland in 1950. The data was collected in the form of a sample in connection with the census of Finland, and covers the rural male population of the age of 15-64. In this study the men in the age group of 15-19 are classified as youths and the 20-64 as adult men.

Youths in rural districts participated in production, calculated in man-days, to almost at the same extent as adult men. The total labour input of the youths was 78% of the total activity, and that of adult men 85%. About 75% of the men or their families owned a farm. The main activity, 151 days a year, of 47% of the youths and 51% of the adult men was in work on their own family farms. The input of paid labour of youths was smaller than that of adult men.

In rural districts 37% of the youths and 47% of the adult men spent the main part of the annual round of activity in paid work. However, in Lapland only quarter of the youths and half of the adult men was in paid work. Forest and agricultural work seem to have a greater meaning for youths, and construction of houses and industrial work for adult men. Only 12% of the youths and 13% of the men were employed principally as professional workers in forestry, agriculture or construction of houses. Jobs in industry, commerce, transport and communication had little significance.

About 36% of the youths had no permanent occupation. This figure includes, however, also those who were studying, or were at home at least for the greater part of the year. About 12% of the total activity of the youths was studying.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7455, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1955). Maaseudun miestyövoiman arkiajan käyttö. Silva Fennica vol. 63 no. 2 article id 7455. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7455
English title: Use of rural workforce in Finland.
Original keywords: uitto; metsätyö; työttömyys; työvoima; työllisyys; maaseutu; työntutkimus
English keywords: employment; floating; workforce; unemployment; work studies; forestry work; labour force
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article comprises some of the principal results of the labour force material collected in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. It includes the basic tables in which are listed the calculated estimates of total number of rural male forest and floating labour force, their labour input to agriculture, forestry and floating in 1950. In addition, division of the labour force into farmers and not-farmers and by districts are presented. The unemployment time and relief work input of the rural population was also calculated.

Finland’s economic situation in 1950 was characterized by a slow recovery from depression of the previous year. The situation had not yet improved in such measure that would have relieved appreciably the rural unemployment that arose from shortage of work available in the forest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7454, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1954). Metsätyövoiman tutkimusmenetelmä. Silva Fennica vol. 63 no. 1 article id 7454. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7454
English title: Method of surveying forest labour.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työntutkimus; menetelmät; tutkimusmenetelmät
English keywords: work study; employment; workforce; forestry work; methodos; labour force; labou; forest labour
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In Finland the general shortage of labour during the Second World War called attention to employment problems in forestry. After the war the scope widened to include sociological and human maters. The Finnish Rural Labour Force Study deals with the whole rural labour force, not only forest work. Due to the scale of the subject, pilot studies were started by the Institute of Forest Economics at the University of Helsinki and the Central Statistical Office and the Board of Agriculture in 1950. This article describes in detail the methods used in the pilot studies the and main survey.

The aim of the survey was to obtain a reliable picture of three subjects. 1) The labour input of the male rural population during the observation year, its distribution and the seasonal fluctuations in the structure of labour input. 2) The unemployment time of the rural population, the periods underemployment and its seasonal variation. 3) The number of male workers engaged for a shorter or longer period during the year in certain occupation. The paper discusses the different data sources and ways to collect the data either from enterprises or workers. One of the obstacles is the large number of enterprises in agriculture and forestry. Consequently, the total number of people employed in a particular industry, its distribution and the duration of the working season can be estimated only from a sample selected from the population.

The data of the survey is based on a systematic sample, collected by interviews, of the annual round of activity in 1950 of 44,667 men of 15-64 years of age living in Finnish rural communes. The interviews were made in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. The results of the survey are presented in the other articles of Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 63.

The PDF includes a comprehensive summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7447, category Article
A. Jänterä. (1954). "Metsälehti" metsätaloudellisen valistustyön välineenä. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 35 article id 7447. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7447
English title: “Metsälehti” as a means of forest information in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; metsänomistajat; valistus; Metsälehti; tiedotus
English keywords: forestry; forest owners; communication; awareness education
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Periodicals connected with forestry profession have been published in Finland since 1888. The earliest paper, Suomen Metsänhoitolehti, ceased to appear in 1893, and was succeeded in 1895-1907 by Metsänystävät, published by the Finnish Forestry Association. In 1908-32 the Finnish Forest Association Tapio published a monthly periodical called Tapio, which was succeeded in 1933 by Metsälehti, dealing with forest management.

The paper Tapio focused particularly on the improvement of private forestry, and increasing interest in rational forestry and forest utilization. Its predecessor Metsälehti has even published official notices and specialist articles for the whole branch. The circulation of the paper has increased from about 8,000 copies in 1933 to 38,700 copies in 1953. Almost 90% of the subscribers are forest owners, and the rest forest professionals.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jänterä, E-mail: aj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7446, category Article
K. Mantel. (1954). Farm forest holding as an object of agriculture and forestry related research. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 34 article id 7446. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7446
Keywords: research; Germany; small-scale forestry; forest holding; farm forest
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Small-scale forest holdings are a specific research interest of forest research as they have many special questions in the sense of forest management. The article presents the characters of small-scale forest holdings in Germany. In connection to agricultural activities three different forms of forest use can be distinguished. They are forest-agriculture holdings, where forestry has an equal meaning with the agriculture; agricultural holdings with small areas of forest used only for fire wood or other household purposes; and thirdly farms with very small parcels of forest with no economic meaning and also minor household use.   

Forest research disciplines concerning these small-scale forest holdings and the policy instruments to enhance the sustainable management of these forests are discussed.

 

  • Mantel, E-mail: km@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7444, category Article
Lauri Selin. (1954). Metsätaloutemme verotetut tulot vuosina 1950-53 erään laskelman valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 32 article id 7444. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7444
English title: Forestry income taxed in Finland in 1950-1953 in the light of a calculation.
Original keywords: metsätalous; yksityismetsät; metsäverotus; verotus; verotettavat tulot
English keywords: forestry; forest taxation; private forests; taxation; income; taxable income
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Due to the nature of forest taxation in Finland, there has been no information available on the amount of tax paid by forestry or of taxable forestry income. The main reason for this is the close connection of taxation of forestry and agriculture, which has made it difficult and expensive to separate the information of the sectors. This study determined the amount of taxable forestry mathematically based on statistics on the taxable forest areas in each tax zone on a county level.

The article concludes that the stumpage has been considerably higher than the taxable income in 1950-1953. In 1951 only 18.5% of the income received as stumpage was taxed, but in 1953 the proportion was 82.8%. In average 45% of the stumpage amount had become subject to taxation.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selin, E-mail: ls@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7443, category Article
Antero Piha. (1954). Työpanos maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 31 article id 7443. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7443
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.
Original keywords: metsätalous; valtion metsät; metsäverotus; verotus; ylijäämä
English keywords: forestry; forest taxation; state forests; taxation; surplus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes if the state forests would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company to 730 million mark when the year 1952 is used as a reference. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Piha, E-mail: ap@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7441, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1954). Valtion metsämaiden verotus. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 29 article id 7441. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7441
English title: Taxation of state woodlands.
Original keywords: metsätalous; valtion metsät; verotus; valtion tulovero; ylijäämä
English keywords: forestry; Finland; forest taxation; state forests; taxation; income; state forestry; surplus; property and income taxes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland the state has to pay local government taxes and certain connected smaller taxes, such as church and land taxes and forest management fees, on its forest property. On the other hand, the state tax on income and property is not collected, as the corresponding amount goes to the state in the form of a state forestry surplus.

It has been stated that if the state should pay similar taxes as companies do, the income of state forests would be small. The author has calculated the different taxes as if the state forestry would be a company or an individual tax-payer. As a company the income and property taxes would amount to 1,251 million marks and as a company 730 million marks using the data of 1952. In drawing up the balance sheet for state forestry, local government taxes and other similar charges have been taken into account as expenses. By comparing the surplus with the calculated state tax payable, the state forestry would give a surplus, after deduction of taxes, of 1,846 million marks as an individual and 2,367 million marks as a company. State forestry would thus have been able to pay state income and property taxes from its surplus.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in Engilsh.

  • Osara, E-mail: no@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätalous; yksityismetsät; metsämaa; asutus; kotitarvepuu; asutustilat; viljelytilat; tilat; metsäpinta-ala
English keywords: forestry; forest area; private forests; state-owned lands; settlement; farms; household timber; forest holdings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.