Current issue: 57(2)

Under compilation: 57(3)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'labour'

Category: Article

article id 5477, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1992). Skidding by sulky - a literature study. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5477.
Keywords: work study; production; ergonomics; forest work; labour-intensity; sulkies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Speed and load sizes presented in three study reports on sulky skidding were compared with estimates based on ergonomic models. Speed and load size estimates were closely correlated with the observed values, when a 400 W energy expenditure of the subject was used. This corresponds to less than half of his submaximal oxygen intake and matches well with the heart rate given in one of the time studies. It seems possible to develop methods for evaluating the work pace/production rate for sulky skidding in varying terrain conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5271, category Article
Kimmo Kiljunen. (1986). Growth of third world forest industry: possible impact on Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5271.
Keywords: Finland; forest industry; developing countries; forest resources; international division of labour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Use of tropical forest resources is analysed as part of the world forest resources and global development of forest industry. Finland’s role in the international division of labour of forest industry is investigated. Factors of competitiveness are analysed in order to differentiate specific adjustment constraints in Finland due to competition from developing countries.

It is concluded that in the long run there are two major factors which are restricting the growth of Finnish forest industry. First, tightened resources constraints, and second, competitive shifts in external markets due to new sources of production. Finland has already reached its wood-producing limits of sustained yield. Technological advances in the use of short-fibre raw materials for pulp and paper making, as well as in making programmes for establishing fast-growing plantations, have facilitated the utilization of tropical forest areas. In the short term, however, the competitive threat from LDC wood-processing industry is primarily directed to home markets rather than to exports.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kiljunen, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5040, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1979). Social promotion of forest workers. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5040.
Keywords: forestry; mechanization; forest work; forest workers; labour; trade unions; labour policy; World Forest Congress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Alongside the extent of forest production, the demand for labour input in forestry depends on the development of the structure of production and of the productivity of the work. In this, mechanization of harvesting will have long-lasting influence. Despite the growth in forestry production, the number of forestry workers has decreased considerably in many countries, but at the same time the share of professional forest workers has increased. The permanence of work fundamentally affects the life of a forest worker. It has influence on the income level, on the social position of the worker and on the standard of living.

The appreciation of the occupation of a forest worker will be increased mainly within the increasing mechanization of the work. It requires vocational training, and it will improve wages, competition of skilled workers and social appreciation of the vocation. In order to influence their benefits forest workers have organized themselves into trade unions. They activate their members in to helping the unions to attain their aims. Trade unions try to influence the policies of forestry and forest labour. In this respect they are in contact with political parties. The questions of labour policy occupy a central position in the mutual relations of the labour market organizations. Within mutual cooperation much promotion has been achieved concerning wages, working conditions, rationalization, improvement of housing facilities and other living conditions. Especially in some East-European countries attention is being paid to the motivation of forest workers.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kantola, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4679, category Article
Esko Hellén, Gert Blåfield, Martti J. Havukkala, Olavi Sajama. (1958). Metsä- ja uittotyöpalkkatarkkailu vuosina 1932-1957. Silva Fennica vol. no. 96 article id 4679.
English title: Wage control in forestry and log floating in Finland.
Original keywords: uitto; metsätyö; palkat; palkkasäännöstely; palkkataso; ammattiliitot
English keywords: floating; forest work; wages; pay rate; labour market organizations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The state of Finland had to intervene in the forest wages after the wages had dropped very low during depression in 1932-33. Even able-bodied workers were forced to resort to communal poor aid. Therefore, the Ministry of Communications and Public Works imposed in winter 1932-33 a study on the level of forest wages. Based on the investigations it was decided to develop control and guidance of forest and floating wages. A committee was appointed to follow the development of forest wages and to promote the formation of the wages on a reasonable level.
The country was divided into 14 wage districts, and for each district was confirmed an own norm of wages in accordance with the costs of living in the area. Inspectors controlled the wages primarily in such work places that were complaind of. Consequently, the earnings increased yearly in the 1930s.
During the Second World War, the main objective of economic policy of the government of Finland was to prevent inflation. The regulation of wages strived to compensate workers for the war-time rise in the cost of living. The Econimic Powers Act issued in 1941 was the first legislation that concerned regulation of wages. The Wages Commission prepared from the winter 1942 onward the wage tables per unit of forest works for employers. During the war, the employers were prepared to pay higher wages than the wage authorities considered possible.
Right after the war the main concern of wage control was that because of labour shortage forest and floating wages rose too high. From the end of 1948 onward, however, the principal task was to prevent paying of too low wages. Regulation did not succeed in preventing inflatory rise in wages in postwar conditions, and it was necessary to rise wages continually.

The Union of the Finnish Forest and Floating Workers was founded in 1946, and it concluded a collection agreement with the Employers’ Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries in 1947. After 1949 the forest workers were represented in the Central League of Finnis Trade Unions (SAK). The regulation of wages ended in 1955, and after that the level of wages were negotiated by the labour market organizations.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Hellén, E-mail: eh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Blåfield, E-mail: gb@mm.unknown
  • Havukkala, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown
  • Sajama, E-mail: os@mm.unknown
article id 4645, category Article
Oiva Suominen. (1955). Metsätyömieskylät : ehdotus vakinaisten metsätyömiesperheiden asuntokysymyksen järjestelyksi. Silva Fennica vol. no. 86 article id 4645.
English title: Forest worker villages: Permanent accommodation of forest worker’s families.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; metsätyöntekijät; metsätyö; asutus; asuminen; asunto-olot; metsätyömieskylä
English keywords: settlement; stateforests; forest workers; accomodation; labour; forest worker village
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The remote areas of Eastern and Northern Finland are mostly owned by the state. Forestry in these areas has been mainly managed by arranging temporary lodgings for the forest workers. A report on the suitability of forest worker villages as a more permanent solution to the accommodation problem was commissioned from forest officer Oiva Suominen.

Seasonal work, arduousness of the work and distance from home have decreased the attractivity of forest work as a profession. On the other hand, forestry has provided rural population work during winter, when there is little work in agriculture. To be able to increase permanent labour in state forestry, it is necessary to arrange permanent lodging to the workers and their families. Permanent workforce is needed to arrange wood harvesting and manage the state forests effectively. The article includes a suggestion of how to establish the forest worker villages. It suggests the locations and sizes for villages for the districts of Eastern Finland, Ostrobothnia and Perä-Pohjola.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Suominen, E-mail: os@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4593, category Article
Toivo J. Komsi. (1948). Työväen huoltoa koskevasta lainsäädännöstä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 64 article id 4593.
English title: Application of labour legislation in forest work.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; metsätyö; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; lainsäädäntö; jatkokoulutus; työterveys; työsopimukset; työturvallisuus
English keywords: forest education; occupational safety; forest work; labour legislation; labour contract
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info


Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation describes application of labour legislation and occupational safety act in forest work.

  • Komsi, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4470, category Article
Einar Maliniemi. (1933). Päivittäisistä paperipuiden valmistusmääristä eri vuoden aikoina Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 29 article id 4470.
English title: Seasonal variations of pulpwood harvesting in the northernmost Finland.
Original keywords: kuitupuu; työtehotutkimus; hakkuu; Perä-Pohjola; puutavaranvalmistus; kausityö
English keywords: pulpwood; felling; time and motion study; labour productivity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The fellings of small timber have been expanded from seasonal to full-year operation in many areas. A time and motion study was conducted on the felling of pulpwood in different times of the year in seven felling sites in the northernmost Finland. The work was payed per one pulpwood bolt. The output of a one-man teams was larger than 2-6-man teams. Teams of even numbers were more effective than teams of uneven numbers. One-man teams were more popular during summer. The output was largest during the summer. In the late summer the results decrease, because barking of trees becomes more difficult. Shortening of daylight hours begin to shorten the workdays in the autumn. In December, the average working days are about 6 hours. Snow and low temperatures make logging and barking more difficult during the winter. The output was lowest in January, despite that work days are 1 ½ hours longer than in December. It is concluded that pulpwood fellings should be avoided from December to March 15. If the fellings are necessary, the wage system should be changed more flexible than at present. The size of cutter’s lots should be adjusted so, that work periods are not too short. Sufficiently big lots save time spent on travelling between the sites and villages.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Maliniemi, E-mail: em@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7182, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Hankintahakkuut ja maatilakokonaisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 1 article id 7182.
English title: Delivery cuts of timber in farm management.
Original keywords: työvoima; hankintahakkuut; koneistuminen; maatilametsät
English keywords: mechanization; fellings; labour; farm economy; farm forestry; delivery logging; farm forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study links up with the general development of logging on private farm woodlots, practiced by the Work Efficiency Institute (Työtehoseura). It is based on the idea that the promotion of forest management on farms should be integrated with general agricultural development. The aim of the study was to find out the relation between delivery cuts and management of the farm as a whole, including economic and social environment. The first, methodological part develops a model representing farming, based on factor analysis. The second part tests the applicability of the factor analysis in the light of the empirical data, and studies the relation between delivery cuts and total farming and regional differences in farming.

Despite the descriptive nature of the factors obtained, the solution permitted a multi-dimensional examination. It seems that certain aspects typical to scattered settlement accentuate the importance of the forest for the farm. These include a high ratio of forest to arable land, barren soil and forest holdings that form unbroken tract of land. The importance of forestry is accentuated by the self-sufficiency of farms in labour and tractive power. On the other hand, there were lines of production and forms of livelihood and land utilization that compete with forestry, such as off-farm employment and alternative forms of land-use. One factor indicative for small importance of forestry for the farms was the small size in ratio to arable land. Often money for machinery has come from forest revenues.

The factor analysis indicate that a rational parcelling of forest holdings leads to better cutting methods. Also, cutting method improve and the proportion of renewal cuttings increase on moving from remote areas towards population centers. Productivity of delivery cuts is affected by the total employment of labour and tractive power on the farm. Abundance of labour and the use of farm’s own labour are probably detrimental to the productivity of delivery cuts. When the farms grow, the increase in the quantity felled and the rise in the degree of mechanization favour productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7460, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Toini Ristimäki. (1956). Metsä- ja uittotyövoiman määrä ja rakenne. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 7 article id 7460.
English title: Size and structure of forest and log-floating labour force in Finland.
Original keywords: uitto; metsätyö; työvoima; maataloustyö
English keywords: floating; workforce; forestry work; labour force; farm work; rural labour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The investigation is based mainly on the material collected for Finnish rural labour force study in connection with the 1950 Population Census. A total of 44,667 men, aged 15-64, were interviewed in connection of the census, and a sub-group consisting of a sample of the forest and floating labour, 28,850 men, was formed for this study. Finnish rural population typically cultivates the land, tends cattle, works in the forest, builds roads and houses and floats timber without specializing in any of these jobs. The work done in the own farms is called unpaid work in this study in contrast to paid work outside the farm.

The paid forest and floating labour force (308,600 men) includes all forest and floating workers who reported that they have worked for a minimum of one day. Forest work is heavily winter-dominated. Only in the floating work there was a declining trend in the time series of 1933-1934 and 1942-1955. The average forest and floating labour input per man was small, 40-70 days depending on the occupational group. Only 13,000 workers worked over 200 days, and 32,000 worked 150 days. 44% of the paid forest and floating workers were members of families cultivating small farms, 26% had larger farms, and the remaining 30% were farmless or members of a family holding a building lot.

The main difficulty in finding manpower for summertime forest work seems not to be the lack of time for paid work because of the men’s unpaid work. They seem to prefer other, more attractive paid work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ristimäki, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 7459, category Article
Toini Ristimäki, Sulo Väänänen, Lauri Heikinheimo. (1956). Maaseudun elinkeino- ja työttömyysalueet miestyövoiman ajankäytön perusteella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 6 article id 7459.
English title: Distribution by industry and unemployment of the manpower in rural districts in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työvoima; maaseutu; maataloustyö; elinkeinoalueet
English keywords: workforce; forestry work; labour force; farm work; rural areas; rural districts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland the workers engaged in forestry and, in the rural districts, also in construction are seldom occupied with the work throughout the year or even for greater part of the year. Due to this, these industries seem disproportionally small in the statistics of census. The aim of this study was to gain figures that describe better the significance of these industries. Therefore, data was collected by replacing the man unit by a time unit, a day. The results are raised estimates of the activity by the men interviewed in 1950 Census of Finland, aged 15-64, living in rural communes.

In four areas of Finland, namely South-West Finland, Ostrobothnia, South Savo and Savo-Karelia, the male labour input to agriculture as a proportion of the total activity of the male labour was greater than in other parts of the country. In the western part of the country, the conditions of agriculture are favourable and the farms larger than in average in the country and the intensity of farming is greater. In South Savo and Savo-Karelia the conditions are poorer, consequently, the male labour input to agriculture per hectare under plough is greater than in the western areas.

In Finland, forest work is an occupation supplementary to work in agriculture, but the agriculture, based on predominantly small farms, is unable to utilize the entire work potential of the farming population. In Central and Eastern Finland, the forestry districts often coincide with the agricultural districts. In the coastal areas, where agriculture was relatively intense, the labour input to forestry remained small. The best forests are situated in Southern, Central and Eastern Finland, and the labour demand is, therefore, larger. Unemployment was heaviest in Southern Finland in certain densely populated districts with high proportion of urban occupations. It concerned mainly building workers, general labourers and harbour workers. In Northern Finland there was structural unemployment independent of business cycles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väänänen, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown
  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
article id 7458, category Article
Sulo Väänänen. (1955). Ammattimaisten metsätyömiesten asunto-olot. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 5 article id 7458.
English title: Housing conditions of professional forest workers in Finland.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työvoima; asuminen; metsäammattilaiset; asuinolosuhteet; asumistiheys
English keywords: workforce; forestry work; labour force; forest labour; housing; housing conditions; housing density
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The data on housing conditions presented in this study derives from the general population census of Finland of 1950. The sub-sample of professional forest workers was taken from the sample collected for the larger investigation of rural labour force. The housing density of professional forest workers was considerably higher than the average for the population in general. The total population of the country, according to the 1950 Census, showed a ratio of 154 persons to 100 rooms, while the average weighted with the number of rooms for forest workers was 237:100, and the unweighted 340:100. If three per room is taken as the limit of crowded housing, nearly half of the professional forest workers lived in crowded conditions. Over two-thirds of them owned their dwellings, and only 2% of them lived in dwellings owned by the employer. Three quarters of all the men belonged to the holder-family of small farms. About three quarters of them lived in dwellings of one or two rooms. Also, the size of the family and household affected the housing density. The housing density exceeds the average in the youngest age classes. This is probably because the sons of families with poor economic standing must start work young in forestry, and those families have a high housing density. A quarter of the families had electricity in their dwellings. Few had running water or sewage in their houses.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Väänänen, E-mail: sv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7457, category Article
Toini Ristimäki. (1955). Kääpiöviljelmien miestyövoiman käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 4 article id 7457.
English title: Use of workforce of small farms.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työvoima; pientilat; maataloustyö
English keywords: Finland; workforce; small farms; forestry work; labour force; farm work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The investigation into the manpower of small farms is a part of the 1950 rural labour force survey. The purpose of this work was to study the use of manpower of small farms, that have 0.25-0.499 ha under plough. The manpower of the farms refers to men of 15-64 years of age, members of the family, whose input of unpaid labour to farming was not less than 21 days in 1950. The aim was to find out the extent to which the labour input was to farming and to what extent to paid work outside the farm. The data was collected in connection to the census of Finland as a sample.

The men of small farms are primarily temporal workers in the different occupations. Their labour input in the own farms per hectare under plough increased as the size of the farms decreased. This seemingly contradictory result is due to a low decree of mechanization, the organization of work, the quality of the labour force and the great relative importance of maintenance work in small farms. Also, especially in the remote areas there is not available enough paid work for the men living in small farms. Farms in Lapland and the county of Oulu had most forest land, which increased the unpaid work on forestry. Forestry in small farms tends to require more unpaid work, because they use less hired labour and make less sales of standing timber.

This is the workforce in forest and construction industry, that are sensitive to business cycles, and draw additional manpower during boom of trends without affecting unemployment figures. Agricultural income of the men of small farms was estimated by comparing it with wages of a worker. Their income per day for unpaid labour was lower than the daily wage of a farm worker. High number of small farms is a result of agricultural policy in Finland. The aim has been to keep the proportion of agricultural population high since it is considered to be best able to provide work and a decent living. The farms, established in connection with the abolition of tenant farming and through colonization, were mostly small.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7456, category Article
Toini Ristimäki. (1955). Nuorukaisten ja täysi-ikäisten miesten arkiajan käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 3 article id 7456.
English title: Annual round of activity of youths and adult men.
Original keywords: maatalous; metsätyö; työvoima; työntutkimus; maataloustyö; nuoret
English keywords: workforce; work studies; forestry work; labour force; farm work
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study is a part of the investigation of the rural labour force in Finland in 1950. The data was collected in the form of a sample in connection with the census of Finland, and covers the rural male population of the age of 15-64. In this study the men in the age group of 15-19 are classified as youths and the 20-64 as adult men.

Youths in rural districts participated in production, calculated in man-days, to almost at the same extent as adult men. The total labour input of the youths was 78% of the total activity, and that of adult men 85%. About 75% of the men or their families owned a farm. The main activity, 151 days a year, of 47% of the youths and 51% of the adult men was in work on their own family farms. The input of paid labour of youths was smaller than that of adult men.

In rural districts 37% of the youths and 47% of the adult men spent the main part of the annual round of activity in paid work. However, in Lapland only quarter of the youths and half of the adult men was in paid work. Forest and agricultural work seem to have a greater meaning for youths, and construction of houses and industrial work for adult men. Only 12% of the youths and 13% of the men were employed principally as professional workers in forestry, agriculture or construction of houses. Jobs in industry, commerce, transport and communication had little significance.

About 36% of the youths had no permanent occupation. This figure includes, however, also those who were studying, or were at home at least for the greater part of the year. About 12% of the total activity of the youths was studying.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ristimäki, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7455, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1955). Maaseudun miestyövoiman arkiajan käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 2 article id 7455.
English title: Use of rural workforce in Finland.
Original keywords: uitto; metsätyö; työttömyys; työvoima; työllisyys; maaseutu; työntutkimus
English keywords: employment; floating; workforce; unemployment; work studies; forestry work; labour force
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article comprises some of the principal results of the labour force material collected in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. It includes the basic tables in which are listed the calculated estimates of total number of rural male forest and floating labour force, their labour input to agriculture, forestry and floating in 1950. In addition, division of the labour force into farmers and not-farmers and by districts are presented. The unemployment time and relief work input of the rural population was also calculated.

Finland’s economic situation in 1950 was characterized by a slow recovery from depression of the previous year. The situation had not yet improved in such measure that would have relieved appreciably the rural unemployment that arose from shortage of work available in the forest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7454, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1954). Metsätyövoiman tutkimusmenetelmä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 1 article id 7454.
English title: Method of surveying forest labour.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työntutkimus; menetelmät; tutkimusmenetelmät
English keywords: work study; employment; workforce; forestry work; methodos; labour force; labou; forest labour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland the general shortage of labour during the Second World War called attention to employment problems in forestry. After the war the scope widened to include sociological and human maters. The Finnish Rural Labour Force Study deals with the whole rural labour force, not only forest work. Due to the scale of the subject, pilot studies were started by the Institute of Forest Economics at the University of Helsinki and the Central Statistical Office and the Board of Agriculture in 1950. This article describes in detail the methods used in the pilot studies the and main survey.

The aim of the survey was to obtain a reliable picture of three subjects. 1) The labour input of the male rural population during the observation year, its distribution and the seasonal fluctuations in the structure of labour input. 2) The unemployment time of the rural population, the periods underemployment and its seasonal variation. 3) The number of male workers engaged for a shorter or longer period during the year in certain occupation. The paper discusses the different data sources and ways to collect the data either from enterprises or workers. One of the obstacles is the large number of enterprises in agriculture and forestry. Consequently, the total number of people employed in a particular industry, its distribution and the duration of the working season can be estimated only from a sample selected from the population.

The data of the survey is based on a systematic sample, collected by interviews, of the annual round of activity in 1950 of 44,667 men of 15-64 years of age living in Finnish rural communes. The interviews were made in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. The results of the survey are presented in the other articles of Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 63.

The PDF includes a comprehensive summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)

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