Current issue: 56(2)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 | 1978

Category: Article

article id 5012, category Article
Jyrki Hari, Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen. (1978). An electronic auxanometer for field use. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5012.
Keywords: diameter; diameter growth; measuring instruments
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper describes the design and functioning of an electronic auxanometer designed for field use, and some results obtained with it. The changes in stem radius are monitored with a micrometer screw turned by an electirc motor. A potentiometer transforms the position of the screw into an electronic signal, which is recorded. The accuracy of the device is approximately 1–2 μm. Field experiments with the auxanometer are described and discussed. The accuracy of the device was found to be sufficient for measuring hourly changes in stem radius.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hari, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5011, category Article
Kullervo Etholén. (1978). Experimental growing of curly birch in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5011.
Original keywords: Lappi; visakoivu; puunkasvatus
English keywords: Finland; cultivation; Lapland; Betula pendula var. carelica; curly birch
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to register the curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) plantations established in Lapland and to determine their location and present condition. The information was obtained by means of interviews and visual observations.

In Lapland, the growing of curly birch started in 1950’s and the early 1960’s. During this period, in the different supervisory areas of Lapland, the National Board of Forestry established curly birch stands totalling approximately 30 ha, including about 34,000 seedlings. The bulk of the plantations have been destroyed by animals. On the other hand, the curly birch experimental stands established by the Finnish Forest Research Institute have thrived. The private sector of Forest Management has been engaged in the production of seedlings on a large scale and, as a result of this, curly birch trees are frequently seen as ornamentals in Rovaniemi and in other localities in Lapland. When taken care of, curly birch thrives in Lapland and produces I-class curly wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Etholén, E-mail: ke@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5010, category Article
Jyrki Raulo, Reino Saarnio, Timo Ylitalo. (1978). Visakoivun karsittujen oksien kyljestyminen ja värivian leviäminen niistä runkoon. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5010.
English title: Sealing-off of pruned branch stumps in curly birch and subsequent spread of discoloration into the stemwood.
Original keywords: karsinta; visakoivu; värivika; kylestyminen
English keywords: pruning; Betula pendula var. carelica; discoloration; sealing-off
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material used in this study was collected in 1975 from a 41-years old curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) stand in Southern Finland, which had been pruned 12 years earlier. While the stand was thinned, 26 felled trees were selected for further study to study occurrence of discoloration originating from of pruned branches.

The study material included 35 pruned branch stumps and 38 naturally pruned branch stumps of curly birch. The mean diameter of the former was 31 mm and of the latter, only 15 mm. Of the pruned branch stumps, 23% had become completely sealed-off within 12 years. The discoloration had spread into the stem as little from pruned branch stumps as from naturally pruned ones even though the former were greater in diameter. Advanced rot was not found in any of the samples studied.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raulo, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saarnio, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown
  • Ylitalo, E-mail: ty@mm.unknown
article id 5009, category Article
Risto-Veikko Pätiälä, Kari Blomberg, Juhani Paakkanen, Sulo Piepponen. (1978). Havaintoja raudus- ja visakoivun mahlan sokeripitoisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5009.
English title: Carbohydrates in the sap of silver birch and its curly grained form.
Original keywords: rauduskoivu; visakoivu; sokerit; mahla
English keywords: Betula pendula; Betula pendula var. carelica; sap; carbohydrates; sorbitol
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Carbohydrates of the sap of six curly and four silver birches (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok. and B. pendula Roth) were analysed by gas chromatography as trimethylsilyl derivates both from hydrolysed and unhydrolyzed samples. Sorbitol was identified from silver birch sap only. In each of the two groups there were glucose and fructose. No other carbohydrates were discovered. The hydrolysis had no influence on the results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pätiälä, E-mail: rp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Blomberg, E-mail: kb@mm.unknown
  • Paakkanen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown
  • Piepponen, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown
article id 5008, category Article
Jyrki Raulo, Gustaf Sirén. (1978). Neljän visakoivikon päätehakkuun tuotos ja tuotto. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5008.
English title: Yield in volume and money of final cutting in four curly birch stands.
Original keywords: tuotos; visakoivu; laatu
English keywords: Betula pendula var. carelica; curly birch; timber yield
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) is characterized by large variations in stem form and the internal structure of the wood, and is generally divided in to four types on the basis of visible external stem characteristics. First plantation experiments in Finland in the 1920’s in experimental areas of the Finnish Forest Institute, had become ripe for cutting and were felled. The study material of this study consists of one 52-year old and three 42–43 -year old stands of curly birch.

The yield suitable for plywood manufacture from the oldest stand was 34,777 kg/ha and that of curly grained branch wood 39,452 kg/ha. The corresponding figures of the other stands were, on average 24,219 and 57,271 kg/ha. The yield from the stands were sold at the present-day price. The result was economically better than from any other forest tree species grown in Finland. The younger stands were obviously cut too early. It was concluded that the genetic quality of the seedlings used in the plantations in the 1920’s and 1930’s was not very high.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raulo, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Sirén, E-mail: gs@mm.unknown
article id 5007, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1978). Visaseura. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5007.
English title: Curly Birch Society.
Original keywords: järjestöt; Visaseura; visakoivu
English keywords: Betula pendula var. carelica; curly birch
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Curly birch, a curly grained variety of birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.), has fetched a higher price than any other Finnish tree species on account of its rarity and decorativeness. Curly graininess has been found in Finland in addition to silver birch, also in Alnus glutinosa and Sorbus aucuparia.

The Curly Birch Society was founded in Finland in 1956. Its purpose is to promote the cultivation and use of curly birch, and to coordinate the activities of curly birch cultivators, forest industry and research. The society has made excursions and held informative meetings every year. Furthermore, the society has arranged exhibitions and participated in more extensive agricultural and forestry fairs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Huuri, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)

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