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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Silva Fennica vol. 68 | 1959

Category: Article

article id 7488, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1959). The concept of a roundwood price level and its determination in forestry. Silva Fennica vol. 68 no. 6 article id 7488.
Keywords: roundwood; roundwood prices; timber sales; price statistics; roundwood sales
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Roundwood statistics are essential in a country such as Finland, where the roundwood market costitutes one of the most important internal markets. Determining the price level of roundwood can, however, be problematic due to the difficulty of the empirical determination. The main difficulties are the many timber assortments, quality differcences within a timber assortment, large variation of local prices due to variations in demand and harvesting conditions and in sales methods. The article discusses these problems from the perspective of composing a roundwood statistics for different timber assortments that would allow local and temporal comparison of the prices. It seems impossible to compose price statistics that could eliminate totally the variation in the material, transport conditions and demand fluctuations caused by technical development. However, one can suffice to a compromise that would eliminate the major disturbances and take into account other factors that are not related with market when studying the price series. In addition, the paper discusses methods for calculation of price indices.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Silva Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487.
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; metsänhoito; metsävarat; metsäsuunnitelma; hoitosuunnitelma; VMI; valtakunnan metsien inventointi
English keywords: forest management; National Forest Inventory; Finland; forest resources; state forests; forest management plan
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7486, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1959). Siemensiipien hankaajista ja niiden vaikutuksesta siemenen itävyyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 68 no. 4 article id 7486.
English title: On machines for abrading seed wings and their influence on the germinative capacity of the seed.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; laitteet; metsäpuiden siemenet; karistamot; siemensiivet; siemensiipien hankaajat
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Socts pine; seeds of forest trees; seed extraction; seed wings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper deals with two machines designed for abrading seed wings, and their influence on the germinative capacity of seed of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Both machines are commonly used in Finland.

The results of the study indicate that the act of abrading may cause slight or even serious injuries to the seed. Slight injuries of about 3% are probably not easily avoided if mechanical abrading is resorted to. It must be noted, however, that even this reduction in germinative capacity causes significant yearly loss. If the reduction in germinative capacity is greater, which seems to be possible, it is advisable to test the mechanism of the machine and its method of abrading. As the clearance of the machines can affect the extent of injuries, all machines should be tested. If possible, a continual operation control should be arranged. It could, at the same time, to supply material for improving the abrading method and equipment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7485, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1959). A method for establishing small permanent sample plots for ecological studies. Silva Fennica vol. 68 no. 3 article id 7485.
Keywords: vegetation analysis; research methods; sample plot
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Especially in experimantal ecological research it is used small sample plots that are inventoried consequently. The paper describes a method for establishing small sample plots, developed by the writer in 1956. In the method, the central point of the sample plot is marked with an iron skewer, and the marking of the area to be inventoried was accomplished with a circular frame that is movable. The frame was fitted to the skewer with an aperture that indicated the central point. The area of the frame was relatively small, 0,25 m2. The sample plots were arbitarily placed at intervals from one another.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7484, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1959). Suomen havusahatavaranmyynnin kausi- ja suhdannevaihteluista vuosina 1951-1958. Silva Fennica vol. 68 no. 2 article id 7484.
English title: On the seasonal and business cycle fluctuations of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958.
Original keywords: vienti; sahatavara; suhdannevaihtelut; havusahatavara
English keywords: sawn timber; export; business cycles; sawn goods; sawn softwood; sawn sofwood sales
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The investigation examines export sales of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958, concentrating on the volume of the sales. The material was collected from the archives of Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Sawmill Control Organization and the annual reports of the former. Correlation analysis was used in assessing the interdependence of the monthly sales volume and the price, and opening sales and the total sales volume of the year.

A slightly negative correlation was seen between the sale price and the monthly sales volume. Goods sold at under average prices are more abundant than goods sold at over average prices. Generally, with a rising price trend, the annual sales volume increased, but with falling prices the situation was reverse. The sales volume has been dependent on the business cycle development of prices. There was positive correlation between the opening sales and the total sales quantity for the year. The sales volume was at its maximum in the period between November and January, and at the minimum between March and September.

The time of the sales made to different countries differed little judged by quarterly statistics. It seems that the major shippers have generally concluded opening sales first. Northern Finnish shippers and the small shippers of Southern Finland have sold proportionately least during the last quarter. In general, the poorer the qualities in question the smaller on an average the proportion of opening sales but the greater the share of clearance sales.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, E-mail: se@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7483, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1958). Tutkimuksia hakkauslaskelmasta ja siihen perustuvasta metsän tuottoarvosta. 1. Silva Fennica vol. 68 no. 1 article id 7483.
English title: Studies on cutting budget and yield in terms of value based on the cutting budget. I.
Original keywords: metsänarvonlaskenta; hakkuulaskelma; metsän tuottoarvo
English keywords: cutting budget; fores valuation; yield in terms of value
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An estimate of value of a forest holding is needed, for instance, when the holding is sold. There is, however, no standard method for forest valuation. This paper describes a method based on yield in terms of value that is estimated on the basis of cutting budget. The first, mensurational part of the investigation concentrates on calculation of cutting budget that can be used in forest valuation. Second part studies how chronological order of fellings changes allowable cut in forests that differ by age-class distribution and other structural properties. Structure and variation in the structure of silviculturally different forests are determined for the forests that form the data for the investigation.

According to the study, even if the forests studied in the investigation included forests which structure differed in their age-class distribution from normal forests, they could be managed in a such way that in 5-6 decades the age-class distribution resemble that of a normal forest, and have growing stock that correspond the stock of forests in Southern Finland, about 80-110 m3/ha. Based on this, the cutting budgets of the later decades of the first rotation can be assumed to be nearly even. The original age-class distribution of the forest affects, however, allowable cut of the forests during the first decade. The revenues of the first decade have small impact on the value, the later decades strong. Consequently, development of the most valuable part of the allowable cut, timber trees, has big impact on the value. The results show that in young forests the planned cut including the proportion of timber trees increases, in middle-aged forest it is relatively even, and in old forest declining. The results indicate the order of magnitude the planned cut can be in near future in diferent kinds of forests, and when different felling regimes are used to reach different goals.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)

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