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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'mänty'

Category: Article

article id 5632, category Article
Annikki Mäkelä, Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Petteri Vanninen. (1997). An application of process-based modelling to the development of branchiness in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5632. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8534
Original keywords: puutavara; mänty; kasvu; hiili; läpimitta; biomassa; oksat; laatu; latvus; simulointi; kasvumallit; mallit; hiilitase; oksaisus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; carbon balance; simulation; pipe model; timber quality; growth model; branching; crown structure; whorl
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A process-oriented tree and stand growth model is extended to be applicable to the analysis of timber quality, and how it is influenced by silvicultural treatments. The tree-level model is based on the carbon balance and it incorporates the dynamics of five biomass variables as well as tree height, crown base, and breast height diameter. Allocation of carbon is based on the conservation of structural relationships, in particular, the pipe model. The pipe-model relationships are extended to the whorl level, but in order to avoid a 3-dimensional model of entire crown structure, the branch module is largely stochastic and aggregated. In model construction, a top-down hierarchy is used where at each step down, the upper level sets constraints for the lower level. Some advantages of this approach are model consistency and efficiency of calculations, but probably at the cost of reduced flexibility. The detailed structure related with the branching module is preliminary and will be improved when more data becomes available. Model parameters are identified for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Finland, and example simulations are carried out to compare the development of quality characteristics in different stocking densities.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ikonen, E-mail: vi@mm.unknown
  • Vanninen, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown
article id 5438, category Article
Juha Heiskanen, Hannu Raitio. (1991). Maan vesipotentiaali paljasjuuristen männyntaimien taimitarhakasvatuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 1 article id 5438. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15592
English title: Soil water potential during the production of bare-rooted Scots pine seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; taimitarhat; maavesi; vesipotentiaali; maan ilmatila; harsokate
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; water retention; nurseries; tensiometer; air space; matric potential
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The matrix potential, measured with tensiometers, and its effect on the soil air-water ratio were examined during the production of bare-rooted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in nursery fields. Soil water potential was monitored during the growing season of 1983 at three nurseries in Finland, and from fields growing various seedling types at depths of 10 and 20 cm. In 1986, soil core samples were collected in order to assess the water desorption characteristics of the soil. In addition, the effect of polypropylene gauze covering (Agryl P 17) on the soil water potential was examined during the growing season of 1985 at two nurseries in Finland at depths of 5, 10 and 15 cm.

The soil water potential was relatively high in all the fields studied. In fields growing one- and two-year-old seedlings, the median potential was higher than -10 kPa. The potential did not fall below the limit of the measured scale (ca. -85 kPa) of the tensiometers. Soil aeriation may have been periodically insufficient in the rooting zone, as a result of high water content. The favourable water potential is below -5 to – 6 kPa. The gauze covering slightly (1–4 kPa) increased the soil water potential, an effect which could be harmful if the soil air space is low. During the second growing season, the soil water potential was lower in the fields covered by the gauze during the first year than in the fields without the covering.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Raitio, E-mail: hr@mm.unknown
article id 5414, category Article
Heikki Smolander, Seppo Kellomäki, Pauline Oker-Blom. (1990). Typpipitoisuuden vaikutus männyn neulasten fotosynteesiin ja verson itsevarjostukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5414. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15566
English title: The effect of nitrogen concentration on needle photosynthesis and within shoot shading in Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; ravinteisuus; fotosynteesi; kasvupaikkatekijät; verson rakenne; säteilyn sitomistehokkuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; shading; fertility; site factors; shoot structure; light interception efficiency
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A close relationship between photosynthetic capacity and nitrogen concentration of leaves is known to exist. In conifers, nitrogen also affects the pattern of mutual shading within a shoot, which is a basic unit used in studying photosynthesis of coniferous trees. These effects of needle nitrogen concentration on photosynthetic capacity and mutual shading of needles were analysed for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoots taken from five young stands growing on sites of different fertility. The effect of nitrogen concentration on needle photosynthesis was studied based on measurements of the photosynthetic radiation response of shoots from which two thirds of the needles were removed in order to eliminate the effect of within shading.

An increase of one percentage unit in nitrogen concentration of needles increased the photosynthetic capacity of needles by 25 mg CO2 dm-2h-1. The effect of nitrogen on within-shoot shading was quantified in terms of the silhouette area to total needle area ratio of a shoot (STAR), which determines the relative interception rate per unit of needle area on the shoot. Although nitrogen promoted needle growth, an increase in nitrogen concentration decreased the within-shoot shading. This effect resulted from a decrease in needle density on the shoot and an increased needle angle with increasing nitrogen content.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Oker-Blom, E-mail: po@mm.unknown
article id 5411, category Article
Eero Paavilainen. (1990). Effect of refertilization of pine and birch stands on a drained fertile mire. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5411. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15563
Original keywords: mänty; koivu; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; hieskoivu; jatkolannoitus; hivenravinteet
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Betula; fertilization; Betula pubescens; drained peatlands; tree litter; micronutrients
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Refertilization with PK, about 15 years after the first fertilizer application, increased tree growth and the amount of nutrients in tree litter in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (mainly Betula pubescens Erhr.) stands on a drained fertile mire in Northern Finland (65°34 N’, 25°42’ E). The increase in growth and nutrient contents after refertilization was greatest in the mature pine stand where the application of nitrogen and micronutrients gave an additional response compared to the PK-application.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Paavilainen, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5410, category Article
Markku Nygren. (1990). Männyn ja kuusen siementen massan vaihtelusta. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5410. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15562
English title: Variation in the seed mass of Scots pine and Norway spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; lämpötila; sademäärä; siementen paino; siementen kypsyminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; precipitation; temperature; seed mass; seed ripening
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seed mass within any plant species is one of the least plastic components of plant structure. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation in the seed mass of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in relation to three environmental factors: soil fertility, mean temperature and precipitation during seed filling period. Data published earlier on seed mass of these species on different sites and different years was used in the study.

The seed mass of both species was independent of soil fertility (forest type) but did vary between different years. It is hypothesized that if the seed-ripening summer is warmer than average, Scots pine seed mass tends to be smaller. In this study, seed mass varied independently of the amount of precipitation during the ripening summer. However, generalization of the results requires further study.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Nygren, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5406, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1990). Leikattu paakkutaimi. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5406. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15558
English title: The cut-block method for seedling production: birth of an idea.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; taimitarhat; leikattu paakkutaimi; paakkutaimet
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; nurseries; cut-block seedling; container grown plants
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The author first introduced the cut-block seedling production method to Finland in 1969. The aim is to raise seedlings whose lateral roots do not become deformed as a result of a restricting container or other external pressure. The seedlings are raised in a large, fairly compact substrate block where the roots can freely develop in a normal fashion. The blocks are then cut up into individual cubes, each containing a seedling. The precise positioning of the sowing point permits mechanization of the work.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Huuri, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5388, category Article
Martti Varmola. (1989). Männyn istutustaimikoiden lustonleveysmalli. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5388. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15546
English title: A model for ring width of planted Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; taimikot; lustonleveys; kasvumallit; puuaineen laatu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; wood quality; spacing; ring width; growth models
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ring width at breast height is presented as a function of stem radius at breast height, the ratio between the diameter of a tree and the basal area median diameter, site index, and density of stand. By means of a conversion model ring width at stump height can be estimated as a function of ring width at breast height.

According to previous studies substantially better wood quality can be expected if mean width near the pith at stump height decreases from 3 to 2 mm. According to the present study only on the poorest sites suitable for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) planting (poor Vaccinium type) the ring width is less than 3 mm at stump height even in the thickest trees. On more fertile sites a substantial increase in the recommended planting density is required, if the mean ring width is aimed to be less than 3 mm. On the best sites it is impossible to reach mean ring width of less than 2 mm, when the density is less than 4,000 stems/ha. Only the thinnest trees on the poorest sites can have a mean ring width less than 2mm.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Varmola, E-mail: mv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5384, category Article
Raija-Liisa Petäistö. (1989). Syyskoulinnan ajankohdan vaikutus männyn taimien kuiva-ainepitoisuuteen, neulasten pitolujuuteen ja juurten uudistumiskykyyn. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 3 article id 5384. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15541
English title: The influence of autumn transplanting date on the dry matter content, needle retention values and root regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; taimitarhat; koulinta; kuiva-ainepitoisuus; juurten kasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; root growth; nurseries; transplanting; dry matter content
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The experiment was performed in 1982–85 at the forest tree nursery in Suonenjoki, Central Finland. There were four to five transplanting dates ranging from the beginning of August to the end of September. The dry matter content, root regeneration and needle retention value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were examined. Development of the needle retention value in autumn was followed in nurseries at Suonenjoki, Rantasalmi, Mäntyharju and Taavetti in 1982.

Root regeneration was usually the worse, the later the seedlings were transplanted in the autumn. The dry matter content was generally lowest in the seedlings transplanted later in the autumn, and also to some extent in the seedlings transplanted at the beginning of August. The needle retention value increased as autumn advanced. Early transplanting in autumn had an adverse effect on the development of needle retention, and the values were highest in the seedlings transplanted later in the autumn.

The PDF includes an abstract English.

  • Petäistö, E-mail: rp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5371, category Article
Riitta Laurila. (1989). Pieniläpimittaisen männyn kuituominaisuudet. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5371. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15530
English title: Fibre properties in Pinus sylvestris pulpwood.
Original keywords: kuitupuu; pienpuu; mänty; trakeidit; puuaineen ominaisuudet; kuitujen pituus; soluseinän paksuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; cell wall thickness; wood properties; pulpwood; small-sized stems; tracheid length; smallwood
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Properties of fibres in pulpwood, especially length, width and the thickness of walls in tracheids, are essential for strength properties of pulp and paper. Length and width of tracheids increase from pith to surface in radial direction. Young and small-sized stems have also smaller fibres. Small-sized Pinus sylvestris L. test trees had tracheids that were shorter both in stems and knot wood than those in normal sized trees. However, cell walls in test trees were as thick as in normal sized trees. It seems that especially the L/T -ratio (length/thickness) in small stems is worse than in normal sized pulp wood.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Laurila, E-mail: rl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5312, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Siementuotannon vaikutus kuusen ja männyn vuotuiseen kasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15469
English title: Effect of seed production on the annual growth of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; Lappi; siemensato; sädekasvu; kesäpuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; Finland; latewood; Lapland; radial growth; seed crop
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study material consisted of 13 rather old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 17 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands located in different parts of Finland. In each stand the seed crops, radial growth and amount of latewood were measured during a period of about ten years. Seed production reduces the radial growth of spruce and pine in the year of seed maturing. In Southern and Central Finland also the proportion of latewood is reduced. Seed production accounts for about 14% of the variation in radial growth of a spruce stand growing in Lapland, and 27% in other parts of Finland. In pine stands the seed crop explains 19% of the variation in radial growth in Lapland, and only 7% in the rest of Finland. In spruce stands an average seed crop reduces radial growth by 14% in Lapland and 5% in the rest of the country. An abundant seed production causes a reduction of about 20%. In southern parts of Finland, the proportion of latewood is reduced by 5% in an average seed year and by 24% in a good seed year. In pine stands an average seed crop decreases the width of annual ring by 5%, and a good seed crop by 15%. Outside Lapland, also the proportion of latewood is reduced: in an average seed year by 5%, and in a good seed year by 16%. The reduction in volume growth of spruce stands due to an average seed crop was estimated to be about 10% in Lapland, and 6% in other parts of Finland. A prolific seed production causes a reduction of 20%. In old pine stands the reduction is 5% in an average seed year, and 15% in a good seed year.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5311, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Kuusen ja männyn siemensadon ennustemalli. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5311. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15468
English title: Model for predicting the seed crop of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; Lappi; siemensato; lämpötila; kukinnan aloitus; ennustemalli
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; natural regeneration; Scots pine; Finland; Lapland; predictive modelling; seed crop; flowering initiation; influence of temperature
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The seed crop of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is predicted with the help of mean monthly temperatures during May–August one and two years before the flowering year. The prediction models were made separately for Lapland and for the rest of Finland. The models are based on 10-year periods of seed crop measurements and climatic data. The total number of time series was 59.

In Lapland, Norway spruce flowered abundantly and produced an abundant seed crop after warm July–August and two years after cool July–August. In other parts of Finland, warm June and July produced a good flowering year, especially if these months were cool two years before the flowering year.

In Lapland, Scots pine flowered abundantly if the whole previous growing season was warm. Elsewhere in Finland, a cool June preceded prolific flowering in the coming year if the rest of the growing season was considerably warmer than the average.

The prediction models explained 37–49 % of the variation in the size of the seed crop. The occurrence of good and poor seed years was usually predicted correctly. Using the presented models, the prediction of the seed crop is obtainable 1.5 year for Norway spruce and 2.5 year for Scots pine before the year of seed fall.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5303, category Article
Hannu Raitio. (1987). Neulasvuosikertojen merkitys neulasanalyysin tulkinnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5303. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15460
English title: The significance of the number of needle year classes of Scots pine in interpreting needle analysis results.
Original keywords: mänty; ravinnepitoisuus; neulasvuosikerta; neulasanalyysi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nitrogen; Scots pine; phosphorus; needle analysis; potassium; magnesium; needle year classes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study deals with significance of the number of needle year classes in estimating the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium status of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plants on the basis of needle analysis. Due to the nutrient retranslocation deficiencies in these nutrients are best determined by analysing separately the needles of the topmost branch whorls possessing one, two or three needle year classes. The concentrations of those nutrients which are not scarce will then increase as needle year classes decrease. In cases of deficiency, on the other hand, the content of the nutrient concerned will remain the same or decrease. Only severe deficiencies are revealed by the examination of the nutrient concentrations of only the youngest or the oldest needles.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Raitio, E-mail: hr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5275, category Article
Pirkko Velling, Gérard Nepveu. (1986). Männyn puuaineen laadun ja tuotoksen vaihtelu suomalaisessa provenienssikoesarjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5275. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15454
English title: Variation of wood quality and yield in a Finnish series of provenance trials on Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; kasvupaikka; alkuperä; puuaineen tiheys; maantieteellinen vaihtelu; kuitusaanto
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; wood density; geographical variation; increment cores; fibre yield
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the origin of seeds and the location of cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on certain properties particularly important to the pulp industry. The research material consisted of six parallel trials of the same 12 provenances. Increment cores were taken of a total of 1,267 sample trees, 19 years old. The location of the trial site generally affected the properties to a larger extent than the origin of the seed. The effect of the variation of wood density and fibre yield on the cultivation values of the provenances was only a few percentages on average, however, at most the effect was nearly 10%. Eastern Finnish provenances adapted well to western Finnish conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish and French.

  • Velling, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nepveu, E-mail: gn@mm.unknown
article id 5267, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Mänty- ja kuusirunkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5267. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15446
English title: Value relations of Scots pine and Norway spruce stems.
Original keywords: kuusi; paperiteollisuus; mänty; sahatavara; sahateollisuus; raaka-aine; rungon koko
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; simulation; pulping; sawn goods; sawmill industry; pulp industry; raw material; stem size
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A mathematical model was developed for determining the value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stems on the basis of sawing and pulping. The model was based on selling prices of sawn goods, pulp and other products as well as processing costs. Sawing was applied to large-dimension parts of stems and pulping to other parts and small stems. Bark and other residues were burned. The quality of pine stems was described by the distance of the lowest dead branch. In spruce only stem size affected the quality-

According to the results, the size of stem affects considerably the value of pine stems and clearly that of spruce stems. The main reason is an increase in the productivity of frame sawing as the stem size increases. In pine another factor is the higher price of sawn goods. The effect of pulp price increases as the stem size decreases. Even in large sized stems the effect of pulp was notable as the value of chips and saw dust was determined on the basis of product values in export. The competition ability of mechanical pulp was greatly affected by the price of electricity.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5266, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Malli männyn, kuusen ja koivun puuaineen oksaisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5266. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15445
English title: Model of knottiness of wood material in pine, spruce and birch.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; oksaisuus; rauduskoivu; hieskoivu; simulointi; aihion poikkileikkaus; puutavaran laatu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; birch; Betula; Picea abies; Scots pine; simulation; knots; timber quality; knottiness
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A computer model was developed for predicting knottiness of wood material of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp). The prediction included location of knots, their size and quality, i.e. if they are dead or living knots. The model suits best for tree species where branches are born at the base of shoots, in Finland such tree species is Scots pine.

The usefulness of the model was tested in the prediction of knots in wooden elements of joinery industry. According to the results, the shape of cross section affects the surface quality of elements. Especially useful is a quadratic cross section as it increases the probability to get a knotless surface.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5262, category Article
Markku Nygren. (1986). Männyn siementen syyskeräys. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5262. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15441
English title: Autumn harvested Scots pine seeds: the effect of cone storage and germination conditions on germination capacity.
Original keywords: mänty; itävyys; dormanssi; siemenkeräys; lepotila; käpyjen varastointi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; germination capacity; seed dormancy; cone storage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Six seed collections were made in September–December 1984 in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland. The seeds were germinated immediately after the cone collection and three photoperiods (0.8 and 24 hours) were used in germination tests.

The seeds collected in September and October possessed relative dormancy, i.e. they did not germinate in darkness and at 10°C. Later in November and December the seeds were capable to germinate in darkness and at low temperature also. The gradual change in germination capacity is attributed to chilling temperatures in natural environments or in cone storage.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nygren, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5256, category Article
Outi Muona, Raimo Hiltunen, Erkki Morén, D. V. Shaw. (1986). Analysis of monoterpene variation in natural stands and plustrees of Pinus sylvestris in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5256. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15435
Original keywords: mänty; alkuperä; pluspuut; monoterpeenit; luonnonpopulaatiot
English keywords: Scots pine; progeny; plus trees; monoterpenes; geographical variation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Variation of monoterpene composition of Pinus sylvestris L. was studied in Southern, Central and Northern Finland using data from both natural stands and plus trees. The natural stands were analysed using different techniques and for fewer terpenes than the plus trees.

There were large differences between areas in the proportion of 3-carene in trees from natural stands, as has been discussed by previous authors. The proportion of 3-carene is bimodally distributed and believed to be controlled by a single gene with large effect. For this reason, we stratified our samples into high carene (>10%) and low carene (<10%) groups. Univariate analysis did not reveal any additional differences between natural populations in different zones for components other than 3-carene. In plus trees, several components showed significant differences, but the proportion of 3-carene did not differ between areas. Multivariate discrimination analysis did not distinguish between areas for natural stands. However, for the plus trees discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate between the zones relatively efficiently. The proportion of correct classification was greater than 64% using the best methods. The central zone was most distinct, and 80% of its trees were correctly classified. Broad generalizations are not possible due to the limitations imposed by our data. Our analysis of phenotypic variation does not support the suggestion that plus trees selected from the north represent a southern type.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Muona, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hiltunen, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
  • Morén, E-mail: em@mm.unknown
  • Shaw, E-mail: ds@mm.unknown
article id 5255, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Jukka Pietilä, Raili Vihola. (1985). Suomalaisten puulajien iskutaivutuslujuus tuoreena. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5255. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15434
English title: Impact bending strength of Finnish tree species in green condition.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; rauduskoivu; harmaaleppä; haapa; hieskoivu; taivutuslujuus; iskutaivutuslujuus
English keywords: Populus tremula; Pinus sylvestris; Betula pendula; Picea abies; Betula pubescens; Alnus incana; impact bending strength
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There are great impact forces in mechanized harvesting and wood yard in the mills which can cause breaks in timber. The impact strength of timber in green condition was tested in temperatures of +18°C and -18°C using sawn pieces (20 x 20 x 300 mm) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.), grey alder (Alnus incana L.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.). In addition, unbarked naturally round sticks (length 300 mm, diameter 15 and 35 mm) of the same species were tested.

The impact strength of round sticks was 1.5–4.4 times as great as that of sawn pieces. The reasons are possibly the avoidance of cell breaks at the surface as well as growth stresses. The frozen samples were clearly weaker than the unfrozen ones. As a rule, the impact bending strength increased with increased density of the species. However, the correlation varied greatly between species. If density was kept constant, an increase in the growth ring width decreased the impact strength. The reason may lie in the fracture mechanism.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pietilä, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown
  • Vihola, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5251, category Article
Markku Halinen. (1985). Männyn nuoruusvaiheen kasvunopeuden vaikutus sahatavaran laatuun. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5251. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15430
English title: The effect of the growth rate of young Scots pine on the quality of sawn goods.
Original keywords: mänty; kasvunopeus; sahatavaran laatu; tukin koko; nuoruusvaihe
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; ring width; diameter growth; sawlogs; quality of timber; sawn goods; early growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Totally 653 battens and planks sawn from butt logsof Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were chosen from 3 saw mills. The sawn goods were sorted according to normal sorting principles. In order to determine growth rate in the youth, the mean value of the average ring width was measured at the butt end at various distances from the pith.

The average ring width increased as the quality of the sawn goods decreased. The difference between the quality classes in ring width was measured between 2 and 4 cm from the pith. As the size of sawn goods, and, simultaneously, the log size increased, the average ring width increased in a given quality class. Research reinforced previous results, in which slow diameter growth of young Scots pines has been shown to reflect the good quality of sawn goods.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halinen, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5246, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Markku Halinen. (1985). Mäntysahatukkien minimivaatimusten täsmentäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5246. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15425
English title: Reappraisal of minimum requirements of Scots pine saw logs.
Original keywords: mänty; sahatavara; oksaisuus; laatuvaatimukset; kuivien oksien läpimitta; mäntysahatukki
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; saw logs; sawlog quality; knottiness; quality classification; sawn goods; diameter of dry knots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A test sawing was made of 807 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs of varying size and quality. The most important knot characteristic affecting the value of sawn goods was the diameter of the thickest dry knot. The new minimum requirements for pine logs were proposed on the basis of top diameter of the log and the diameter of the thickest dry and living knot.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Halinen, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown
article id 5243, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1985). Maan kunnostus männyn viljelyssä Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5243. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15422
English title: Soil preparation in reforestation of Scots pine in Lapland.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; kulotus; maanmuokkaus; Lappi; laikutus; lautasauraus; uudistustavat; hajakylvö
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil preparation; Scots pine; planting; regeneration methods; scalping; prescribed burning; disc ploughing; broadcast sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study deals with the interaction of various soil preparation and reforestation methods. The most favourable time of the year for broadcast sowing and the effect of stabilization after soil preparation on restocking were studied as special problems.

Prescribed burning, scalping and disc ploughing made a better combination with sowing than planting, and ploughing better combination with planting than sowing. The longer the period was between sowing and germination the fewer seedlings emerged. The best stocking was clearly resulted with sowing in June. Stabilization of soil after preparation had a negative effect on reforestation results.

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  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pohjola, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5228, category Article
Pekka Saranpää. (1985). Kontortamännyn runkopuun trakeidien pituuden, halkaisijan ja soluseinän paksuuden vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5228. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15407
English title: Length, diameter and cell wall thickness of tracheids in mature lodgepole pine bole wood.
Original keywords: puuaines; kontortamänty; trakeidit; puuaineen rakenne
English keywords: wood properties; lodgepole pine; Pinus contorta; wood anatomy; tracheids
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Variation in tracheid morphology were examined for the bole wood of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) grown in Southern and Central Finland. Tracheid lengths were examined in a fast-grown and in slow-grown trees from three stands. Tracheid length increased with increasing height to 4–8 metres and decreased after that, and increased also with increasing age from the pith. The variation between stems was high. The shortest tracheids were about 1.11 mm near the piths and the longest about 4.10 mm near the bark.

Tracheid diameter and cell wall thickness were measured for the total number of 16 stems from Southern and Central Finland. Tracheid diameter increased with increasing distance from pith and the largest tracheids were at a height of 4–8 metres. Cell wall thickness varied independently of height in the stem. Summerwood cell wall thickness was twice that of springwood. There was a difference of 0.6 μm in springwood and 1.0 μm in summerwood double cell wall thickness between the two stands. Cell wall percentage was 29±4.7 in springwood and 69±7.3 in summerwood.

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  • Saranpää, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5226, category Article
Antti Uotila. (1985). Männynversosyövän leviämisestä tautipesäkettä ympäröiviin terveisiin mäntyihin. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5226. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15405
English title: The spreading of Ascocalyx abietina to healthy Scots pines in the vicinity of diseased trees.
Original keywords: mänty; taudinkestävyys; sienitaudit; torjunta; surmakka; versosurma; alkuperät
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Gremmeniella abietina; pathogen resistance; pathogens; Ascocalyx abietina; proveniences; sanitation cuttings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ascocalyx abietina (now Gremmeniella abietina Lagerb.) infects Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by means of ascospores or conidia. Ascospores are dispersed by the wind, while the conidia are splash dispersed. The infection rate is positively correlated with the number of inocula. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which G. abietina spreads to the trees surrounding the diseased trees and to find the correct time to perform sanitation cutting.

The results were obtained from Ascocalyx-inventory carried out in a Scots pine progeny test at Loppi, Southern Finland. Three Siberian provenances were totally destroyed, while the Finnish progenies remained relatively healthy. The two rows adjacent to the destroyed plots were inventoried separately.

There were 29.7% more diseased or dead trees in the two adjacent rows than in the rest of the same plots. The difference was statistically significant. The trees had probably been infected by conidia, because the effect of the destroyed plot only extended to the adjacent two rows. Furthermore, pycnidia had mainly developed on the dead shoots.

On the basis of the life cycle of the fungus and the results, the correct time to carry out sanitation cutting is the first winter after the disease symptoms have appeared. If it is done later, the disease could be spread and bark beetles (Tomicus spp.) could propagate in dying trees. Susceptible provenances may spread the disease to surrounding resistant trees owing to the increasing number of spores.

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  • Uotila, E-mail: au@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5218, category Article
Jouni Suoheimo. (1984). Isokorvakärsäkkään aikuisten esiintyminen ja merkitys männyn luontaiselle uudistamiselle Pohjois-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5218. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15397
English title: The occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus and its significance for the natural regeneration of Scots pine in Lapland.
Original keywords: hyönteistuhot; mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; taimituhot; Pohjois-Lappi; isokorvakärsäkäs
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; natural regeneration; Scots pine; insect damage; seedling damages; weevils; occurrence
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus Müller weevils and their significance for the natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study was carried out during summer 1982 at Inari in northern Lapland.

There were two sample plots, one situated in a Scots pine seed-tree area and the other, the control sample plot, in an area with a coverage of mountain birch (Betula pubescens subsp. tortuosa, now subsp. czerepanovii). A total of 177 Otiorhynchus weevils were caught. Movement of the weevils reached its climax in July. There were 86% more individuals in the seed-tree area than in the mountain birch area. No damage to the pine germlings or seedlings was not observed, although the situation could be different during the peaks of the veewil populations.

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  • Suoheimo, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5207, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1984). Havaintoja puuston kasvatustiheyden vaikutuksesta mäntyjen oksikkuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15386
English title: Observations on the influence of stand density on branchiness of young Scots pines.
Original keywords: mänty; oksikkuus; oksan läpimitta; metsikön tiheys; kasvatustiheys; kuolleet oksat; elävät oksat
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; stand density; branchiness; branch diameter
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study based on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of varying density showed that number of living branches per whorl and total number of living branches per tree were negatively correlated with stand density. On the contrary, the number of dead branches increased with increasing stand density. The diameter of living and dead branches decreased with increasing stand density. Consequently, the branchiness, i.e. the share of the branch cross-sectional area from the surface area of the stem, decreased in dense stands compared with the thin stands. At the densest stands the branchiness, however, levelled of indicating a greater decrease of the radial growth at stems than at branches. The 2/3 power law described relatively well the relationship between stand density and mean squared branch diameter of living branches.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5198, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine, Jarmo Lepola. (1983). Lannoitus- ja sarkaleveyskokeita karujen rämeiden uudistamisessa ja taimikoiden kasvatuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5198. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15181
English title: Fertilization and ditch spacing experiments concerned with regeneration and growth of young Scots pine stands on nutrient poor pine bogs.
Original keywords: mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; istutus; uudistaminen; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; taimikot; pituuskasvu; sarkaleveys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; regeneration; natural regeneration; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; planting; ditch spacing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of variations in the intensity of drainage and NPK fertilization on the natural regeneration and planting results and the subsequent development of seedling stands under various climatic conditions on drained nutrient poor pine bogs was investigated in a 16-year-old study.

Comparison of height development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands on drained peatlands to that of pine stands growing in mineral soil sites show that in Southern Finland the most efficient forest improvement measures (10 m ditch spacing and 1,000 kg/ha NPK-fertilization) resulted in growth that corresponds a to a height index of a stand in a Vaccinium type site. Less efficient treatment (30 m ditch spacing and no fertilizer) resulted in growth corresponding the development of young stand in a Calluna type site. In Northern Finland the effect of fertilization on height growth was almost negligible. This is possibly due to a decrease in the nitrogen mobilization from south to north of Finland. Thus, it seems evident that fertilization of young Scots pine stands on nutrient poor drained peatlands can be recommended only in the southern part of the country.

The effect of ditch spacing is same in the whole country. The narrower the spacing the better the height growth. In the south planted stands thrive better than naturally regenerated stands, but the situation is reversed in the north.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laine, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
  • Lepola, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5189, category Article
Anneli Viherä, Seppo Kellomäki. (1983). Havaintoja nuorten mäntyjen latvusten hienorakenteesta ja kasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5189. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15172
English title: Observations on structure and growth of crowns of young Scots pines.
Original keywords: mänty; versot; neulaset; biomassa; oksat; latvus; latvuksen rakenne; valaistusolot
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; biomass; needles; Scots pine; branches; crown; light conditions; shoots; structure of the crown
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A study based on four young Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed that the number of needle-covered shoots per crown volume unit was independent on tree position representing a constant value of 600–700 shoots/m3. This was true, even though the total shoot number decreased with deteriorating tree position. In tree crown there were fourth-order shoots in good light conditions but only first- and second-order-shoots, when light conditions were poor. The length of shoots decreased in accordance with increasing order of the shoot.

The share of the needle biomass and growth increased, when the shoot order increased. Similarly, the share of needles increased with deteriorating tree position. This was especially true in the upper crown. On the other hand, the share of the crown from the total biomass and growth increased with improving tree position. The percentage of crown system of a dominant tree in a sparse stand was 64% of that of biomass and 83% of that of growth. The corresponding values for a suppressed tree in a dense stand were 36% and 35%. The growth of wood, bark and needles in crown systems was linearly correlated with prevailing light conditions around the branch. It is evident that the tree position and light condition within the stand control the wood, bark and needle growth in the crown system and their interrelationships.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Viherä, E-mail: av@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5188, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Vuosina 1970-1972 Lappiin perustetun aurattujen alueiden viljelykokeen tulokset. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15171
English title: Results from the reforestation experiment on ploughed sites established in Finnish Lapland during 1970–1972.
Original keywords: kuusi; kylvö; mänty; istutus; maanmuokkaus; Lappi; uudistaminen; kuolleisuus; rauduskoivu; siperianlehtikuusi; auraus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Betula pendula; Picea abies; regeneration; soil preparation; Scots pine; silver birch; planting; ploughing; Lapland; mortality; Siberian larch; sowing; Larix sibirica
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of the study was to compare different reforestation methods on ploughed areas in Finnish Lapland. Four species were compared: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.). The experiments were established in different parts of Lapland on different types of sites in 1970–72.

In Scots pine there was a difference of 15 percentage points in survival of seedlings between the best and worst methods of regeneration. Containerized seedlings and paper pot seedlings had the best survival rates. In Norway spruce the respective difference between sowing and planting was about 20 percentage points. In favour of planting. The survival rate can be increased by about 20 percentage points by selecting the right tree species. The average height varied from 25 cm (the sowed Norway spruce) to 179 cm (the planted silver birch) after 10 growing seasons. The birch was planted at the most fertile sites only. The longer time passed from the afforestation the clearer was the effect of the local growing conditions on the development of the seedlings. The elevation of the site was one factor seemed to influence the success of the seedlings.

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  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pohjola, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 5185, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1983). Männyn oksien murtolujuus. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5185. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15101
English title: Strength of Scots pine branches.
Original keywords: mänty; oksikkuus; oksat; lujuus; karsiutuminen; puun tiheys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; strength; basic density; branches; self-pruning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Empirical measurements showed that the strength of a dead branch of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was related to the second power of the branch diameter and the third power of the basic density of branch wood. The same factors affected also the strength of living branches. Especially, the contribution of wood density was important. The significance of the results is discussed considering the natural process of self-pruning and its effect on the branchiness of the stem.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5157, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Vesa Aro-Heinilä, Seppo Kellomäki. (1982). Lannoituksen ja kastelun vaikutus männikön pintakasvillisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5157. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15072
English title: Effect of fertilization and irrigation on the ground vegetation of a Scots pine stand.
Original keywords: mänty; lannoitus; kastelu; aluskasvillisuus; peittävyys; heinät; varvut; kanerva
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; irrigation; Scots pine; ground vegetation; dwarf shrubs; grasses; Calluna vulgaris
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on a site of the Vaccinium type in Southern Finland was fertilized with nitrogen-rich NPK fertilizer at a level of 150 kg pure nitrogen per hectare. The sample plots were also irrigated during four growing seasons. The total amount of irrigation during this period was 1,200 mm. Fertilization alone increased the coverage of grasses and dwarf shrubs. The culmination of the increase occurred during the second growing season after the start of the treatment. The rapid effect of irrigation on the coverage of ground vegetation was not so strong as that of fertilization. It was concluded on the basis of the developed growth model that the coverage of dwarf shrubs, especially Calluna vulgaris, was, however, increased with the fertilization treatment for a prolonged period. Fertilization and irrigation had no visible effect on the coverage of lichens and mosses.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mälkönen, E-mail: em@mm.unknown (email)
  • Aro-Heinilä, E-mail: va@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5128, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1981). Eräistä ojitetuilla soilla kasvaneen puun fysikaalisista ominaisuuksista. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5128. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15069
English title: Physical properties of wood growing on drained swamps.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; ojitetut suot; reaktiopuu; lujuus; puuaineen tiheys; vuosiluston leveys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; drained peatlands; Scots pine; density; compressive strength; growth rings; Norway spruce Picea abies; bending strength
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of the investigation was to determine the differences between timber grown on a peatland before and after draining, in respect of compressive strength parallel to the grain, static bending strength and density. In addition, the characteristics of boundary zone between the wood formed before, and after the draining with wider growth rings was studied. 41 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 22 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees were studied.

The compressive strength of pine usually decreased from the butt end upwards, but no trend was observed in spruce wood. In coniferous trees, wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining was slightly lighter than the close-ringed wood produced prior the draining. The density of pine as well as spruce increases as the width of the growth rings decrease up to a certain limit. The strength of the different kinds of wood seems to decrease from the butt end upwards.

In both species, the compressive strength parallel to the grain and the bending strength are lowest in such wood that contains exclusively wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining. Also, compressive and bending strength increase with decreasing width of the growth rings. The longitudinal shrinkage of compression wood in spruce was several times that of normal wood, and the bending strength was lower than that of normal wood particularly in spruce. The compressive strength parallel to the grain in dry condition was, however, higher than in normal wood both in pine and spruce.

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  • Ollinmaa, E-mail: po@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5123, category Article
Heljä-Sisko Katainen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Happaman veden vaikutus männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5123. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15064
English title: Effect of foliar application of dilute sulphuric acid on Scots pine seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; taimet; pituuskasvu; neulasvauriot; fotosynteesi; happamuus; hapan sade
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; height growth; acidity; seedlings; needle damages; acid rain
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Needle damages, transpiration, photosynthesis and needle and stem height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings treated with dilute sulphuric acid were studied. The acidity of the solution was pH 3. Application of a dilute solution of sulphuric acid equivalent to the normal amount of precipitation occurring during the growing season damaged the surface of two-year-old needles but not that of the current-year needles. A reduction in the photosynthetic rate of 10–30% was observed compared with the untreated seedlings. Transpiration of the seedlings was not affected by the treatment. Needle growth and stem height growth of the seedlings growing on a substrate representing poor sandy soil were reduced. Increased needle growth and stem height growth were characteristic for the seedlings growing on substrate representing fertile moraine.

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  • Katainen, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5122, category Article
H. Smolander, J. Kostamo, P. K. Räsänen. (1981). Maan tiiviyden vaikutus männyntaimien haihduntaan ja pituuskasvuun istutuksen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5122. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15063
English title: Effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of planted Scots pine seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; metsämaa; maan rakenne; tiivistyminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; forest soil; compactment
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings following planting out were investigated in a small-scale pot experiment. Compacted and loosely-packed fine sand and fine-sand moraine were used as the planting substrates. The compacted soils used corresponded to the normal type of soil to be found in tilled forest soils in Finland. The effect of soil compaction on seedling transpiration during water stress was also studied in a separate experiment.

Seedlings planted in compact soil had a higher rate of transpiration than those in loosely-packed soil. The recovery in transpiration, which started halfway through the growing season, was faster, however, in the seedlings planted in loosely-packed soil. Under conditions of water stress, the seedlings planted in compact fine-sand moraine started to reduce the transpiration rate at higher soil moisture values than those planted in loosely-packed soil. No corresponding difference was observed for fine sand. Compaction was not found to affect the overall height growth, but it did at certain time during the growing season.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kostamo, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown
  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
article id 5089, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Alustavia mittaustuloksia kuivauksen ja liotuksen vaikutuksesta kuorellisen mänty- ja kuusipuutavaran kuoren paksuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5089. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15030
English title: Preliminary results of the effect of drying and soaking of the bark thickness of Scots pine and Norway spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; puutavara; mänty; varastointi; kuori; runkopuu; paksuusmuutos; kuivuminen; liotus
English keywords: Norway spruce; Scots pine; storage; bark thickness; timber; dimensions; dryining; soaking
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

On the basis of a limited material, the drying of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) timber at room temperature decreased the thickness of the bark proportionally to the decrease in the moisture content. The decrease was the greatest in the middle portion of the trunk. In the spruce material, the decrease in bark thickness was exceeded by the shrinkage of the wood. During soaking, the bark thickness of both tree species decreased, too, contrary to the presupposed hypothesis. In both cases, the shrinkage was the greatest in the middle portion of the trunk. In the spruce material, the decrease in bark thickness was exceeded by the shrinkage of the wood. Possible explanation for the phenomenon is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5086, category Article
Jussi Meriluoto. (1980). MCPA- ja 2,4,5-T-herbisidien käyttökelpoisuus taimiston hoidossa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5086. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15027
English title: Applicability of MCPA- and 2,4,5-T-herbicides in sapling stand management.
Original keywords: mänty; koivu; herbisidit; taimikonhoito; haapa; vesakontorjunta
English keywords: Populus tremula; Pinus sylvestris; Betula; Scots pine; herbicides; herbicide; seedling stands; aspen; brushkiller; shrub clearance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The applicability of MCPA- and 2,4,5-T-herbicides for use in the management of sapling stands and the possibilities of carrying out foliar spraying at an earlier date than at precent with smaller doses of the active ingredient were examined in this study. The results were obtained from foliage spraying experiments carried out in Central Finland in summer 1976. MCPA and 2,4,5-T were as effective as each other against deciduous tree species. However, MCPA was slightly more effective against aspen (Populus tremula L.) than 2,4,5-T. The spraying date had no effect on the mortality rate of aspen or birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.) There were only very slight differences between the results for different dosage levels. The damage caused to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was very slight. The temperature conditions prevailing during spraying affected spraying effectiveness in such way that the mortality rate decreased during cold period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Meriluoto, E-mail: jm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5081, category Article
Reijo Jokinen. (1980). Metsälannoituksella saatavan kasvunlisäyksen arviointi. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5081. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15022
English title: Estimation of growth response achieved through forest fertilization.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; lannoitus; typpilannoitus; metsikkötunnukset; kasvunlisäys; pohjapinta-ala
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; basal area; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; Scots pine; growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Dependence of the growth increase given by fertilization on different stand characteristics is examined in this article. The aim was to determine whether the volume growth increase can be accurately determined beforehand when fertilization is carried out on mineral soil sites at a dosage of 120 kg N/ha. The material consisted mostly on of mature stands ready for cutting, a total of 22 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 20 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands. Increase in basal area, height quality class and basal area of the stand were found to best explain the increment and its increase in the regression equations calculated for different types of fertilizer and the control level.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jokinen, E-mail: rj@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5076, category Article
Veikko Koski. (1980). Minimivaatimukset männyn siemenviljelyksille Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5076. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15017
English title: Minimum requirements for seed orchards of Scots pine in Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; siemenviljelmät; kloonit; siemenviljely; laatuvaatimukset
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Finland; seed orchards; clones; requirements
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In order to be recorded in the national list of untested seed orchards, set by law, a seed orchard must attain certain objectives. It is impossible to define universal requirements for all categories of seed orchards of all species. The present paper suggests minimum requirements for a clonal region seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris L in Finland. The clonal composition as well as factors influencing on the mating pattern have been given precise numerical threshold values. To be approved the seed orchard must fulfil all the requirements at the same time. The goal is to control the genetic superiority of the forest reproductive material obtained from registered untested seed orchards.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Koski, E-mail: vk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5034, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1979). Pinotilavuusmääräinen kuorintahäviö koneellisesti ladotuissa pinoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5034. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14891
English title: Barking loss of mechanically loaded piles.
Original keywords: kuitupuu; mänty; puutavaranmittaus; koivu; kuorinta; pinotilavuus
English keywords: birch; Scots pine; pulpwood; debarking; piled volume; stacked volume; barking loss
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this study the loose volume of 58 piles of pulpwood were measured before and after barking by rotary ring barker. The volume was 2,121 m3. A recommendation is made, based on the results of the study, concerning the barking loss from piled wood: for green Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood, 8.8% of the stacked volume; for seasoned pine pulpwood, 6.1% of the stacked volume; and 8.0% for birch (Betula sp.) pulpwood, green and seasoned. The amount of bark left on bolts was small for pine bolts, namely 0.33%, but quite large for birch bolts, 2.84% of the green weight.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5026, category Article
Alpo Enivaara. (1979). Pyynikin harjumännikön uudistaminen ja elvyttäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5026. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14881
English title: Regeneration and improvement of the Scots pine forest of Pyynikki esker in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; uudistaminen; seminaarit; maankäyttö; harju; Pyynikki; taajamametsät
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; Scots pine; urban forests; seminar; MAB; natural park
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Pyynikki is a unique natural park in the centre of the city of Tampere in Southern Finland. Currently, the forest of Pyynikki is losing its vigour because of aging and environmental factors. In 1977 a policy was designed for the regrowth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest and improvement of the condition of the trees to avoid the situation that the whole pine forest (34 ha) would be regrown at one time. The period of regrowth of pine forest is 60 years. It is accomplished by cutting small openings, on which 4-year old potted pine saplings are planted. Birch will be planted only on two spots. The aim is that the forest scenery will be maintained as undamaged as possible. The condition of the growing forest will be improved by fertilization and thinning.

This paper was presented in the ‘Man and the Biosphere’ programme project 2 seminar held on August 24–25 1978 in Hyytiälä research station of University of Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Enivaara, E-mail: ae@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5022, category Article
Jukka Selander, Paavo Kalo. (1979). Männyn taimen pihkan monoterpeenien vaikutuksista tuhonkestävyyteen tukkimiehentäitä, Hylobius abietis L. ( Coleoptera, Curculionidae) vastaan. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5022. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14876
English title: Evaluation of resistance of Scots pine seedlings against the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. in relation to their monoterpene composition.
Original keywords: hyönteistuhot; mänty; taimet; tukkimiehentäi; resistenssi; monoterpeeni
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Hylobius abietis; seedlings; insect damages; large pine weevil; monoterpenes; insect resistance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and damage caused by Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) were studied during a three-year period. Olfactory responses of H. abietis was studied in laboratory with several volatile oils isolated from different kinds of P. sylvestris seedlings. Resistance of seedlings against H. Abietis was evaluated in terms of their monoterpene composition. Three aspects of resistance (preference, antibiosis and tolerance) were evaluated separately. Seedling chemotype was found to be associated with these aspects of host resistance on only minor scale. Discussion was attached to a further search for host resistance arising from other properties and constituents of oleoresin. Height growth of the seedlings recovering from weevil damage was 86–91% compared to healthy seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selander, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kalo, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown
article id 5018, category Article
Pertti Laakso, Olli Saikku. (1979). Havaintoja karsituista männyistä sorvatun viilun laadusta. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5018. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14872
English title: Observations on the quality of veneer from pruned Scots pine stems.
Original keywords: mänty; pystykarsinta; laatu; vaneri; viilu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; pruning; quality; veneer
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material was obtained from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems which were pruned 27 years earlier up to the height of 5–6 m. Rotary cutting was made from 16 pruned stems and 3 unpruned ones. The length of bolts was 70 cm and the thickness of veneer 1.5 mm. The proportion of good quality veneer was 46% in pruned stems and 14% in the others. Veneer with exellent quality was obtained from pruned stems up to the height of tree meters, that is to say a little under the pruning line.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laakso, E-mail: pl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saikku, E-mail: os@mm.unknown
article id 5002, category Article
Antti Haapanen, Pertti Siitonen. (1978). Kulojen esiintyminen Ulvinsalon luonnonpuistossa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5002. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14856
English title: Forest fires in Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; metsäpalot; ekologia; Ulvinsalon luonnonpuisto; Kuhmo; palohistoria
English keywords: forest fires; Norway spruce; Scots pine; northern Finland; ecology; national park
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study is the first report of a larger project concerning fire ecology in the Finnish boreal forests. Modern forestry has never been practiced in the Ulvinsalo strict nature reserve (2,500 ha) in Northern Finland in the county of Kuhmo. Forest fires have been uncommon because of mosaic of mineral and peat soils. The forests are mostly Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) often as the oldest trees of a stand. Forest fires were dated by counting annual rings from cambium to the fire scar in pines. 73 stands covering 1,207 ha were surveyed, over 80% of which was on mineral soil.

50% of the area had burned at least once during the life time of the present pine trees. 48 different forest fires were found, the first being from the year 1712 and the latest from 1969. The average time elapsed between the fires was about 82±43 years, and range 18–219 years. It was assumed that the stands where no fire scars were found, had, however, regenerated after fires but no fires have occurred since after that. In latter part of the 19th century 21 forest fires were dated, in the other half centuries only 4–9. This may have been caused by the increased human activity in the late 1800’s. The fire rotation of the area is 280 years, and spruce is almost the only tree species, which can regenerate in the present situation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Haapanen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
  • Siitonen, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown
article id 4988, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1978). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4988. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14842
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand: IV The amount of phytomass and nutrients.
Original keywords: mänty; aluskasvillisuus; ravinteet; biomassa; ravinnekierto; kuiva-aine; runkopuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; biomass; Scots pine; nutrients; ground vegetation; dry matter; stemwood
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The distribution of the dry matter and nutrients in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stock growing on a Vaccinium type site, ground vegetation, and humus were determined in the study. The greatest part of the dry matter in the tree was found in the stemwood. The living branches, roots, bark, needles and dead branches decreasing order of magnitude made up the rest of the biomass. The trees contained over 90%, the field layer vegetation 3% and the bottom layer vegetation 2% of the dry matter in the tree stand. The tree stock contained 86–95% of the total amount nutrients in the stand. The field layer vegetation contained less nutrients than the bottom layer vegetation. Nitrogen, however, was an exception, the amount being approximately the same in both vegetation layers. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4975, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1977). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4975. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14826
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand. III Variation in nutrient content of soil, vegetation and precipitation.
Original keywords: mänty; metsikkösadanta; runkovalunta; sademäärä; ravinteet; ravinnekierto
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; precipitation; stemflow; throughfall; nutrient cycle
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study is part of a project designed to elucidate the nutrient budget of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. Results of variation in the nutrient contents were compared with those obtained for the previous growing season.

The potassium and calcium contents varied the greatest in the humus layer. However, in the bottom and field layer vegetation and needles the variation in the nitrogen content was the greatest. The nutrient contents of the needles were affected by the physiological stage of development, needle age and the position in the crown of the tree. The nutrient content of the rainfall increased in the order: free rainfall, throughfall, and stem flow.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lehtonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4970, category Article
Markku Mäkelä. (1977). Metsähakkeen tiheyden laskeminen. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4970. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14821
English title: Calculating the basic density of whole tree- and logging residue chips.
Original keywords: kuusi; tiheys; mänty; koivu; hake; metsähake; kokopuuhake; leppä
English keywords: Norway spruce; birch; Scots pine; basic density; alder; wood chips; logging residue; whole tree chips
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method is presented in this study for calculating the basic density of whole tree- and logging residue chips and the results of trial measurements on some commonly used chip sorts. The basic density of Scots pine whole tree chips was found to be 1–18 kg/m3 smaller than that of pine pulpwood of the same age. The basic density of Norway spruce whole tree chips was 4–22 kg/m3 greater than that of similar aged pulpwood. The basic density of birch whole tree chips was 4–16 kg/m3 and grey alder whole tree chips 7–24 kg/m3 greater than pulpwood of the same age. The basic density of conifer logging residue chips was considerably greater than that of pine and spruce whole tree ships.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: mm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4963, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1977). Männyn ja kuusen siementen gammasäteilyherkkyyteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4963. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14814
English title: Factors affecting gamma-irradiation sensitivity of Scots pine and Norway spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; alkuperä; itäminen; siemenet; säteilytys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; germination; Scots pine; progeny; seeds; radiation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study, comprising three experiments, aims to determine the effect of the geographical origin of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds, and the duration of the time lag between the moisture treatment and subsequent irradiation on the gamma-irradiation sensitivity of seeds.

The studies showed that the greater the irradiation dose seeds were subjected to the slower the rate of germination. In general, small radiation doses (250–1,000 rad) had a stimulating effect and the final germination percentage (36–40 days) increased. However, when the level was further increased, the germination percentage decreased. Air-dry and moistened seeds withstood irradiation better than others. In a study with moistened seeds from different geographical sources, pine and spruce seeds from Northern Finland were less able to withstand irradiation than those originating from the south.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4962, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1977). Ojitusalueiden hieskoivikoiden kasvatus taloudellisena vaihtoehtona. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4962. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14813
English title: The economics of growing downy birch stands on drained peatlands in Finland.
Original keywords: kannattavuus; mänty; metsän uudistaminen; ojitetut suot; hieskoivu; uudistamiskustannukset
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; Betula pubescens; Scots pine; downy birch; profitability
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to determine under what conditions and with what premises the growing of Betula pubescens Ehrh. is an economically competitive alternative to the growing of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in drained peatlands. The basic material consisted of all drainage projects in Ostrobothnia in Western Finland in 1937–38 and 1957–59, according to the archives of the Central Board of Forestry Tapio, including such areas that were at least moderately fertile and had birch dominated young stands or no tree cover. A total of 202 sample plots were measured.

According to the results, the discounted timber yield of the thinned B. pubescens stands is about 10% greater than that of untreated stands. The removing of birch seedlings and the subsequent growing of fully stocked Scots pine is more profitable than growing B. pubescens stands only if the establishment and subsequent development of the pine stand involve no costs. If the site in question is a fertile open drained peatland, establishment of a pine stand is obviously a better financial proposition than a naturally regenerated birch stand. However, if there is already a fully stocked young birch stand on the site, it is more economical to let it grow using a shortish rotation time.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown
article id 4958, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1977). Araukaarian ja männyn puuaineen ominaisuuksien vertailua. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4958. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14809
English title: Comparison of wood properties of Parana pine and Scots pine.
Original keywords: tiheys; mänty; puuaines; pihkatiehyet; araukaaria
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; wood; density; rays; Araucaria angustifolia; Panama pine
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

According to the available literature, the appearance of Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze) wood resembles that of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The anatomy is quite different, however. There are no resin canals and fusiform rays with resin canals in Parana pine. They are abundant in Scots pine, however. The basic density of Parana pine is higher. In both species the density increases from the pith outwards, the maximum being reached at the age of 100 years. Compression wood is more common in Parana pine than in Scots pine, and this makes the longitudinal shrinkage of Parana pine greater than that of Scots pine. Otherwise the shrinkage properties do not differ. The mechanical strength is of the same magnitude with the exception of hardness, where Parana pine is superior.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4954, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Fertilization of Scots pine seedlings with different nitrogen fertilizer. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4954. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14800
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; kasvu; taimet; lannoitus; kuolleisuus; typpilannoitus; ammoniumsulfaatti
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; growth; mortality; seedlings; fertilizing; nitrogen fertilizers; ammonium sulphate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes an attempt to determine whether ammonium, nitrate and urea nitrogen are bound in peat used as a filling material in containerized seedling production, what is the effect of the nutrients on certain chemical properties in the peat, and what is the effect of the nitrogen fertilizers on the primary growth of containerized (paper-pot VH 608) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in connection with planting out. The seedlings were fertilized with ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate and urea.

The results show that none of the fertilizers used were bound in the peat. The nitrogen content in the above ground part of the seedlings increased clearly. Fertilization with ammonium sulphate resulted in the greatest increment and this increase appears to be permanent. The wintering process was somewhat delayed by the fertilization. The seedling mortality rate for all the treatments has been quite appreciable. However, fertilization particularly with ammonium sulphate on the poorer of the two sites studied has had a positive effect on seedling survival. Furthermore, it appears that fertilizer treatments have decreased growth after planting, but in the case of ammonium sulphate this decrease has changed into a clear growth increment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4952, category Article
Irja Lehtonen, Seppo Kellomäki, Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4952. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14798
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand. II. Amount and quality of precipitation in a Scots pine stand at the pole stage.
Original keywords: mänty; metsikkösadanta; runkovalunta; sademäärä; ravinnekierto; happamuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; precipitation; stemflow; throughfall; acidity; nutrient budget
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study forms part of a project designed to elucidate the total nutrient budget of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Central Finland during the 1974 growing period. Precipitation has been divided up into precipitation, throughfall and stemflow.

The acidity of the rainwater was found to increase in the order – Precipitation, throughfall and stemflow. The electrolyte content of the rain water from throughfall and stemflow was higher than that of precipitation. The nutrient contents of precipitation were rather low. Throughfall and stemflow were found to leach some nutrient from the trees. This was most clear in the case of potassium. The total amounts of nutrients reaching the ground in throughfall were found to be smaller than those in precipitation. On the other hand, the amounts of potassium, calcium and magnesium in stemflow were clearly greater than those in precipitation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown
article id 4948, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Puun ja kuoren tiheys ja kosteus sekä kuoren osuus koivun, kuusen ja männyn oksissa. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4948. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14794
English title: Density and moisture content of wood and bark, and bark percentage in the branches of birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; koivu; kosteus; kokopuuhaketus; oksat; kuori
English keywords: Norway spruce; birch; Scots pine; moisture content; bark; density; branches; total tree chipping
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the study the proportion of branch samples of various diameter were studied. The branches were taken from small trees to be harvested by total tree chipping method. The material consisted of 1,056 branch samples of birch (Betula verrucosa, now B. pendula Roth, and Betula pubescens Erhr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at intervals of 20 cm along each branch.

With exception of the basic density of bark, there was a relation between all the other properties which were studied and the diameter. Even when the effect of diameter was eliminated, in many cases the effect of the distance of the samples from the stem became apparent.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4946, category Article
I. Lehtonen, S. Kellomäki, C. J. Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4946. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14792
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand I. Seasonal variation in nutrient content of vegetation and soil.
Original keywords: mänty; metsäekologia; neulaset; aluskasvillisuus; ravinnekierto; ravinnepitoisuus; maa; kasvukausi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; ground vegetation; soil; soluble nutrients
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper deals with variation in the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of vegetation and soil of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand of Vaccinium site type situated in Central Finland. The material consists of sequential samples representing soil, ground vegetation and trees taken during summer 1974.

The amount of soluble nutrients in the humus layer decreased in June when maximum growth of trees and dwarf shrubs occurred. The nutrient content of this layer subsequently began to increase towards the end of the growing period.

The variation in the nutrient content of the bottom and ground layers followed a similar pattern. Nitrogen content increases at the beginning of the summer. After this phase it started to decrease and reached its lowest values by the end of growing period. Phosphorus and potassium content increased throughout the growing period.

The nutrient content of the needles and wood were positively correlated with tree height and negatively with the age of material. The highest values for the nutrient content were for new cells.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown
article id 4940, category Article
Paavo Pelkonen, Heikki Smolander. (1976). Männyn kaasunvaihdon elpyminen talvilevon keskeytyessä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4940. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14786
English title: Increase in gas exchange rate in Scots pine by terminating the winter rest period.
Original keywords: mänty; fotosynteesi; aineenvaihdunta; haihdunta; talvilepo
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; net photosynthesis; winter dormancy; transpiration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The activation of CO2 exchange was monitored in two Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings transferred from the field to the laboratory in December. Gas exchange was monitored by an URAS I infrared gas analyser in a so-called open IRGA-system with trap type chambers. Transpiration was also measured at the same time by weighing the potted seedlings twice a day. The measuring period lasted eleven days. During the period, the level of both transpiration and net photosynthesis increased about ten times. Furthermore, it was found that the level of photosynthesis at high temperatures was relatively lower at the beginning than at the end of the measuring period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pelkonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown
article id 4938, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Mäntyrunkojen ydinsäteiden korkeus ja leveys. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4938. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14783
English title: Height and width of rays in Scots pine stems.
Original keywords: mänty; ydinsäteet; pihkatiehyet; puuaine; puun rakenne
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; xylem; fusiform rays; uniseriate rays; rays
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this study the width and height of 1,588 uniseriate and 454 fusiform rays were measured from tangential sections of four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trunks. The samples represented various height levels and distances from the pith. The average width of the uniseriate rays was 19.7 μm and that of the fusiform rays, 51.9 μm. The average height of the uniseriate rays was 215.7 μm and that of the fusiform rays 406.2 μm. Due to this difference in height, it may be possible to develop an automatic system for distinguishing between uniseriate end fusiform rays on the basis of their height.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4925, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Pohjoissuomalaisten mäntytukkien soikeus. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4925. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14767
English title: Ovalness of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; mänty; puutavaranmittaus; läpimitta; sahatukki
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; saw logs; northern Finland; diameter; timber scaling
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material of this study consists of 1,080 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs measures in two saw mills in Northern Finland. The largest and the smallest top-diameter of each log was measured under bark. According to the results, the ovalness was rather small, 1 mm or 4.9% on average. On the other hand, only 14.3% of all logs showed a diameter difference smaller than 2%. The ovalness was larger than 10% in 5.8% of all logs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4924, category Article
Teklé Kapustinskaité. (1975). Puuston kasvu ja turpeen tuhkapitoisuus ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14766
English title: Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth in connection with drainage.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; ravinteisuus; puulajit; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; pituuskasvu; rauduskoivu; tervaleppä; Liettua; tuhkapitoisuus; hieskoivu; metsäsaarni
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; birch; Betula pendula; Picea abies; Betula pubescens; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; tree species; Alnus glutinosa; alder; ash content; fertility; Fraxinus exelsior; ash; Lithuania
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The ash content has been found to correlate with the fertility of peatlands. Relationship between height of 80-year-old stands and ash content of peat in topmost 30 cm layer was examined in Lithuanian conditions. On drained peatlands with ash content of peat from 3% to 8% pine stands increase in height. Ash content of peat being about 7% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on drained sites are found to be of equal height. Ash content of peat more than 8–9% has no significant effect on growth of pine or spruce stands. Birch (Betula verrucosa (B. Pendula Roth.) and Betula pubescens Erhrh.), stands are less sensitive to ash content of peat compared with other species. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) stands occurred in sites with ash content of peat more than 8–10%. The height of the stands become equal both in drained and undrained sites in the cases where ash content of peat is about 16–18%. Ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) stands attain high productivity on drained sites with ash content of peat about 20%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kapustinskaité, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4920, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1975). Turvetuotannosta vapautuvan maan metsittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4920. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14776
English title: Afforestation of bogs after industrial exploitation of peat.
Original keywords: mänty; metsitys; lannoitus; suojapuusto; turvetuotanto; jälkikäyttö; tuhka; tervaleppä; suonpohja
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; afforestation; Scots pine; Alnus glutinosa; alder; peat production; after-use; ash
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Peat industry is rapidly expanding in Finland. Consequently, during next decades peat will be removed from thousands of hectares. Because timber production probably is the most rational use of this area after the peat production has ended, some experiments of afforestation of such areas have already been conducted. This article reports results of two experiments which were started in Kihniö, Western Finland, in 1953 and 1964.

In the first experiment fertilization with wood ash proved very effective whereas seeding and planting without fertilization resulted in almost complete failure. In the second experiment, interplanting with grey alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) greatly promoted the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The effect of slight fertilization lasted a few years only. The reasons for the remarkable effect of alder need further research. Although alder is known as a nitrogen-fixing plant, its beneficial effect was most clearly seen in the K and P contents of pine needles. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi was beneficial but not necessary. Experiments hitherto show that afforestation of bogs after peat removal is possible although some additional measures like fertilization or interplanting with alder may be needed.

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  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4908, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1974). Sarkaleveyden ja naveroinnin vaikutus pohjavesipinnan syvyyteen ja männyntaimiston kehitykseen lyhytkortisella nevalla. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4908. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14752
English title: The effect of ditch spacing and furrowing on depth of ground water table and on development of a Scots pine plantation on small-sedge bog.
Original keywords: mänty; ojitetut suot; avosuot; pituuskasvu; sarkaleveys; naverointi; kuivatussyvyys; kuivatusteho
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; seedlings; open peatlands; drainage effect; ground water table; ditch spacing; furrowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an investigation into the effect of ditch spacing, ditch depth and furrowing on ground water table and on development of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantation on open small-sedge bog in Central Finland (60° 50’ N; 24° 20’ E), drained in 1967. The area was planted in 1968 with 2+1 Scots pine transplants, and fertilized with Y fertilizer for peat soils. The seedlings were measured in 1972.

The depth of the ground water table was greater, the narrower the ditch spacing. The water furrows shortened the duration of the high ground water and lowered the ground water table particularly in the case of ineffective drainage. The narrower the ditch spacing within the blocks, the higher were the young trees. On the other hand, the differences in the height of the trees between the ditch spacings were eliminated by the effect of the furrows.

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  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4904, category Article
Sirkka Kupila-Ahvenniemi, Sirkka Hankonen, Seppo Sivonen. (1974). Kokeita röntgenmikroanalyysimenetelmän käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden alkuaineiden määrityksessä männyn silmuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4904. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14748
English title: Experiments on the determination of certain elements in the buds of Scots pine by means of the electron probe x-ray microanalysis.
Original keywords: mänty; menetelmät; silmut; röntgenmikroanalyysi; alkuaineanalyysi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; methods; buds; electron probe X-ray microanalysis; elementary analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An electron probe X-ray microanalyser was used to study the occurrence of phosphorus, sulphur and calcium in the bud apices of dormant Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The material was collected during the winter months (November–February), fixed in Carnoy’s fluid, dehydrated, and mounted in paraffin wax. Of the 10 μm longitudinal section, the ones containing the middle portion of the apices were glued to the specimen supports and vacuum coated with aluminium. Three parallel line analysis were run over the corpus and the uppermost portion of the pith. Results obtained so far suggest that no marked changes occur in the position and level of the three elements during the study period.

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  • Kupila-Ahvenniemi, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hankonen, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown
  • Sivonen, E-mail: ss@mm.unknown
article id 4903, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1974). Esikokeita kinetiinin vaikutuksesta männyn hypokotyylien kallus- ja juurimuodostukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4903. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14747
English title: Effect of kinetin on the formation of callus and roots in hypocotyls of Scots pine; preliminary experiments.
Original keywords: mänty; sirkkataimi; solukkoviljely; kinetiini; IAA; kallus; juurimuodostus; hypokotyyli
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; tissueculture; germlings; hypocotyls; callus; root formation; kinetin; IAA
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

After 64 days of aseptic culture, germlings of Pinus Syvestris L. were cut at the middle of the hypocotyl and above the root. The upper and lower halves of the hypocotyls were transferred onto agar medium RM-196 of Linsmaier & Skoog (1964) including 2 mg/l IAA and 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/l kinetin, one or both halves being put in each vial. Callus growth and root formation was observed after 55 days.

The lower ends of basally cut seedlings generally formed callus tissue and 20% of them also formed roots from this callus. No roots and less callus growth were observed in the lower hypocotyle halves excised at both ends. In the latter hypocotyles callus growth was promoted by the presence in the same vial of a basally excised germling, including cotyledons and plumule. Increasing amounts of kinetin slightly enhanced callus formation of basally excised germlings but seemed to inhibit callus growth in hypocotyls excised at both ends and placed alone on the growth medium. The total amount of callus was greatest in hypocotyls which included intact cotyledons and plumule.

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  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4902, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1974). Urealannoituksen vaikutus metsämaan kasveille käyttökelpoiseen typpimäärään. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4902. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14746
English title: Effect of urea application on nitrogen available for plants in forest soil.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; lannoitus; urea; typpilannoitus; kasveille käyttökelppoinen typpi
English keywords: Norway spruce; fertilization; Scots pine; urea; nitrogen fertilization; available nitrogen
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes a preliminary attempt to assess the long-term effect of urea application on the quantity of nitrogen available for plants in forest soil. The soil samples required for the study were collected from an experimental area which had been set up for investigations into both the single and joint effect on tree growth of two levels of each of urea and phosphorus application. The stand was a mixed forest of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) on Myrtillus type site with an average volume of 217.5 m3/ha.

According to the results, the nitrogen available for plants of the humus layer was significantly higher in fertilized than in unfertilized plots as late as four years after application. In terms of absolute values, the quantities were extremely small, only 3–4% of the amounts applied. In comparison with these results it was interesting to notice that urea application seemed to increase the C/N ratio.

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  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4899, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Näkökohta tyvi- ja latvaläpimitan keskiarvoon perustuvasta mäntypölkkyjen kuutioinnista. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4899. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14743
English title: Note on the volume based on the mean of butt and top diameters of Scots pine bolts.
Original keywords: kuitupuu; mänty; puutavaranmittaus; kapeneminen; tyviläpimitta; latvaläpimitta; kiintotilavuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; pulpwood; timber scaling; tapering; butt diameter; top diameter; volume determination
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this paper the use of butt and top diameters of pulpwood bolts for volume determination is analysed. The study is based on the taper data of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems. According to the results, the use of the mean of butt and top diameters in the volume determination under Finnish condition causes a positive error in small stems. If the stems are so big that the butt portions of the stems can be used as saw logs, the remaining top bolts, used as pulpwood, are estimated to be smaller than they are in reality. Accordingly, there is a negative error.

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  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4897, category Article
A. V. Chudnyi. (1974). Metsäpuiden populaatiorakenteen tutkimusmenetelmistä. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4897. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14741
English title: Investigation methods in forest tree population studies.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; taudinkestävyys; männyntyvitervastauti; Neuvostoliitto; terpeenit
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; tree breeding; Heterobasidion annosum; disease resistance; terpenes; Soviet Union
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

From the tree breeder’s point of view, an investigation of the chemical compounds in a tree population is worthwhile, if sufficiently high correlations exist between the chemical composition and any economical important characteristics. In Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations, such a correlation seems to exist between a high α-pinene and a low Δ3-carene content on the one hand, and the poor resistance to Fomitopsis annosa Fr. (now Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.) but a rapid development during the first half of the life cycle on the other hand. Detailed investigation on the terpene contents in pine populations were conducted at 121 locations throughout the Soviet Union. As a result, the range of this species was divided into zones, each of which was characterized by a distinct terpene composition pattern. In continuing selection and breeding work, the terpene contents are being used as indicators when the variation of economically important characteristics of Scots pine populations is studied.

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  • Chudnyi, E-mail: ac@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4889, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1973). Turvepuristeet ja männyn kylvö. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4889. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14727
English title: Use of peat briquettes in seeding of Scots pine.
Original keywords: kylvö; mänty; itäminen; kasvualustat; turve; turvebriketti; vakoruutukylvö
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; germination; Scots pine; peat; sowing; seeding; band-sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to assess, through field experiments, the possibilities of using peat briquettes in the seeding of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Finland. The briquettes were dug into the soil in the middle of patches of mineral soil. The seeds were covered by a 2-5 mm layer of mineral soil. The seedings were inventoried in the three following autumns.

According to the results, the briquettes were clearly inferior to the control, which was ordinary drill seeding. This was mainly due to the fact that no rain was received after the seeding, and that the third summer from seeding was extremely dry. Abundant germination was observed during the second summer after seeding in both briquette seeding and the control. During more rainy summers the result might have been better.

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  • Lehtiniemi, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4888, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1973). Havaintoja kuusen vapaapölytysjälkeläistöjen ja männyn metsikköalkuperien CO2-aineenvaihdunnasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4888. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14726
English title: Observations on CO2 exchange in open pollinated progenies of Norway spruce and provenances of Scots pine.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; metsänjalostus; pluspuu; fotosynteesi; geneettinen muuntelu; pimeähengitys; yhteyttämisteho
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; tree breeding; photosynthesis capacity; genetic variance; dark respiration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Photosynthesis and dark respiration in five families of autochtonous Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and in seedlings from twenty Finnish stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were investigated in constant environmental conditions. Values of CO2 exchange were compared with the height growth and weight of seedlings in Norway spruce and with the weight alone in Scots pine. No statistically significant differences were found in CO2 exchange among progenies or stands. Photosynthetic efficiency and photosynthetic capacity showed a positive correlation both in spruce and in pine. Growth and net photosynthetic capacity were linearly and positively correlated in pine. Spruce and a higher light compensation point than pine. The use of an open IRGA system with several simultaneous measurements and the trap-type cuvette construction in genetic work are discussed.

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  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4881, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1973). Harvennuksen vaikutus lumi- ja routasuhteisiin nuoressa turvemaan männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4881. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14717
English title: The effect of thinning on the snow cover and soil frost conditions in a young Scots pine stand on drained peatland.
Original keywords: mänty; harvennushakkuu; turvemaat; ojitetut suot; lumi; lumen syvyys; routa; lumen vesiarvo
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil frost; thinning; drained peatlands; Scots pine; snow cover; depth of snow; water equivalent of snow
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an investigation into the effect of thinning of different intensity and fertilization on the depth and water equivalent of the snow cover as well as on the depth of the soil frost in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on drained peatland in Central Finland. Thinnings and fertilization was carried out in 1968, and the snow cover was followed in the winters 1970/71 and 1971/72.

Only extremely heavy thinnings (60% of the volume) seemed to increase the depth and water equivalent of the snow cover. The indirect effect of fertilization on the snow cover was insignificant. In the clear-cut sample plot of the study, soil frost was either not found at all or the depths of the frozen soil layer was smaller than in the other plots. When deciding the silvicultural measures to be taken in the case of tree stands growing on drained peatlands, there seems to be reason to avoid radical thinnings. Otherwise, the favourable influence of the trees on a site on its water relationships will be diminished.

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  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4879, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Mäntyrunkojen ydinsäteiden määrä ja koko. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4879. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14713
English title: Amount and size of rays in Scots pine stems.
Original keywords: mänty; runko; puuaines; ydinsäteet; pihkatiehyet; pihka
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; structure of wood; fusiform rays; uniseriate rays; resin canal; pitch
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The material consists of four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems from which 757 samples were taken from various heights and distances from the pith. According to the results, the number of rays and their sizes are greater at the stump level than higher up in the stem. The size increases, and the number decreases on moving from the pith outwards. However, there are differences between stems as regards the variation model. The ratio between the number of fusiform rays and that of uniseriate rays seems to be lower than anticipated earlier, about 1:40–1:50. The average proportion of ray volume varied from 5.6% to 7.3%.

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  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4877, category Article
Pertti Laatikainen. (1973). Jyrsinturve ja kuorihumus männyn kylvötaimien kasvualustoina muovihuoneessa. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4877. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14707
English title: Milled peat and milled bark as substrate for Scots pine seedlings in greenhouses.
Original keywords: mänty; taimitarha; taimituotanto; lannoitus; kasvualustat; kasvihuoneviljely; kuorihumus; turve
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nursery; Scots pine; substrate; tree seedlings; greenhouse cultivation; milled peat; milled bark
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to compare the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings sown on substrates off milled peat and milled bark. Mille peat, ordinary milled bark, milled inner bark waste, and a mixture of milled peat and milled bark in the ratio of 1:1, were all compared in the plastic greenhouse. In addition, two fertilization applications were used with milled park: ordinary surface fertilization and double surface fertilization. The germination and development were measured twice during the summer.

It is concluded that milled bark seems to be a rather useful substrate for use in plastic greenhouses, as long as its special requirements are taken into consideration. In the first measurement, there were no differences between the treatments, in the second measurements seedlings growing on a mixture of peat and bark were slightly more developed than the others. Growth of the seedlings was slightly better in ordinary milled bark. Double surface fertilization increased disease and mortality compared to ordinary fertilization.

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  • Laatikainen, E-mail: pl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4872, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Kuusen ja männyn sydänpuuosuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4872. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14679
English title: The proportion of heartwood in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).
Original keywords: kuusi; kuitupuu; mänty; sydänpuu; läpimitta
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; diameter; heartwood; pulpwood; Pinus sylvestri
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study deals with the variation in the proportion of heartwood  in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) both within and between stems as examined on the basis of literature. Special attention is paid to an application, in which on the basis of the diameter of pulpwood bolts, efforts are made to predict the proportion of heartwood in the total volume of bolts. It is shown that the method, even when based on homogenous material of 564 Norway spruce and Scots pine bolts, easily leads to wrong conclusions concerning the proportion of heartwood.

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  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4870, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1972). Tumamonisärmiöviruksen käytöstä ruskean mäntypistiäisen (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffr.) torjunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4870. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14676
English title: Use of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus in the control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.).
Original keywords: hyönteistuhot; mänty; tummamonisärmiövirus; ruskomäntypistiäinen; biologinen torjunta; virukset
English keywords: biological control; insect damage; polyhedrosis virus; Neodiprion sertifer; European pine sawfly; Borrelinavirus diprionis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Experimental applications of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Borrelinavirus diprionis) to control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.) was carried out during the last outbreak of this sawfly in in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland in 1963. Quantities of polyhedrosis virus preparation, collected and purified in Finland were available as concentrations packed in capsules. Spraying took place in three localities in southwestern Finland when the larvae were in I–III instars.

When Finnish and Swedish preparations were used 83–96% of larval colonies were completely destroyed within 14 days. In addition, an attempt was made to change the virus in latent stage, present already in the area, to acute stage by application of substrates which are probably harmless to pine, but were expected to stress the larvae. Ground quarts as spray had the best lethal effect upon larvae.

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  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4869, category Article
Ole Oskarsson, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1972). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet II. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4869. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14672
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding II. Selection differences and genetic gains in selected seed stands of Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; tilavuuskasvu; valintahyöty; siemenkeräysmetsät; fenotyyppi; kuutiokasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; volume growth; genetic gain; forest tree breeding; seed stands; phenotype
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) selected seed stands. To obtain highest possible accuracy, the estimations are based on a large statistical material comprising 197 separate seed stands. It is concluded that the genetic gain of volume growth ranges between 7.4–15.0%. Unwanted pollen contaminations may, however, in the worst case halve this genetic gain.

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  • Oskarsson, E-mail: oo@mm.unknown (email)
  • Tigerstedt, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown
article id 4868, category Article
Mikko Tormilainen. (1972). Havaintoja Oitin siemenviljelyksen mäntykloonien kukinnasta ja käpysadosta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4868. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14671
English title: Studies of flowering and cone crop in a seed orchard of Scots pine.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; mänty; kloonit; siemenviljelmä; siemenviljely; kukinta; käpysato; geneettinen vaihtelu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; flowering; genetic variation; seed orchards; clones; Southern Finland; cone production
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Male and female flowering, cone crop, and some vegetative characteristics were studied in grafts 10 to 16 years of age in a clonal seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Genetic variation was found between clones in flowering as well as in cone production. Clone evaluation resulted in similar classifications of clones in different years. A regression analysis showed that crown size clearly increased but previous height growth slightly decreased flowering and cone production. The percentage of pollinated female strobili did not differ between clones.

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  • Tormilainen, E-mail: mt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4860, category Article
Pentti Erjala, Jussi Saramäki. (1972). Astiakoemenetelmä suotyyppien lannoitustarpeen määrityksessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4860. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14663
English title: Determination of the need for fertilizer application of drained peat soils with the pot method.
Original keywords: mänty; suotyyppi; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; ravinteiden puute; lannoitustarve
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; drained peatlands; Scots pine; nutrient deficiency; peatland type; need for fertilizers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The possibilities of using a pot method to determine the need for fertilizer application were studied. Seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were grown in peat samples that had cylindrical shape with a diameter of 25 cm and height of 35 cm. The samples represented three different peatland types, and were fertilized with two levels of phosphorus, potash and nitrogen. Two transplants were planted per pot. The development of the seedlings was followed for three years.

Phosphorus seemed to be of greatest importance for the growth of the seedlings, but nitrogen was also required in the poorest peatland type. Potash did not give statistically significant results. NPK application gave the best response. The usability of the method was studied by following the development of the roots. It seemed that the diameter of the pots was too small and restricted the growth of the root systems.

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  • Erjala, E-mail: pe@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saramäki, E-mail: js@mm.unknown
article id 4859, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1972). Istutuskuoppaan annetun kuparihienofosfaatin vaikutus männyn ja kuusen taimien elossapysymiseen ja pituuskasvuun eräällä kulotetulla ja auratulla uudistusalalla Koillis-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4859. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14662
English title: Effect of fine-grounded copper rock phosphate placed in the planting hole on the survival and height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce in a burnt and furrowed reforestation are in northeast Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; metsänviljely; taimet; lannoitus; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu; fosforilannoitus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; Scots pine; height growth; planting; phosphorus; mortality; copper; seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results of a fertilization experiment, in which transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were fertilized with various doses of fine-ground copper rock phosphate (33% P2O5, 4% Cu) placed direct in the planting hole. The experiment was made in northeast Finland on a clear-cut, burnt-over and furrowed moraine heath. The fertilization increased especially the survival and condition of the Scots pines and increased to some extent also the height growth of the plants. The spruce survived better than the pines.

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  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4856, category Article
Pekka Rautiainen. (1971). Ympäristö- ja perintötekijöiden vaikutus männyn ilmiasuun Pohjois-Karjalan piirimetsälautakunnan siemenviljelyksessä Tohmajärvellä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4856. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14658
English title: The effect of environmental and genetical factors on the phenotype of Scots pine in a seed orchard in North Karelia.
Original keywords: mänty; oksikkuus; Suomi; periytyvyys; pituuskasvu; fenotyppi; heritabiliteetti; siemenviljelmä; Tohmajärvi; oksakulma
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; heritability; branchiness; fenotyyppi; seed orchard; angle of branching
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study material included 600 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grafts from the Tohmajärvi seed orchard in Eastern Finland. Their broad sense heritability for the height growth was 0.92, for the number of branches 0.87 and for the angle of branching 0.84. Grafts from Central Finland had cones more often than the southern ones, the frequencies being 26.3% and 11.2%. It seems that dominance plays a significant role in the genetical variation of this seed orchard and that height growth is probably more rewarding breeding characteristic than quality, the difference being small, however.

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  • Rautiainen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4854, category Article
G. M. Kozubov. (1971). Elektronimikroskooppisia tutkimuksia männyn ja kuusen kukka-aiheiden kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4854. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14656
English title: Electron microscopic studies in the development of strobile primordia of Scots pine and Norway spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; elektronimikroskopia; kasvianatomia; kasvifysiologia; kukka
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; electron microscopy; plant anatomy; plant physiology; flower; strobile primordia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This article is an abstract from a lecture given in Helsinki on 2.12.1970. Physiological differences in different parts of developing primordia of micro- and macrostrobiles are manifested in the ultrastructure of the cell tissues. In electron microscopy, the study off metabolic activities can be combined with the anatomical examination of the flower primordia.

The generative cells of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) develop under the strong metabolic activity of surrounding layers of cells. Simultaneously the activity and development of the organelles in generative cells becomes hindered, and these inhibitions will exist until the fertilization. It can be concluded that the higher the gradient of sexualization of the cells in different parts of flower primordia, the weaker the metabolic activity in these cells.

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  • Kozubov, E-mail: gk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4853, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen, Pentti K. Räsänen, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1971). Neulasten väri myöhemmän kasvun ja lannoitusvaikutuksen ilmaisijana. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4853. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14655
English title: The use of needle colour in predicting growth and response to fertilization.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; kasvu; taimet; lannoitus; neulaset
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; planting; growth; seedlings; needle clour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

About 4,000 seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were planted in 1965 both on a clear-cut and sheltered area in Central Finland. In the autumn of 1966 needle colour was determined by using Muncell Color Charts which allowed a quantitative measurement of three colour dimensions (hue, value, and chroma). Terminal shoot growth was recorded for two years after colour measurements. In both species, fertilization (NPK in the spring of the year of colour measurement) as well as other site factors caused differences in all three dimensions of needle colour. A regression of shoot growth on needle colour was found in both species. In most cases colour value (darkness) and, in spruce, also chroma, predicted the subsequent growth almost as well as did these two-colour variables together.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown
article id 4849, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Tapani Hänninen. (1971). Eräiden talvivarastointimenetelmien vaikutuksesta männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4849. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14651
English title: The effect of some over-winter storage methods on different Scots pine nursery stock.
Original keywords: mänty; taimet; varastointi; talvivarastointi; kuolleisuus; kylmävarastointi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; mortality; seedlings; cold storage; winter storage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seedlings of three different Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) nursery stock, 1+0 ,1+1, and 2+0, were kept over the winter, after they had been packed in polythene bags, in three different ways: 1) In a refrigerated storage room, 2) in a wooden crate in the ground, 3) submerged in a lake. The seedling to which they were to be compared with were left over the winter in a nursery bed. The 1,800 seedlings were planted out in the spring 1966 in 15 random blocks. Their development was scrutinized during the three subsequent falls.

The seedlings which had been stored in the lake all died. The seedlings which had been stored along the 1st and 2nd method, managed almost as well as the ones which had been kept over the winter in the nursery bed, except for those of 1+0 stock.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hänninen, E-mail: th@mm.unknown
article id 4847, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Matti Hiltunen. (1971). Männyn erilaisten taimierien istutuskelpoisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4847. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14649
English title: The effect of differences in Scots pine nursery stock on the field survival and growth.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänviljely; istutus; kasvu; taimet; varastointi; kastelu; kuolelisuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; growth; mortality; storage; seedlings; watering
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were stored for five days in an ordinary wood shed. One half of the seedlings were planted out directly, and another half after soaking the roots of the seedlings for 3–6 hours in water to compensate the possible water deficit developed. According to the results of the experiment, the effect of watering was extremely small. The difference observed, which was in favour of the trees that had been watered during storage, was discernible only in the needle length and in the number of lateral buds; in mortality or in the growth of the seedlings no difference could be observed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hiltunen, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown
article id 4842, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1971). Metsikkösadannan määrä eräässä hoidetussa männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4842. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14644
English title: Throughfall in a managed Scots pine stand in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; mänty; sadanta; metsikkösadanta; sademäärä
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; precipitation; throughfall; rainfall
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the study was to measure the throughfall in a managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland (61°47’, 24°18’). Totally 20 summer rain gauges (collecting area 100 cm2) were placed randomly in form of a lattice of 100 squares, each 2x2 m. Six rain throughs, 15 cm x 150 cm, were placed in the experimental stand. Auxiliary precipitation measurement was done in an opening, by using four summer rain gauges, two rain throughs and one recording rain gauge. The throughfall was followed in May–September 1967.

In comparison with summer rain gauges, the rain throughs gave too low values when the precipitation was below 3 mm/rain shower. Accordingly, only the results of rain gauges were used. The rate of throughfall was determined by the amount of precipitation and the rate of heaviness of the rain shower. When trying to describe the relative amount of throughfall by using various characteristics of the stand, the equitation proposed by Seppänen (1964) proved the best. When the rate of throughfall was depicted with the distance between the summer gauge and the nearest tree, there was negative correlation between these. The correlation was negative under heavy rains, but positive in small rains.

Various factors of uncertainty are discussed. During long periods the areas under Scots pine canopies reach more rain water than those between the canopies, which may be important when analysing the spatial distribution of ground vegetation.

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  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4841, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1971). Lannoituksen vaikutus kylvösten ensi kehitykseen turvealustalla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4841. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14643
English title: Effect of fertilization on the initial development of Scots pine and Norway spruce plantations established by sowing on peat.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; turvemaat; lannoitus; itäminen; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; germination; Scots pine; height growth; mortality; sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Experiments were carried out to find out the effect of fertilizer application on germination, seedling emmergnece and initial development in conifer plantations established on peat by sowing, with a special reference to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The experiments were carried out in 1968–70 in laboratory, in greenhouse and in the field.

In the greenhouse experiments with Y fertilizer for peat soils (14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) it was shown that germination and seedling emergence decreased markedly with increased fertilizer application. Mortality among seedlings that had emerged was the higher the larger quantities of fertilizer had been applied. The effect of fertilization was the greater, the drier the substrate. Fine ground rock phosphate (33% P2O5) promoted seedling emergence on a dry substrate but not on a wet one.

The field experiments carried out in Central Finland included dry and wet sites. Y fertilizer, Oulu Saltpeter (25% N), fine-ground rock phosphate and potassium salt (50% K2O) were used. According to the results, easily soluble fertilizers decreased seedling emergence. On wet sites the effect of Y fertilizer was weaker than on drier sites. Fine-ground rock phosphate slightly increased the number of seedlings emerging. Height growth was increased during the first three growing seasons only by those fertilizers containing phosphorus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mannerkoski, E-mail: hm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4838, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1971). Metsityslannoituksessa käytetyn lannoitemäärän ja levitystavan merkitys istutustaimiston alkukehitykselle ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4838. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14640
English title: The quantity of fertilizer and application methods used in afforestation of open bogs.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; metsitys; taimet; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; avosuot; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; afforestation; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; mortality; seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an experiment of fertilization of drained treeless peatlands in connection of planting in three sites in Central Finland. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings 2+0 was used. The fertilizer (Y-fertilizer for peat soils, 14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) was applied in rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/transplant. The fertilizer was strewn either around the plant within a circular patch of 20 cm in diameter, in a ring with a radius of 10 cm and in a ring with a radius of 20 cm. The seedlings were measured two and five years after planting.

The greater the quantity of fertilizer applied and the closer it was applied to the plant the higher was the mortality of transplants. Fertilization increased the mortality during the first two growing seasons after application. Later, however, the mortality decreased to a similar level irrespective the way the fertilizer was applied. In the beginning of the second growing season the fertilized plants showed considerably better height growth than the control plants. The smallest quantity of fertilizer applied produced almost full increase in growth. The pattern of application of the fertilizer had little effect on the growth.

It was concluded that a use of small amounts of fertilizer can be recommended in connection with planting and that it should not be applied very near the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4832, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Pentti K. Räsänen. (1971). Siementen peittämisen ja kylvökohdan polkaisun vaikutus männyn ruutukylvön tulokseen. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4832. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14621
English title: The influence of covering and tramping the seeds into the soil on the success of spot sowing of Scots pine.
Original keywords: kylvö; mänty; metsänviljely; taimettuminen; itäminen; kylvösyvyys; siementen suojaus; ruutukylvö
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; germination; Scots pine; sowing; artificial regeneration; covering of the seeds; stocking with seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper reports spot sowing experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The seeds were either covered with coarse sand, tramped in the substrate or sowed without any covering, 30 seeds in each treatment in 70 replications. The site was of Vaccinium type with sandy soil. The germination percentage was 81 and 91 on the respective years. The development of seedlings was observed for 3–4 years.

The results indicate that both tramping and covering the seeds to some extent increased the number of seedlings and improved the early development. The highest numbers of seedlings were recorded in the first growing season, after which there was 23 seedlings/100 seeds in the uncovered spots, 27 seedlings in the covered spots and 31 seedlings in the tramped spots in the experiment sowed in 1965.

Mortality of the seedlings was highest between the first and second growing season, and empty spots increased with the time. There was no difference in mortality between the sowing methods, but the number of seedlings after first growing season affected the result. Under favourable conditions four seedlings per spot seemed enough to secure the survival of minimum one seedling per spot during the three first growing seasons. In poor conditions seven seedlings was needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
article id 4831, category Article
Lauri Mikkola. (1970). Kuusilajien risteytyvyydestä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4831. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14620
English title: On the crossability of Picea species.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; itävyys; kuuset; risteytys; risteytyskokeet; keinollinen pölytys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; tree breeding; Picea; Abies; controlled pollination; interspecific sterility; hybrids; crossbreeding
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seed development was microscopically studied after controlled pollinations. In all the interspecific crosses incompatibility occured. In the following crosses the growth of all the pollen tubes stopped before they had penetrated through the nuclear cap: Picea abies (L.) Karst. x mariana, abies x jezoensis (and the reciprocal), abies x omorika (and the reciprocal), mariana x asperata, mariana x jezoensis and Picea abies x Pinus sylvestris L.

Some of the eggs were fertilized in the crosses Picea abies x glauca (and the reciprocal) abies x asperata, abies x koyamai, abies x obovata, mariana x omorika and jezoensis x omorika. Embryo degeneration was observed in all these crosses. All the embryos died in the crosses abies x glauca (and the reciprocal) as well as jezoensis x omorika. Adequate amounts of full seed for germination test was obtained from the crosses abies x asperata, abies x koyamai and abies x obovata. In all these crosses there were seeds which were able to germinate and the hybrids are now one growth season old.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikkola, E-mail: lm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4823, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1970). Heritabiliteetin arvioiminen eräässä männyn (Pinus silvestris L.) jälkeläiskokeessa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4823. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14612
English title: Estimation of heritability in open-pollinated plus tree progenies of Pinus sylvestris L.
Original keywords: mänty; oksikkuus; metsänjalostus; pluspuut; pituuskasvu; perinnöllisyys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; tree breeding; heritability; branchiness; plus trees
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Field experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was established by planting seedlings grown from seeds collected from open-pollinated plus trees throughout the country. The 36 progenies represented were planted in 4 blocks as 2+2 transplants in 1960. The main characteristics of the seedlings were measured in 1966 and 1968. Considerable damage had been caused to the stands by moose (Alces alces) and Melampsora pinitorqua Rostr., consequently, therefore, only normally developed seedlings were measured.

Highly significant differences between progenies were found in the number of branches in 1968 and in the ratio of height of tree to the length of the longest branch. In 1968, the differences in height between progenies were not significant, but there were significant differences between blocks both in tree height and length of terminal shoot. Obviously, the edaphic heterogeneity of the site has influenced mainly the juvenile growth of the plants, because in the length of the terminal shoot there could be seen also significant differences between the progenies. There were no significant differences between the progenies in the length of the longest branch, in the angles of the thickest branches, in stem taper and in the diameter of the thickest branch.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palmberg, E-mail: cp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4817, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Ouni. (1970). Turvemaiden taimistojen pituuskasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4817. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14606
English title: Height growth of seedling stands growing on peatland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; taimikot; pituuskasvu; ylispuusto
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; peatlands; seedling stands; hold-overs
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper presents the results of a contest performed on behalf of the Finnish bank Kansallis-Osake-Pankki and the Central Forestry Board Tapio on growing trees on peatlands. Over 5,000 sample plots were established on drained peatlands in various parts of Finland. The aim was to achieve a best possible growth of seedling stands on peatland. The factors influencing the growth of 85 best Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 60 best Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) sample plots were studied.

The height growth of the seedling stands decreased towards the north. Fertilization seemed not to decrease the regional differences; rather on the contrary. On the other hand, fertilization increased height growth, but evidently so that the increase obtained was greater in the southern than in the northern parts of the country. Light fertilization (50 kg/ha of K2O and 60 kg/ha of O2P5) caused a clear increase in height growth while heavy fertilization (100 g/ha of K2O and 120 kg/ha of O2P5), had same effect but to much greater extent than the former. Spruce seedling stands in particular benefitted of the heavy fertilization.

Fertilization did not eliminate the original differences in the quality of the sites in question, but these could still be seen in the height growth after fertilization. The effect of drain spacing on the height growth was not very clear. In dense seedling stands (800 seedlings/ha) the height growth of the dominant seedlings was greater than that obtained in stands of lower density. Hold-overs caused a decrease in the growth of the seedling stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ouni, E-mail: jo@mm.unknown
article id 4816, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt, Eero Malmivaara. (1970). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet I.Pluspuiden valintaero ja siemenviljelysten valintahyöty. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4816. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14605
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding. I Selection differential of plus trees and genetic gain in seed orchards in Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; siemenviljelmät; pluspuut; valintahyöty; periytyvyys; vieraspölytys
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; tree breeding; seed orchards; genetic gain; heredity; selection differential; foreign pollen sources
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An attempt was made to estimate critically the genetic gain in clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland. The selection differential of Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is calculated on the basis of filed information on selected plus trees which has been kept by the genetic register at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The differentials were computed as realized differences in height between plus-trees and normal stand characteristics on respectively site class and as a function of age.

The genetic gain in height growth of Pinus sylvestris was computed on the basis of information on selection differential and heritability. This genetic gain is between 2.6–4.4% provided there is no pollen contamination from unknown sources outside the seed orchard. The genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine is about 7–15%, provided there is no pollen contamination in the seed orchard. However, according to investigations, there is invariably some pollen contamination in this kind of seed orchards. The contamination decreases to about 30–50% as the orchard matures and starts to produce endemic pollen. If the pollination would be entirely due to foreign pollen sources, the mathematically calculated genetic gain would be 3.5–7.5%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tigerstedt, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Malmivaara, E-mail: em@mm.unknown
article id 4813, category Article
Bo Långström. (1970). Pakkaustapojen vaikutuksesta talvivarastoitujen männyn taimien istutukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4813. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14602
English title: The effect of packing methods on the field survival and growth of winter-stored plants of Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänviljely; istutus; kasvu; taimet; kylmävarasto; talvivarastointi; kuolleisuus; tukkimiehentäi; torjunta-aine
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nursery; Scots pine; planting; seedlings; cold storage; winter storage; Hylobious abietis; large pine weevil; insecticide; field survival; packing methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of four packing methods on the field survival and growth of seedlings and transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stored over the winter in a cold-storage cellar. The following sorts of plants were used: one-year-old seedlings (1+0) grown in a plastic greenhouse, two-year-old (2+0) open grown seedlings and three-year-old open grown transplants. These plants were stored in open wooden boxes, in sealed plastic bags, in boxes with wet peat on the bottom and in plastic-laminated paper bags.

The control plants were of the same types and were kept in a nursery over the winter. The storage was carried out in a mantle-chilled cold-storage from October 1966 to May 1967. The temperature in the cold-storage was kept around -2 °C and the relative humidity of the air over 90%. The water content of a randomly selected sample plants showed no increase in water deficit after the storing. Part of the seedlings were transplanted in the nursery and the rest were planted in a clear-cut area. A number of the latter plants were treated with an insecticide (1% Intaktol, which contains DDT, Lindane and dieldrin) before planting. All the experiments were examined after one growing season and the planting experiments the next fall.

The transplants (2+1) in the nursery, and in the forest had survived and grown better than the seedlings. In the nursery the 1+0 seedlings survived and grew better than the 2+0 seedlings. There was no difference in mortality between the seedlings. After the first growing season occasional significant differences between the packing methods were observed, but they disappeared during the second growing season. Thus, all packing methods proved to be as successful as the control method without winter storage.

Transplants were more often attacked by the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) than the smaller seedlings. The damage, however, was considerably greater on the seedlings because of their lower resistance. No significant differences in the Hylobius-attack between the packing methods could be observed. The Intaktol-treated plants were as often attacked as the untreated ones, but the damage was slighter on the treated ones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Långström, E-mail: bl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4812, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Aarno Koukkula, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1970). Pakkauksen, varastoimisen ja valeistutuksen vaikutus männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4812. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14601
English title: The effect of packing, storing and heeling-in on the field survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänviljely; istutus; metsäpuun taimet; taimet; varastointi; kuolleisuus; kastelu; tukkimiehentäi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; mortality; storage; Hylobius abietis; seedlings; large pine weevil; insecticide; field survival
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to establish, by means of planting experiments, the influence of different packing, heeling-in and watering as well as the length of the storage period on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, in all 2,090 seedlings, that had been lifted from the nursery bed in spring. The plants were packed in bundles and into plastic sacks in 1965 (6 storage methods) and in 1966 (3 storage methods). Control seedlings were planted without storing at the time when storage of the test material begun. The plantations were followed 3–4 years.

Storage for two weeks in the different ways and planting without storage gave similar results when seedling survival was compared. Storage in plastic sack proved to be as good as storage in bundles in a cellar, and healing-in in moist soil or in a drain were both usable methods. Watering the seedlings did not improve the results, which indicates that the storage caused no serious lack of water.

After four growing seasons an average of 19,6% of the seedlings of the 1965 experiment died, the bulk of them by the end of the first growing season. Despite control treatment, Hylobious abietis caused serious damages. In the plantations of the year 1966 mortality of the seedlings was under 5% by the end of third growing season. During the first two growing seasons after planting differences in growth of the seedlings stored in different ways could be observed in the plantations of the year 1965, but the differences levelled out later. In the plantations established in 1966 no differences in growth occurred.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Koukkula, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown
  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown
article id 4808, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Antti Oksanen. (1969). Morfologiset, gravimetriset ja fotometriset tunnukset männyn taimien juuristojen kuvaajina. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4808. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14596
English title: Morphological, gravimetric, and photometric characteristics in describing of the root systems of pine transplants.
Original keywords: mänty; Pinus sylvestris; juuristo; taimet; mittausmenetelmät; juurten pinta-ala; morfologia
English keywords: Scots pine; seedlings; root system; surface area of the root system; morphology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This project studied the value of various shoot and root-system characteristics as indicators of plantability of transplants. Correlation and regression analysis was used to compare these characteristics. The study material consisted of two-year Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants that had grown in a plastic greenhouse for the first year and then been transplanted in the open. The seedlings had been transplanted in the field without treatment or with the roots cut to a length of 8 cm. A part was transplanted without treatment into plastic pails. A gravimetric and photometric method was used to obtain a description of the surface area of the root systems.

The results show that the photometric value gives a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The greatest advantage offered by the method is the simplicity and rapidity of measurement. The gravimetric, and especially the titrimetric, measurement takes much more time per plant. Photometric measurement affects plantability little, and measured and planted transplants can be followed up in the field. In gravimetric measurements, it was found that fresh and dry weight of the plants were closely correlated.

Mycorrhizal frequency in the root systems gave a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The number of living roots-tips was also rather closely correlated with the surface area of the root system. The other morphological characteristics failed to serve as a satisfactory index for the surface area of root systems. The one closest correlated was the annual leader growth. The second best was stem diameter; the height of the plant, on the contrary, was rather poorly correlated with the other characteristics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
  • Oksanen, E-mail: ao@mm.unknown
article id 4803, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Männyn ja kuusen siemenien esikäsittelyn vaikutuksesta itämiseen ja taimien alkukehitykseen kasvihuoneoloissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4803. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14591
English title: The effect of treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce seeds on their germination and the early development of the seedlings.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; taimettuminen; itäminen; esikäsittely; siemenet; taimikuolleisuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; germination; Scots pine; seedlings; seeds; treatment of seeds; mortality of seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to establish the need of treatment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds to be sown in greenhouse. 3 x 100 seeds of each treatment (soaking in water, treatment with Pb3O4, treatment with tiram-containing coating substance) were sown in a glasshouse on a fertilized garden peat, and covered with peat layer of 6 mm thickness. The development of seedlings was followed for 100 days before the final measurement.

Soaking the seeds with water made germination somewhat faster. In spruce the germination percentage increased, but the opposite was observed in pine. No difference could be observed between the results from soaking with acid water from peat soil and lake water. Drying the soaked seeds for a week before sowing had no harmful influence on the germination or the early development of the seedlings. Treatment with Pb3O4 did not affect the germination speed or the seedling percentage of pine or spruce, but increased the germination percentage of spruce. Coating decreased germination and seedling percentages in pine. However, the differences between the treatments were so small that their practical significance is negligible.

Germination of both the species initiated on an average in 8 days, and 16 days after sowing 80% of the seeds had germinated. Seedling mortality was about 10% of the total number of seedlings, the most common reason being damping-off.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4786, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1969). Havaintoja männyn paksuuskasvun loppumisesta ja puiden keloutumisesta Inarin Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4786. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14572
English title: Termination of diameter growth of Scots pine in old age in northernmost Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: mänty; Lappi; läpimitan kasvu; kelo; kasvun päättyminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Lapland; diameter growth; termination of growth
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the present study is to throw light on the termination of diameter growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in old age in northernmost Finnish Lapland. The material consists of thirty over-mature, dying or already dead standing trees grown in natural state. In 1907 the stand was marked for cutting, but the harvest was never carried through. Now the old labels served as a means for cross-dating the year of the final termination of growth.
It was found that as pine becomes senile its annual ring formation becomes incomplete. At first diameter growth stops in the middle part of the stem, then at the butt end, and at last on the canopy level. No correlation between the mean temperature of July and the dying of the tree was found. The average age for dying for the pine in the stand was 420–450 years. After the tree has died it takes about 35–40 years before it has become a silvery, branchless dead bole.

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  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4778, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1968). Teeri (Lyrurus tetrix L.) männyn taimien tuholaisena taimitarhassa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4778. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14563
English title: Feeding of terminal shoots of Scots pine seedlings by the black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) in nursery.
Original keywords: mänty; taimitarha; taimituhot; versot; teeri
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nursery; Scots pine; forest nursery; seedling damages; feeding behaviour; black grouse; Lyrurus tetrix; terminal buds
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In early spring 1968 it was noticed that the black grouses (Lyrurus tetris L.) was eating terminal shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in a tree nursery in Luumäki, Southern Finland. The terminal shoots were picked 1–4 cm from the top of the seedlings. In total some thousands of two-year-old seedlings were damaged. The depth of the snow was 10–15 cm deep and only the tops of the seedlings could be seen above the surface of the snow.

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  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4775, category Article
Erkki Pulliainen, Kalevi Loisa, Tauno Pohjalainen. (1968). Hirven talvisesta ravinnosta Itä-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4775. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14560
English title: Winter food of the moose (Alces alces) in eastern Lapland.
Original keywords: paju; mänty; hirvi; talviravinto; talvilaidun; kataja
English keywords: Scots pine; willow; Alces alces; Lapland; moose; juniper; winter food; feeding; feeding behaviour
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The winter food of moose (Alces alces L.) was examined in 1967-68 in the Saariselkä fell area in the communes of Inari and Sodankylä, in the northern parts of the communes of Salla and Savukoski, and in the central part of the commune of Salla in eastern Lapland in Finland.

In northern parts of Salla and Savukoski 25 moose were followed during 3.-13.4.1968. This area is typical wintering terrain of moose in north-east Lapland. According to the estimate, 45% food taken by the moose was Scots pine shoots and needles, 28% birch, 17% juniper sprigs and needles, 9% willow, and 1.5% bear moss. According to observations of the researchers in 26.1.-16.5.1968, moose seemed to avoid birch, even if it was available in the area, and eat Scots pine shoots and needles and juniper.

Moose seemed to prefer willow in as a winter feed in the southern part of the area studied, where it accounts according to the present and earlier studies 50-90% of the winter food. In the northern wintering areas of moose, where willow is not as common, willow seemed to account for less than 10% of the winter food. There Scots pine is the most important winter food for moose.

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  • Pulliainen, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
  • Loisa, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown
  • Pohjalainen, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
article id 4768, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1968). Havaintoja eräiden vikaisuuksien vaikutuksesta mäntytukkien sahauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4768. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14553
English title: Influence of some log defects in sawing of pine logs.
Original keywords: mänty; sahatavara; sahatukit; vikaisuus; sahaus; tukit; laatuluokat
English keywords: yield; logs; Scots pine; sawing; quality grading; sawn goods; sawmills; defects; saw timber
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present paper presents studies on the influence of some relatively common defects of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland on both the sawing yield and on the quality of the sawn goods. The study was based on test sawing of 25 logs for each of the defects (upright limb, heart shake and various kinds of wounds and scars) at Karihaara sawmill. The yield was graded into grades used for export timber according to the system of the sawmill. The proportion of the different export grades (U/S), fifths, sixths and culls) were used as characteristics together with the ratio of raw-wood consumption expressed as cu.ft/std.

Upright limbs occurring in a piece of sawn timber was shown to lower its quality to fifth grade in 43.5%, to sixth grade in 46.8% and to the category of culls in 6.5% of all cases. Only 3.2% of the cases the piece remained in U/S-grades. The size of the upright limb was the most important factor lowering the quality and affecting the ratio of raw-wood consumption.

Heart shakes are relatively common defects in pine logs deriving from over-mature trees. The quality-decreasing influence on the sawing yield depends clearly on the length of the shake in the cross-section. The same characteristics also decreases the ratio of raw-wood consumption. In addition, twisting and star shakes are considerably more harmful than straight ones. If rot occurs in connection with shakes, the places marred by the shakes are only capable of yielding sixth-grade sawn goods or culls.

Scar encountered in logs affect the sawn yield and its quality to quite a varying degree, but these defects themselves may also vary considerably both in size and quality. The length of the scar is highly significant as a quality-decreasing factor. If, in addition, rot is encountered, the defect is of a severe nature.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4764, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1968). Istutusajankohdan vaikutus männyn istutuksen onnistumiseen ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4764. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14549
English title: The effect of the date of planting on the survival of Scots pine on drained open peatlands in Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; metsitys; ojitusalueet; turvekankaat; istutusaika; avosuot; syysistutus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; afforestation; drained peatlands; Scots pine; planting; time of planting; autumn planting; open peatlands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Due to mechanization of draining of peatlands, also open peatlands have been included in the draining projects due to technical reasons. Some research has been published on afforestation of open drained peatlands, but there is yet no experiments that reaches the entire development of the stands. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibility of extending the planting season of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) over the entire growing season in drained peatlands, where the water condition of the site is probably not the factor limiting forest development. An open low-sedge swamps in Southern Finland were planted in early summer and two weeks in midsummer in 1967.

In the light of the results, planting Scots pine would seem possible in drained peatlands throughout the growing season. However, plants may suffer considerably from lifting for the plantation in August. The success of planting at the turn of September and October is also uncertain. The nursery must be situated close to the areas to be planted, since the transportation and handling of plants during the growing season must be carried out with extreme care. The seasonality of planting work could be decreased by extending the planting season. In the future, several transplant storing methods should be tried out in connection with similar planting-time experiments.

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  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4756, category Article
Bo Eklund. (1967). Annual variation of increment in Scots pine and Norway spruce in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4756. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14540
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; läpimitan kasvu; vuosilustot; vuosikasvu; kasvun vaihtelu; kasvuindeksi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; diameter growth; annual rings; annual growth; annual ring index series
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This lecture discusses the problem of the annual variation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), and its significance. A newly constructed instrument for field measurements of diameter growth is described, also the latest of the Royal College of Forestry’s series of machines for annual ring measurement. The method of constructing an annual ring index is also mentioned.

Examination of material from undisturbed stands in Northern Sweden has shown that the annual ring index series for pine are characterised by a relatively marked autocorrelation, which increases with latitude, implying that the annual ring index for a given calendar year is positively correlated with that for the year immediately preceding it. However, this seems not to be so in spruce, in which the annual ring index series is marked by the effect of the changes in cone production from the year to year. The annual ring index for spruce may be expressed in the form of climatic functions, according to which the index can be approximately calculated or known values of the meteorological variables contained in the function, in association with numerical expressions for the cone production. By means of a number of examples illustrating annual ring series from thinned stands. It is shown finally how the response to thinning can be presented in a more essential form from the variation in the annual rings, and how climatically corrected increment can be determined.

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  • Eklund, E-mail: be@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4754, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1967). Havaintoja erään hoidetun männikön tuulisuhteista. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4754. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14538
English title: Observations on wind conditions in a managed Scots pine stand.
Original keywords: mänty; tuulisuus; metsikkö; pienilmasto; lämpötila; tuuli
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; wind; Scots pine; temperature; wind velocity; wind conditions; stand climate; microclimate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An explorative study on wind conditions in a well-managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand was made in Southern Finland. The wind velocity was recorded continually with two cup anomometers from April to August, 1964. The two levels used were 2 m and 9 m. The wind velocity was lower at 2 m than within the canopy at 9 m. The dependence on the absolute wind velocity at 9 metres was logarithmic. The wind velocity did affect the difference between daily minimum temperatures at the two levels; the difference in the maximum temperatures was affected only in May and August.

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  • Leikola, E-mail: ml@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4736, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1967). Hakkuutähteissä elävien hyönteisten käyttömahdollisuuksista hakkuun ajankohdan määrittämisessä. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4736. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14446
English title: Potential in using determination of insect species breeding in the logging residue to estimate the time of the logging.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; korjuuajankohta; hakkuun ajankohta; hakkuutähteet; hyönteiset; kaarnakuoriaiset
English keywords: bark beetles; Norway spruce; insects; Scots pine; logging time; timing of felling; logging residue
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Degree of decomposition of logging residue, and decay in stumps have been used in forest inventories to estimate the time of the felling. In this paper, a method was developed to use insects breeding in the logging residue to determine how long ago the felling took place. The method is based on the arrival and rate of development of the different species of bark beetles that breed in the logging residue.

The most suitable insect species to be used in the purpose of timing the age of logging residue were defined, and their occurrence in different tree species and fellings performed at different times of the year were described. The species can be easily identified by gallery systems characteristic to the species.

It is concluded that the method does not suit for broadleaved species, because there is no common insects suitable for this purpose. Also, the time of swarming of the insects depends on the weather conditions in the spring, which makes it difficult to give definite dateshe progress of the spring has to be taken into account when the occurrence of the insects is used in the determination of the time of the felling. In addition, local conditions, such as shading, affect drying of the branches, and can influence the occurrence of the insects. For Scots pine and Norway spruce the age of the logging residue can be determined precisely only at most two years back.

  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4732, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1966). Sateen jakaantuminen erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 119 article id 4732. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14290
English title: Distribution of rainfall in different types of forest stands.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; koivu; puulajit; sadanta; metsikkösadanta; runkovalunta
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; birch; Betula; Picea abies; Scots pine; tree species; precipitation; throughfall; stem flow
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Stand precipitation and stemflow studies became necessary in connection with hydrologic studies, for instance, to explain the deviations resulting from rains in the ratios between the water content of peat and the groundwater level, throughfall during rains of variable heaviness, and effect of stand treatment on soil moisture level. In this project the distribution of rainfall in stands differing in species composition and density was studied in Central Finland in 1963–1965 in fifteen stand precipitation sample plots. In addition, rain gauges were situated under individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp.) trees.

The average precipitation in the open was 4.8 mm, the corresponding precipitation in the stand was 77% for birch, 71% for pine and 62% for spruce. Measurements of stemflow from individual sample trees showed that less than ¼ mm (about 1.5%) during a 15 mm rain in a pine stand. In the spruce stands stemflow is negligible. A part of the sample plots was in drained peatlands with a dense vegetation of small shrubs. The shrub layer retention was about 10% even during heavy rain. In a small forest clearing, the bordering effect of the forest was seen up to the distance of 5 metres from the edge of the forest. During the period of study, on an average 3% more precipitation was recorded in the clearing than in the open, the difference being probably due to the stronger wind effect in the open.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4731, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Juhani Päivänen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1966). Koetuloksia männyn kylvöstä ja istutuksesta ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. no. 119 article id 4731. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14289
English title: Scots pine seeding and planting on drained peat soils.
Original keywords: kylvö; mänty; istutus; uudistaminen; lannoitus; turvekankaat; ojitetut suot
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; regeneration; Scots pine; planting; sowing; artificial regeneration; seeding
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper describes the preliminary results of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeding and planting trials on drained peat soils.

The results showed that a perpared peat surface was a better surface for seeding than the unprepared one. Planting of 2+1-year seedlings succeeded better than planting 1-year seedlings. Planting on the turf gave better survival than planting on the unprepared soil surface. The whole growing season was suitable time for planting Scots pine seedlings except May when the peat soil under the surface was still frozen.

Using fertilizers in connection with planting was surveyed in two ways. Mortality of seedlings increased when they were top-dressed with NPK fertilizer. Using a so-called spot fertilizing with several combinations of fertilizers resulted in K and N tending to increase the mortality of seedlings, but P decreasing mortality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown
  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown
article id 4727, category Article
Erkki Pulliainen, Kalervo Salonen. (1965). Orava männyn siemen- ja silmutuholaisena. Silva Fennica vol. no. 117 article id 4727. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14285
English title: Damage caused by squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) to pine-buds.
Original keywords: mänty; taimituhot; kasvutappiot; orava; silmut
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; seedling damages; squirrels; Sciurus vulgaris; buds
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

When the seed harvest of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are low, pine and spruce buds are among the secondary food items of squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.) in Finland. In this study, conducted in Nokia in Southern Finland in 1962-1963, eating of pine buds by squirrel is described. The eaten buds in 15-years old Scots pine seedlings were recorded in two seedling stands.

According to the results, the squirrels selected the largest buds of the best seedlings in the studied stands. In over 50% of the cases the squirrels chose only the buds of the leading shoot, especially the terminal bud. In half of the trees, a side bud of the leading shoot continued the growth, which causes form defects in the trees. In 35% of the damaged trees, a lateral branch continued the growth. Well-growing seedling stands may be especially susceptible for damages caused by, for instance, squirrels.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Pulliainen, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
  • Salonen, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown
article id 4703, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1961). Havupuiden taimistojen talvituhosienivauriot ja niiden kemiallinen torjunta. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 108 article id 4703. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9138
English title: Damage by low-temperature parasitic fungi on coniferous nurseries and its chemical control.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; taimet; taimituhot; torjunta-aineet; havupuut; taimitarhat; sienitaudit; talvituhosienet
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; fungicides; seedlings; coniferous seedlings; seedling damages; pathogens; nurseries
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Since 1954 studies have been carried out by the Department of Plant Pathology of Agricultural Research Centre on occurrence of low-temperature parasitic fungi in nurseries in Finland. This paper reports analysis of the damage caused by the fungus to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings.

In Southern and southwestern Finland, scarcely any damage caused by low-temperature parasitic fungi to coniferous seedlings was found. On the other hand, in Central, Eastern and Northern Finland, considerable injuries were present in the seedlings. The extent of damage varies between different localities and in a same location from year to year. The extent of damage is mostly dependent on snow cover which is heaviest in Central and Northern Finland. Damages are largest in wooded areas and in places where snow accumulates abundantly and remains until late in the spring.

The principal cause of winter damage to spruce seedlings is Hepotricia nigra (Hartig) which causes black snow mould. Depending on the amount of infestation, the damage can be limited to scattered groups or consist of large areas of dead seedlings. The fungus is unable to infect the plants during warm months of the growing season. The most damaging parasitic fungus in Scots pine is Phacidium infestans (Karst.) causing snow blight. The infestation varies from reddish-brown patches of infected seedlings to large areas of infected plants. Also, Botrytis cinerea has been determined from one- and two-year plants of pine and spruce.

In trials of chemical control by PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene) gave nearly complete control of low-temperature parasitic fungi in one-year spruce seedlings. In addition, a compound of zineb (Dithane Z-78) gave similar results. Chemical control of the fungi is now common in the nurseries.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Jamalainen, E-mail: ej@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4693, category Article
Martti Nenonen, Juhani Jukola. (1960). Tukkimiehen täin (Hylobius abietis L.) tuhoista mäntytaimistoissa ja niiden torjunnasta DDT :n avulla. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 104 article id 4693. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9132
English title: Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) injuries and their control by DDT in Scots pine seedling stands.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil preparation; Scots pine; planting; Hylobius abietis; insecticides; seedling damages; insect damages; DDT
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out more about pine weevil (Hylobious abietis L.) injuries in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands and their control by means of DDT. For this purpose, inventories were made of seedling stands established earlier. Control experiments were made on burnt areas by planting seedlings dipped in a DDT emulsion.

The results of the inventories show that injuries caused by pine weevils can, in certain circumstances, especially in seedling stands established by planting, cause the complete failure in artificial regeneration. The extent and quality of the injuries vary greatly according to planting method, treatment of the cutting area, age of the seedling stand, environmental factors, and weather conditions. The most extensive injuries occur in regeneration areas of old Norway spruce stands burnt after clear cutting and planted with Scots pine seedlings. Injuries are greater in seedling stands established by planting, especially after broadcast burning, than in seedling stands originating either from artificial or natural seeding. The quality of the patch for sowing or planting has a considerable effect on the quantity and character of the injuries: in a patch from which organic matter has been removed, injuries do not appear or they are slighter. Seedlings can be protected effectively and economically by dipping their tops up to the root collar, in a DDT emulsion before planting.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nenonen, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
  • Jukola, E-mail: jj@mm.unknown
article id 4676, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1958). Eräitä havaintoja keskisuomalaisen ja paikallisen mäntyrodun biologisista ja teknillisistä ominaisuuksista Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 96 article id 4676. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9122
English title: Biological and technical properties of the local Scots pine and proveniences of Central Finland in Northern Finland.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; mänty; Pinus sylvestris; kasvu; alkuperä; tuotos; taudinkestävyys; provenienssi; Keski-Suomi
English keywords: Scots pine; northern Finland; growth; resistance; provenience; pathogen resistance; disease resistance; Central Finland
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out if it is possible to use Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed from Central-Finnish origin in Northern Finland to supplement supply of local seeds. The principle has been to limit transfer of seeds to 200 km. According to this study, it seems possible to permit 300-400 km transfer of seeds at the same height above the sea level, not including the timber line area.

The author’s observations indicate that the trees originating from seeds of Central Finland at 20-35 years age withstand damage caused by snow and pine blister rust as well as the local provenience. However, the seedlings seem to be more susceptible to snow blight. Spraying of 2-3% sulphurated lime in the autumn before the arrival of snow proved to be most effective way to prevent the damage.

Southern proveniences have been found to grow faster than the local proveniences in Northern Finland. The stands of Tuomarniemi (Central Finland) and Rovaniemi (Northern Finland) provenances had no distinct difference in the summerwood percentage, and the volume weight of the Tuomarniemi provenience was higher than the weight of the provenience of Rovaniemi. The Tuomarniemi stand also gave largest yield, but the difference was probably due to partly at age difference of the sample trees. The naturally regenerated local provenance showed the greatest volume weight.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, E-mail: gs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4649, category Article
E. A. Jamalainen. (1956). Männyn karisteen torjunta kemiallisilla aineilla Leksvallin taimitarhassa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 88 article id 4649. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9110
English title: The control of needle cast of Scots pine with chemicals at the Leksvall nursery.
Original keywords: mänty; Pinus sylvestris; taimitarha; torjunta-aineet; männynkariste; männynharjakka; karisteet; sienitauti; Lophodermium; Peridermium pinastri; fungisidit
English keywords: Scots pine; fungicides; fungi; needle cast; pathogenic fungi; pathogen
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In 1953 and 1954 needle cast (Peridermium pinastri (Shrad.) Chev., now Lophodermium) caused much damage at the Leksvall nursery at Tammisaari as well as at some other nurseries in Southern Finland.

Experiments were conducted at the Leksvall nursery with different fungicides. The results showed that with spraying done every second week during the whole growing season beginning on May 20th and ending on 27th September in 1954, the damage caused by needle cast was entirely controlled with 2% Bordeaux mixture and the zineb preparation (Dithane Z-78); nabam preparation (Dithane D-14) being somewhat less effective. Lime sulphur, Burgundy mixture, thiram preparation, captan preparation, and PCNB preparation were rather ineffective, in addition, of these the lime sulphur and the Burgundy mixture caused damage to the needles. Phenylmercury preparation proved useless.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Jamalainen, E-mail: ej@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4648, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1955). Männyn kylvötaimistojen hirvivahingoista Pohjanmaalla. Silva Fennica vol. no. 88 article id 4648. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9111
English title: Elk damage in seedling stands of Scots pine in Ostrobothnia.
Original keywords: mänty; Pinus sylvestris; taimituhot; hirvi; hirvituhot; Alces alces; Pohjanmaa; kylvötaimikot
English keywords: Scots pine; moose; seedling stands; seeding; elk; seedling damages; elk damages
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article reviews the occurrence of damage causes by elk (Alces alces L.) in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands established by direct seeding in the Ostrobothia region in Finland. The data was collected by random sampling, and consists of 110 sample plots in pine stands, established in 1930-1944.

Signs of elk damages could be observed in 20% of the stands. In more than half of the damaged stands pine seedlings were damaged by elk, on the rest of the stands the damage was targeted to hardwood saplings only. With the present density of elk population, the damage has an insignificant bearing upon the development of pine seedling stands in Ostrobothnia. The weaknesses of silvicultural state of the stands have been caused by other factors than elk.

Silviculturally weak stands were more liable to elk damage than strong ones. The occurrence of elk damage was more usual in stands with hardwood mixture than in pure pine stands. Especially goat willow, mountain ash and aspen, but also to some decree birch, seem to attract elk. Those factors that promote hardwood growth: fertility of the site, swampiness and the presence of seeding hardwoods in the area, increase the stand’s liability to elk damage.

The article includes an abstract in English and a summary in Swedish.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4647, category Article
Pekka Sainio. (1955). Hirven talvisesta ravinnosta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 88 article id 4647. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9109
English title: Winter nutrition of elk.
Original keywords: paju; metsätuhot; mänty; koivu; hirvi; taimikkotuhot; talviravinto; hirvituhot
English keywords: Scots pine; seedling damage; Alces alces; nutrition; moose; forest damage; elk; elk damage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Increase in the elk (Alces alces L.) population and the problems of its grazing has called for detailed research. The present study concentrated on three observation areas representing northern, western and eastern parts of Finland. There were 28 field observers watching 68 elks.

Earlier investigations in Finland indicate that aspen (Populus tremula L.) is the staple diet of elk. This study reached different conclusions, probably largely because of aspen is gradually becoming an increasingly rare tree species in Finland. According to this study, the principal food of elk in the winter is willow (Salix sp.). In the whole country, willow accounts for about 70% of elk’s nutrition. In the Far North the percentage is approx. 90. Of the other tree species, the order of preference is: aspen, Scots pine, mountain ash, juniper and birch. In addition, in Western Finland where snow is less deep, lingonberry and blueberry shrubs are on the menu. Beard moss on the spruce was frequently eaten locally. Elk seems to have eaten mainly the last annual shoot of trees and bushes. In few cases it has gnawed the bark of Scots pine, aspen and willow. Elk consumes in average 340 twigs or terminal shoots per day in the winter. This corresponds to about 1.8 kg of food.

The problem of elks damaging Scots pine seedlings has been observed in Western Finland, were the elk population is higher. The article suggests that suitable feeding places would be left for elk in places that are unsuitable for agriculture or forestry. Leaving, for instance, birch seedlings in Scots pine stands has been noticed to attract elks and to increase the damage to pine.

The article includes an abstract in English and a summary in Swedish.

  • Sainio, E-mail: ps@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4628, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1952). Havaintoja Peräpohjolan valtion mailla vuosina 1948-50 suoritetuista männyn kylvöistä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 78 article id 4628. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9100
English title: Observations on stands of Scots pine sown in state forests in Peräpohjola in northern Finland in 1948-50.
Original keywords: Pohjois-Suomi; valtionmetsät; kylvö; mänty; metsänviljely; Peräpohjola; uudistuminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; Scots pine; northern Finland; state forests; sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The most common way to artificially regenerate cutting areas in Northern Finland has been sowing, which has, however, often given poor results. The aim of the study was to assess the success rate of sowing and study the causes of poor regeneration.

An inventory was made of 28 areas on Empetrum-Myrtillus and Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type sites sown with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds in 1948-1950. In addition, to study the effect of substrata, a sowing experiment was established. According to the inventory, regeneration failed completely in 8 and partially in 6 of the 28 sown areas. Factors that explained the poor regeneration included unfavourable weather conditions in 1948-1952, insufficient clearing of sowing spot especially when the humus layer was thick, and insect damage by Otiorynchus dubius weevil.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, E-mail: gs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4613, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Mäntysahatukkien laatuarvioinnin tarkkuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4613. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14009
English title: Accuracy of quality grading of Scots pine saw logs.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; mänty; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; puukauppa; jatkokoulutus; sahatukit; laatuluokitus; mäntytukki
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; saw logs; forest education; quality grading; quality classes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses accuracy of the quality grading of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs suggested by professor Ilmari Vuoristo based on a data collected by Valtiala. According to the study, greatest inaccuracies in the grading by visual inspection was caused by differences between the evaluators.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4612, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1951). Mäntysahatukkien laadun mukaisista arvosuhteista. Silva Fennica vol. no. 69 article id 4612. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14008
English title: Value grading of Scots pine saw logs.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; mänty; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; sahatavara; jatkokoulutus; sahatukit; laatuluokitus; hinnoittelu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; saw logs; sawn timber; forest education; quality grading; sawn wood; timber grading
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Quality grading has been rarely used in pricing of saw logs due to lack of knowledge on how the quality of logs affects the value of the sawn wood. This presentation discusses the subject based on unpublished data professor Ilmari Vuoristo collected in 1930s on effects of timber grading on the quality and value of sawn wood. The quality classification developed by professor Vuoristo is presented.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4600, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1950). Vertailevia havaintoja hoidettujen ja luonnontilaisten männiköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. no. 68 article id 4600. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9091
English title: Comparative study on structure and development of managed and natural Scots pine stands.
Original keywords: hakkuut; mänty; Pinus sylvestris; harvennushakkuu; kasvupaikkatyyppi; harvennus; luonnometsä; alaharvennus; läpimitan kasvu; tilavuuskasvu; latvuskerros
English keywords: natural forest; Scots pine; thinnings; diameter growth; fellings; increment; thinning from below; forest type; crown storey; tree classification
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Forest Research Institute of Finland has established permanent sample plots to survey the effect of thinnings on the stands. This study compares the development of tended and natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on three different forest types: Oxalis-Myrtillus, Vaccinium and Calluna site type. The effect of heavy thinning from below (Oxalis-Myrtillus and Vaccinium site types) and increment felling (Calluna site type) was assessed by dividing the trees of the stands in tree classification classes according to their crown storey and defects.

The results show that thinning from below and increment thinning increase the proportion of trees in the 1st crown storey, which is already large in the natural stands. Also the diameter distribution is more even and the mean diameter higher after the thinnings.

In Scots pine stands in natural state, volume increment per stem is highest in the 1st crown storey and diminishes strongly towards the lower crown storeys. Thinnings increased the increment. The study indicates that many of the objectives of the intermediate cuttings, including promoting the growth of the best trees and improving the quality of the stand, have in general been achieved. Consequently, the thinnings give means to achieve the most valuable yield in the stand.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4579, category Article
Reino Kalliola. (1942). Pyhätunturin kansallispuiston kasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica vol. no. 59 article id 4579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9083
English title: Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National Park.
Original keywords: luonnonsuojelualue; kuusi; kasvillisuus; mänty; kasvillisuuskartoitus; Lappi; kansallispuisto; Pyhätunturi; puuraja; tunturikoivu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; vegetation; Scots pine; Lapland; nature reserve; national park; Pyhätunturi; vegetation survey; vascular plant; fell birch; Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii); timber line
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is based on the writer’s visits in the area in 1933 and 1939. Pyhätunturi national park was established in 1938. The fell of Pyhätunturi rises up to 540 meters above the sea level, and 357 meters above the surrounding area. The soil is predominantly stony, and the rock is quartzite. The climate is continental with low rainfall. This results in a barren area, where array of plant species is limited with the exception of few gorges with fertile river valleys. The forests have remained mostly in natural state.

Vegetation is arranged in three zones: forested area, subalpine fell birch area and alpine bare top of the fell. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forms timberline more often than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Coniferous forests rise up to 365 meters on the northern slopes and up to about 385 on the southern slopes of the fell. It is followed by fell birch zone (Betula tortuosa, now Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii) up to about 450-475 meters on the eastern and northern slopes, and 475-490 meters on the western slopes. The most common forest site type is Empetrum-Myrtillus site type. Herb-rich spruce swamps along the rivers have highest diversity of species. The article describes the plant species found in forests, peatlands, fell birch zone and top of the fell in detail. In all 162 different vascular plant species and 16 non-indigenous species were found in the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Kalliola, E-mail: rk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4479, category Article
L. E. T. Borg. (1936). Hankikylvöt Tuomarniemen hoitoalueessa vv. 1913-1930. Silva Fennica vol. no. 38 article id 4479. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9065
English title: Areas broadcast sown on snow in Tuomarniemi district in Finland in 1913-1930.
Original keywords: kuusi; Picea abies; kylvö; euroopanlehtikuusi; kylvömenetelmät; hankikylvö; Larix decidua; mänty; metsänviljely; Pinus sylvestris
English keywords: Norway spruce; sowing; broadcast sowing on snow; Socts pine; artificial regeneration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Broadcast sowing on snow was relatively new method in the beginning of the 20th century in Finland, and the experiences of regeneration were diverse. The aim of the survey was to study the success rate of regeneration in the oldest and largest areas regenerated with this sowing method in Tuomarniemi district. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was the most common tree species, but also Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) were used in broadcast sowing on snow.

According to the study, the success of broadcast sowing on snow was as good as patch sowing and sowing in furrows in the sites typical for Tuomarniemi. The regeneration areas were often drained peatlands or paludified lands. When sowing is done using Norway spruce seeds, site preparation either by broadcast burning or scalping with hoe is recommended. Mixed sowing with pine and spruce seldom succeeded due to the differences in site requirements of the species and growth of seedlings. Sowing of Scots pine succeeded well on the drained peatlands. Sowing should be done some years after draining to let the peat dry and sink. Site preparation is needed in sites growing Polytrichum-moss. Broadcast burned areas larger than 10 hectares seemed to regenerate poorer than sites in average, possibly due to dryness of the sites. Trials with European larch were successful, and the growth of the seedlings acceptable despite the sites being relatively poor for the species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Borg, E-mail: lb@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7170, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1967). Luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kehityksestä Kainuussa ja sen lähiympäristössä. Silva Fennica vol. 81 no. 5 article id 7170. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7170
English title: The development of natural normal forest stands in southeastern Northern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsätyypit; mänty; kasvu; tuotos; luonnonnormaalit metsät; Kainuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; yield; Scots pine; northern Finland; growth; forest types; natural stands; natural normal stands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Examination of stands developed under natural conditions can be used to provide basis for comparison for study of the development and yield of stands treated with intermediate fellings. In Finland, the first investigation and the yield and the structure of natural normal stands were published in 1920. This investigation on development and yield of the natural forests of Kainuu in southeastern Northern Finland is based on 92 sample plots on three forest types; Empetrum-Vaccinium type (EVT), Empetrum-Calluna type (ECT) and Vaccinium-Myrtillus type (VMT).

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots represented variation of age classes for construction of mean development series. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) of the region are so old that development series could be obtained only for dominant trees based on stem analysis.

The average development of Scots pine stand on EMT type within the region is on average more rapid and the yield in cubic volume quantitatively larger and structurally better than that on ECT type. Self-thinning during the early decades of EVT is slower. The pine stands are denser in the age of 70 in Kainuu compared to Central Northern Finland, but the development and yield are similar.

The development, yield and structure of natural Norway spruce stand on VMT proved considerably inferior to the average level of pine stands on EVT, and to a major part on ECT. The mixed pines on spruce sample plots have developed better than spruces of equal age. Spruce stands on VMT in the area developed markedly better than Geranium-Dryopteris-Myrtillus (GDMT) in Central Northern Finland.

It seems that a spruce stand seems to require more fertile site type in north than in the southern part of Finland. These fertile types are relative rare in the north. In the region, the best results are received with pine. As a rule, also the yield of birch (Betula sp.) is poor in the region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, E-mail: yi@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7164, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1965). Puiden paksuuden ja nuoruuden kehityksen sekä oksaisuuden ja sahapuulaadun välisistä suhteista männiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 80 no. 2 article id 7164. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7164
English title: Relation between the development of the early age and thickness of trees and their branchiness in Scots pine stands in Finland.
Original keywords: tiheys; mänty; laatupuu; tyvitukki; oksaisuus; kasvatustiheys; laatukasvatus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; density; quality; stand density; branchiness; knottiness; butt log; quality timber
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of the study was to establish the influence of the founding density of a stand and the intensity of intermediate cutting on the quality of pine saw logs stems, primarily on their branchiness. Measurements were carried out in 68 Myrtillus-type and 32 Vaccinium-type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The quality of 1,982 sample trees was assessed.

According to the results, the branchless part of the stem is longest in the older age classes of trees. In all age classes the percentage of the branchless part is highest in medium sized stems. The relative height of the crown limit is greatest in small diameter classes and continues as the thickness of the tree increases. The crown is longer in the thicker tree. The grade of the butt log is on average highest in medium sized stems. Knottiness of a log made it unsuitable for a saw log only among the thickest stems. The relative share of the u/s grade decreased as the thickness of the trees increased.

From the point of view of early development of the trees it was concluded that in all age classes the branchless part is the shorter the faster the tree has grown in diameter when it was young. Also, branches of the butt log are the bigger the faster the tree has developed when it was young. The grade of the butt log improves as the thickness of the annual rings diminishes.

To produce good quality sawn timber, the pine stands should be established dense, and the first thinnings should be delayed as much as possible. The best time for the thinning would be when the diameter of the dominant trees at stump height is 12–15 cm and when all the branches have died on the length of the butt log. After the first thinning, comparatively intense intermediate thinning may be applied.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: vh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7160, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1965). Studies on the ectendotrophic mycorrhiza of Scots pine in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 79 no. 2 article id 7160. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7160
Original keywords: mänty; taimet; mykorritsa; ektendomykorritsa; esiintyminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Finland; mycorrhiza; seedlings; tree nurseries
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The differences between different types of mycorrhiza; endomycorrhiza, ectomycorrhiza and ectendomycorrhiza, and the use of the terms have been variable in the earlier research. Studied of mycorrhiza in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings may suggest that the conditions affect which kind of mycorrhiza develops in the seedlings. This study is aimed mainly at finding out whether the difference of ectotrophic and ectendotrophic mycorrhizae depends on fungal symbionts or envirionmental conditions. Furthermore, the occurrence of ectendotrophic mycorrhiza in Finland under various conditions was studied, and experiments on the physiology and ecology of the mycorrhiza and the fungal partner were conducted.

The ectendotrophic mycorrhiza as described in this paper has proved to be very common on Scots pine in Finnish nurseries, but it was not found in Norway spruce seedlings. The results did not support the hypothesis presented in some earlier studies that ectendotrophic mycorrhiza is more parasitic than the other mycorrhizal fungi. The nursery survey showed that no correlation existed between the size and vigour of the seedlings and the presence of ectendotrophic mycorrhiza. Furthermore, greenhouse-grown seedlings with and without the fungus grew equally well. The type of mycorrhiza was, however, almost exclusively confined to young (1–3-years-old) seedlings and to nursery soils. The experiments indicates also that ectendomycorrhizal fungus has a very wide ecological amplitude in regard to light intensity, soil fertility, acidity, and humus content. It has, however, a weak competitive ability in natural forest soils against the indigenous fungal population. When the seedlings were transplanted from the nursery to forest soil, their mycorrhizal population was largely changed.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7158, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1965). Männyn- ja kuusenkäpyjen varastoinnin vaikutus niistä saatavan siemenen itävyyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 78 no. 5 article id 7158. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7158
English title: The effects of storage in cones on the viability of pine and spruce seeds.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; itävyys; kävyt; siemenkeräys; käpyjen varastointi; metsäpuiden siemenet; siementen varastointi; karistus; itämiskyky
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; cones; seeds of forest trees; seed extraction; storage of cones; storage of seeds; germinative capacity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seed storing experiments with cones of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were conducted in Oitti seed extracting plant in Southern Finland from February to December 1955. The pine cones were stores for 267 and the spruce coned for 304 days. In four of the storage methods the cones were packed in sacks and another four in wooden boxes. Sample of cones were taken once a month, seeds were extracted and the germinative capacity was tested. The remaining extracted seeds were placed in storage, and in January 1956 moved to cold seed cellar until 1962, when the viability of the seeds was tested.

According to the results, cleaned pine cones can be stores for at least nine months using almost all methods of storage which are commonly used at our seed traction plants, without hazarding the usability of the seeds. The seeds in spruce cones, however, seemed to be more sensitive to conditions during the storage. The germinative capacity of the spruce seeds began to decrease after the beginning of May. Later the seeds were infected with mould, which increased towards the end of the experiment.

Thus, preservation of the germinative capacity of the seeds of pine and spruce requires storage in different conditions. The results suggest that extraction of spruce seeds should be finished during the cold winter months. It seems that seed in the cones of pine and spruce endure storage in piles of paper or cloth sacks at least as well as in wooden boxes. Occasional warming of the storage, snow and foreign material among the cones and an over meter thick cone layer decreased the germinative capacity of spruce seeds during spring and summer. Spruce seeds that had been extracted immediately after collecting of the cones preserved their germinative capacity well during an eight years storage period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Huuri, E-mail: oh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7156, category Article
Tauno Kallio. (1965). Tutkimuksia maannousemasienen leviämisbiologiasta ja torjuntamahdollisuuksista Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 78 no. 3 article id 7156. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7156
English title: Studies on the biology of distribution and possibilities to control Fomes annosus in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; juurikääpä; torjunta; kannot; ilmalevintä; itiöt
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; stumps; Scots pine; Heterobasidion annosum; root rot; fungicides; prevention; fungal pathogens; aerial infection
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this investigation was to clarify aerial infection of Fomes annosus (now Heterbasision annosum) in the cross-sections of stumps of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Southern Finland. In addition, an attempt was made to study possibilities to reduce an eventual aerial infection by means of spreading various protecting substances on the cross-section of the stumps immediately after cutting. The stumps were treated withs creosote, ceruse (lead white) and a product named ”Ventti”, which active constituent is copper. The effect of prescribed burning of the site on the aerial spreading of the fungus was studied.

Five sample plots were located in spruce stands and one in a pine stand. One of the spruce stands was prescribed burned. Samples were taken from the stumps 14–17 and 24–29 months after cutting. To identify the fungi, the samples were cultivated on a nutrient substrate in laboratory conditions. The results show that Heterobasidion annosum had spread by air to cross-sections of stumps of spruce. 11.5% of the samples taken from the spruce stumps 14–17 months and 17% of samples taken 24–29 months after cutting were infected. Burning of the site reduced strongly the aerial infection of stumps by the fungus. The stumps of Scots pine were not infected by Heterobasidion annosum in this study. The infection could be limited by treating the cross-sections with substances that are used to prevent growth of mould.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7148, category Article
Maunu Seppänen. (1964). Vesisateen jakautumisesta männiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 76 no. 8 article id 7148. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7148
English title: Distribution of rainfall in the Scots pine stand in Central Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; metsikkösadanta; runkovalunta; haihdunta; vesisade
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; precipitation; stemflow; throughfall; rainfall
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Distribution of rainfall in in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand and in an open place in Alajärvi in Central Finland was studies in 1959–1960. Density of the about 80 years old stand was 0.36 and the height of the trees 8–14 m. The dependence of throughfall and dependence of stemflow on 24-hour precipitation, and dependence of the distribution of 24-hour precipitation on the amount and nature of precipitation was calculated.

The precipitation of the crown of the forest depended on the rainfall. When the rainfall in the open place was over 7 mm, the rainfall within the forest was in average 89% of the rainfall in the open place, but if the rainfall in the open place was less than 1 mm, the rainfall within the forest was only 64% of that in the open place. Total stemflow in the pine stand was only 0.4%, and interception loss was 13.6%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppänen, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7135, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1961). Kokeellisia tutkimuksia taimien syntymisestä ja ensi kehityksestä kuusikoissa ja männiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 75 no. 1 article id 7135. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7135
English title: Experimental studies on the emergence and development of tree seedlings in spruce and pine stands.
Original keywords: kuusi; kylvö; mänty; taimettuminen; uudistuminen; uudistaminen; itäminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; germination; regeneration; Scots pine; seedlings; sowing; seeding; restocking with seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper aims at studying regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing and natural regeneration of birch (Betula sp.) in Western Finland.

Germination of spruce and pine seeds may be prevented by dryness and temperatures below the optimum for germination. In natural conditions, when temperature and moisture is insufficient for germination, the type of seedbed generally has en effect on germination result. Trenching of the seeding spots showed that root competition during the early stage of regeneration was not of decissive importance. It seemed to, however, improve the preservation of the seedlings later. It is common that it can take long before the seeds germinate, and during that time the number of viable seeds decrease strongly.

Also, the seedling stock quickly began to decrease in number after germination, especially during the first growing season and the following winter. The decrease was larger in intact vegetation than on mineral soil or in the humus layer. The emerging seedlings were destroyed by drought very easily, but their tolerance to drought improved later on.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7130, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1961). Tutkimuksia männyn kylvöalojen metsittymisvaiheesta. Silva Fennica vol. 74 no. 3 article id 7130. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7130
English title: Studies on the development of young sown pine stands in Central Finland.
Original keywords: kylvö; mänty; taimikko; uudistaminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; Scots pine; seedling stand; sowing; seeding
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In this paper the development of sown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands into forests is studied. The material was collected in stands sown in 1930–1940 in private forests in the Forestry Board districts of Central and Northern Ostrobothnia. The 119 areas, including both burned and other areas, were studied in 1955.

Most seedings had been carried out on relatively poor soils, mostly representing Vaccinium and Calluna type forests. 71% of the areas consisted of large forest fires, mostly from 1933. The most burned areas did not have seed producing trees nearby. The other sown areas were in general small, 1–2 ha, and near forests capable of producing seeds. The species of previous tree generation, in the older areas mostly pine and in the younger areas Norway spruce, affected tree species composition of the new tree generation.

Over 90% of the burned areas were in silviculturally good or satisfactory condition, while the main part of the other sown stands was in fair or poor condition. Weeding and thinning had been done only in the oldest stands. Most stands had been left untended. Natural new trees often competed with the sown pines, and cull-trees and border forest increased natural regeneration in the areas. In Calluna type the poor soil limited regeneration and growth of broadleaf trees. The worst competitors were naturally regenerated pine seedlings both on Calluna and Vaccinium type. On Vaccinium type also birch and sometimes also aspen (Populus tremula L.) competed with sown pine. On better sites and paludified areas competition by broadleaf trees increased. The rhythm of development of broadleaved trees is so different from pine that only those broadleaved trees that are formed in the stand when the pine seedlings are larger can develop harmoniously with pine. Due to the harmful competition, the seedling stands should be tended early on. In addition, it may be advisable to abandon the practise to leave trees on sowing areas.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7119, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1960). Eräistä ojitetuilla soilla kasvavan puun fysikaalisista ominaisuuksista. Silva Fennica vol. 72 no. 2 article id 7119. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7119
English title: Physical properties of wood growing on drained peatlands.
Original keywords: kuusi; ojitus; mänty; puun laatu; turvekankaat; rauduskoivu; hieskoivu; puuaine; lujuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Betula pendula; Picea abies; Betula pubescens; drained peatlands; Scots pine; wood; mechanical strength
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The objective of the investigation was to determine the differences between faultless timber grown on a peatland before and after draining, in respect of compressive strength to the grain, volume weight, and shrinkage. In addition, the influence of the boundary zone between the close-ringed wood formed before draining and the wide-ringed wood produced after draining on strength of the timber was studied. The material consisted of 15 sample trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and silver birch (B. Pendula Roth).

The volume weight of wood of the tree species in ascending order is; spruce, pine, white birch, silver birch. The volume weight of Scots pine seems to decrease from the butt end upwards, while no trend was revealed for spruce. In the coniferous trees, the wide-ringed wood formed subsequent to draining was slightly lighter than the close-ringed wood produced prior draining. No distinct trend was seen in the birch species. The volume weight of pine and spruce increased with decreasing width of the growth rings up to a certain limit, after which the conditions inverted.

The compressive strength of the different kinds of wood seems to increase from the butt end upwards, but after height of two meters it begins to decrease considerably. In birch, this point of inversion is in somewhat greater height. In spruce timber, the compressive strength parallel to the grain is lowest for wood which contains exclusively wide-ringed wood formed after draining. The boundary zone between the woods formed before and after draining is very distinguishable, but has no remarkable influence on the compressive strength parallel to the grain. Shrinkage of close-ringed wood is higher in all three principal directions than that of wide-ringed wood. This can be explained by the variations in volume weight and fibrillar orientation of the tracheid walls.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, E-mail: po@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7118
English title: Study on reaction wood.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; havupuut; kataja; haapa; reaktiopuu; vetopuu; lujuus; leppä; kutistuminen; lehtipuut; lylypuu; ligniini
English keywords: Populus tremula; Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; compression wood; lignin; mechanical strength; Alnus incana; tension wood; shrinkage; Juniperus communis; raction wood; common juniper
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

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  • Ollinmaa, E-mail: po@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7116, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1960). Metsikön taksatorinen tiheys keskipituuteen ja tiheyteen perustuvassa kuutiomäärän arvioinnissa. Silva Fennica vol. 71 no. 7 article id 7116. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7116
English title: The mensurational density of a stand in estimating the volume on the basis of the mean height and the density class.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; kuutiomäärä; tilavuus; metsikön tilavuus; tilavuuden arviointi; keskitiheys; keskipituus; valtapituus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; growing stock; volume; dominant height; estimation of volume; density class; mean height
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland ocular estimation of the growing stock has been made by means of volume tables based on the mean height and density class, or on the dominant height and density class of the stand. The author has observed that if the volume of a stand is estimated by employment of both tables, the results vary markedly from one another. Furthermore, volume of fully stocked stands in the dominant height tables show an approximate correspondence with the volumes of managed normal stands in Southern Finland.

The purpose of this study is therefore to develop volume tables for coniferous trees, based on the density class and the mean height; these tables should give the same volume for a stand as the dominant height tables.

Volume per hectare of 187 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and 120 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands on different forest types were estimated using the relascope method in Southern Finland. With the volume and the measured mean and dominant heights as a basis, the density classes were extracted from both mean height tables and the dominant height tables. The investigation indicates that the author estimated the dense stands too thinly, and the thin ones too densely, and that the erroneous estimation of the density can be corrected by comparison of the ocular estimations and the corresponding measurements. The density can be measured by means of crown closure, stem number per hectare or the basal area per hectare.

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  • Kallio, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7114, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1960). Metsiköiden routa- ja lumisuhteista. Silva Fennica vol. 71 no. 5 article id 7114. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7114
English title: Snow cover and ground frost in Finnish forests.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; lumipeite; lumi; routa; lehtipuut; kasvuolosuhteet
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; deciduous trees; Picea abies; Scots pine; snow; growth conditions; snow cover; ground frost
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Snow cover and ground frost was studied in 29 forest stands in Southern and Central Finland in 1957–1959. The tree species influenced greatly accumulation of snow on the forest floor. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) retains snow in its crown. In addition, snow and water falling from the branches compress the snow cover under the trees, and the ground freezes deeper because of the shallow snow cover. In the spring, the dense crown prevents rain and radiation reaching the ground, which remains cold longer. However, ground frost may protect spruce, which has a weak root system, from wind damages.

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has similar, but milder, effects on snow cover within the forest. The crowns of pine seedlings and young trees pass snow easily, but later the crowns intercept it considerably. The lower branches are, however, high up and the snow is evenly spread on the ground. The deciduous trees intercept little snow and in the spring the snow smelts and the frozen soil thaws early. The snow conditions of deciduous forests are, however, changed by a spruce undergrowth.

It can be assumed that the unfavourable conditions in spruce forests can be alleviated by thinning. Also, mixture of pine and deciduous trees can transform the conditions more favourable in the spruce stands.

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  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7110, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1959). Suurin kestävä hakkuusuunnite ja sen metsätaloudellinen merkitys. Silva Fennica vol. 71 no. 1 article id 7110. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7110
English title: Largest permanent allowable cut and a method for its calculation.
Original keywords: mänty; hakkuusuunnitelma; metsänarviointi; kasvu; hakkuusuunnite; suurin kestävä hakkuusuunnite; kasvuennuste
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; allowable cut; forest mensuration; increment; largest allowable cut
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the investigation was to study the factors which determine the amount of the largest permanent allowable cut and to work out a method to estimate it. There is a need to have a ’short cut’ formula for rough preliminary estimates. The preliminary estimates will be checked by stock development forecasts. The largest allowable cut and its sustained basis are only guaranteed by a forecast through a period during which all the present tree stands have reached maturity and exploited.

Estimations of the largest permanent allowable cut are based on the data of the present and desirable growing stock. The present stock was a growing stock of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated stands on Vaccinium type forests in Southern Finland. The connected Austrian formula is a simple way for preliminary estimation of the largest cut but its sustained basis must be checked by a stock development forecast.

In a stock development forecast the future increment and cut are calculated. For this purpose, the average site quality, tree species, age class and average volume in each class seem to be sufficient variables. The forecast is carried out within the limiting data of the present and desirable stock.

If there is an abundance of mature and over-mature stands, the largest permanent allowable cut is greater than the present increment, provided, however, that bulk of the cut is drawn by determined generation measures. Measured in solid cubic meters, the sustained cut from the Southern Finnish pine stock exceeds the present increment by 11%. With regard to the sustained saw timber production the cut can exceed the present increment by 5–7%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7486, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1959). Siemensiipien hankaajista ja niiden vaikutuksesta siemenen itävyyteen. Silva Fennica vol. 68 no. 4 article id 7486. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7486
English title: On machines for abrading seed wings and their influence on the germinative capacity of the seed.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; laitteet; metsäpuiden siemenet; karistamot; siemensiivet; siemensiipien hankaajat
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Socts pine; seeds of forest trees; seed extraction; seed wings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper deals with two machines designed for abrading seed wings, and their influence on the germinative capacity of seed of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Both machines are commonly used in Finland.

The results of the study indicate that the act of abrading may cause slight or even serious injuries to the seed. Slight injuries of about 3% are probably not easily avoided if mechanical abrading is resorted to. It must be noted, however, that even this reduction in germinative capacity causes significant yearly loss. If the reduction in germinative capacity is greater, which seems to be possible, it is advisable to test the mechanism of the machine and its method of abrading. As the clearance of the machines can affect the extent of injuries, all machines should be tested. If possible, a continual operation control should be arranged. It could, at the same time, to supply material for improving the abrading method and equipment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7478, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1958). Tutkimuksia ojitettujen turvemaiden kulotuksesta. Silva Fennica vol. 67 no. 4 article id 7478. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7478
English title: Studies on prescribed burning of drained peatlands.
Original keywords: mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; kulotus; suot; pintakasvillisuus; turvemaat; uudistaminen; turvekankaat; vesaikko
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; natural regeneration; drained peatlands; Scots pine; coppice; peatlands; ground vegetation; prescribed burning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Prescribed burning has been used to treat the mineral soil sites, but the method has been little used in drained peatlands. The course and methods of prescribed burning in drained peatlands, and the effect of burning on sprouting of broadleaved trees, growth of ground vegetation and regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing was studied in drained pine bogs in Southern Finland. The top layer of the peat was mostly Sphagnum peat. The material included a prescribed burned 12 ha drained peatland area in Tuomarniemi district, in addition to which ten previously burned areas were investigated.

The burning had succeeded mostly well, but also unsuccessfully burned sites were observed. Estinguishing of the fire was easy, and no peat fires occurred. The fire burned only the logging residue, ground vegetation and the dry top layer of the peat. The roots of brushwood and grasses survived in the peat that insulated the top layer from the heat. For instance, the abundance of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) increased after the fire. Similarly, burning did not affect sprouting of the stumps of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). It cannot thus be used as a method to restrict the growth of coppice in regenerated areas. The seeds of Scots pine germinated well on the burned surface. 46% of the seeds developed to seedlings on sphagnum-shrub vegetation and 16% in feathermoss-shrub vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7476, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1958). Sekametsiköiden juuristoista ojitetulla suolla. Silva Fennica vol. 67 no. 2 article id 7476. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7476
English title: Root systems of mixed forest in drained peatlands.
Original keywords: kuusi; ojitus; mänty; juuristo; koivu; turvekangas; mykorritsa; sekametsikkö
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; birch; Picea abies; drained peatlands; Scots pine; peatlands; mixed forests; mycorrhiza; Betula sp.; draining; root system; roots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Draining transforms root systems of trees growing in peatlands towards the ones growing on mineral soil. However, even after efficient draining the root systems differ from the root systems of trees growing on mineral soil. This investigation concentrates on root systems of forests of similar mire types growing in similar draining conditions but having different tree species compositions. The peatland, situated in Pieksämäki in Southern Finland, was drained in 1937. Sample plots, measured in 1956, consisted of mixed forest of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp.) in different compositions, and were in natural condition.

The sedge pine bog studied in this investigation was shown to have larger total amount of roots and mycorrhiza than in previously studied dwarf shrub pine bogs. This reflects better growth conditions of the better site. The depth of root system was, however, similar. Root systems of birch were deeper than those of the coniferous tree species. Differences between Scots pine and Norway spruce were small. Corresponding differences between the species were found in the density and total number of mycorrhizas. The abundance of mycorrhizas in the roots of birch increased in deeper layers of peat, but decreased especially in spruce roots. In earlier studies the abundance of mycorrhizas decreased in the roots growing in deeper layers in pure Scots pine stands, but no such variation was seen in this study. The result suggest that the deep root system of birch may affect also the root systems of the coniferous trees. On the other hand, birch roots can have advantage over the coniferous trees.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7472, category Article
Jaakko Lehto. (1956). Tutkimuksia männyn luontaisesta uudistumisesta Etelä-Suomen kangasmailla. Silva Fennica vol. 66 no. 2 article id 7472. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7472
English title: Studies on the natural regeneration of Scots pine on the upland soils of Southern Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; taimettuminen; uudistuminen
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; natural regeneration; Scots pine; stocking with seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by leaving a seed tree stand on a cutting area has long been the most popular regeneration method in Finland. Results of the method have, however, been unsatisfactory. The aim of the investigation was to study the basic problems of natural regeneration of Scots pine. Regeneration success was studied in 144 sample plots in pine stands at different stages of regeneration in Southern Finland. In addition, the data included information of 42 previously investigated areas.

According to the results, Scots pine can be successfully regenerated naturally on sandy and gravelly soils in Southern Finland. Preparing the ground surface by breaking or burning considerably facilitates the establishment of a seedling stand. The number of seedlings was considerably lower in the ground vegetation than in the mineral soil. Considering growth of the seedlings, root competition of the mother trees was heavy in dense stands, but insignificant in thin stands. The stand density did not affect germination of the seeds. In regeneration areas proper, where the density of mother trees usually is under 50 per hectare, there was in average 4,700 seedlings per hectare in Calluna type forests and 5,200 in Vaccinium type forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehto, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7466, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1955). Rämemännikön juuriston rakenne ja kuivatuksen vaikutus siihen. Silva Fennica vol. 65 no. 3 article id 7466. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7466
English title: Structure of Scots pine root systems in a pine swamp and effect of draining on the structure.
Original keywords: ojitus; suo; mänty; juuristo; räme; mykorritsa
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; drained peatlands; Scots pine; peatlands; mycorrhiza; root system; pine swamp; pine pog
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The root system of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on a peatland is restricted, according to earlier studies, on the top layers of the peat above the groundwater level. Drainage of the peatland affects growth of the root system. This investigation aims at studying the root systems on the point of view of draining of peatlands. The structure and distribution, and the growth of mycorrhiza in Scots pine roots in pine swamps varying from natural state to well drained state is studied.

The study shows that Scots pine on pine swamps has more extensive root system than has earlier assumed, it is common to find 1,000 m of roots in one cubic meter in a healthy stand. The trees reach this density of roots early on. In a drained peatland, the total root length is markedly higher than in a similar stand in natural state. The root systems proved to be very shallow. Even in a well-drained site the roots did not grow deeper than 20 cm. 70% of all roots were found in the upper 5 cm layer of peat, and 90% in the upper 10 cm layer. Root systems were deeper in drained peatlands, but the difference was small. In a site in natural state the average depth of the roots was 4 cm, and in a drained site 5 cm. About 85% of the roots were under 1 mm of diameter. Short roots were found only in the fine roots. Draining increases strongly the number of short roots. Mycorrhizas of the types A, B, C and D as well as pseudomychorrizas were found in the pine roots.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7440, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1954). Mäntysiemenpuiden ja -puustojen juurisuhteista. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 28 article id 7440. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7440
English title: Root systems of Scots pine seed trees and stands.
Original keywords: mänty; taimettuminen; juuristo; uudistuminen; siemenpuut; juurikilpailu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; natural regeneration; Scots pine; seedlings; seed trees; root system; root competition
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Root systems of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands of seed trees on a Vaccinium sites in Southern Finland were studied by taking soil samples around the seed trees. The results show that root system of an old Scots pine spreads relatively evenly around the tree up to at least 10 meters from the stem. The densest part of the root system is near the stem, which part is often acentric. This is probably due to root competition in the early stages of growth of the tree.

Root systems of the seed trees affect stocking of the site with seedlings and the growth of the seedlings. The root competition can cause, for instance, uneven grouping of the seedlings. It seems that the largest trees of a stand have the most even root system. It is therefore recommended to choose the strongest trees of the stand as seed trees, to ensure even distribution of seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7439, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1954). Rämemänniköiden uudistamisesta paljaaksihakkausta käyttäen. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 27 article id 7439. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7439
English title: Regeneration of Scots pine stands of pine swamps through clear cutting.
Original keywords: männikkö; luontainen uudistuminen; mänty; suot; alikasvos; uudistaminen; räme; turvekangas; avohakkuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; natural regeneration; drained peatlands; Scots pine; peatlands; seedlings; fellings; undergrowth; pine swamps; clear cutting
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Pine swamps are easily regenerated by natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Usually seeding felling is used, but also strip system or clear cutting and regeneration along stand edge has been suggested. This article discusses the regeneration by clear cutting and sparing the existing undergrowth. The article focuses on pine swamps to be drained and the ones in natural state.

Pine swamps in natural state usually have plenty of trees of smaller diameter classes, that can be trusted to form the future tree generation after the felling. This shortens the rotation by 20-30 years. The undergrowth has been shown to recover quickly. The method suits for regeneration of drained peatlands but could fit also for regeneration of pine swamps in natural state.

The seedlings in the pine swamps are mainly 1-5 years old, and the stock is changing. It seems that larger trees produce a wider selection of age groups, but the seedlings survive longer under smaller mother trees. Part of the younger generations of seedlings seem to be destroyed when the peatland is drained. Further studies are needed to investigate how the draining and felling are to be performed to spare the young seedlings.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7432, category Article
Ukko Rummukainen. (1954). Männyn ja kuusen käpysadosta ja sen arvioinnista vuosina 1950-1953. Silva Fennica vol. 61 no. 20 article id 7432. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7432
English title: Estimation of Scots pine and Norway spruce cone crop in 1950-1953.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; käpysato; siemenkeräys; käpykeräys; arviointimenetelmä
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; seed collection; cone crop; cone collection; assessment method
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The cone crop of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) has been assessed in Finland since 1930 annually by sending a questionnaire to forest professionals around the country. Based on the result it is decided if the crop is good enough for collection of the cones next winter. This article presents the results of cone surveys in 1950-1953, and suggest improvements in the method of the investigation.

According to the survey, Scots pine crop was best in 1952, when the crop was intermediate in the whole country, and relatively abundant in the county of Lapland. Norway spruce crop was best in 1951, when the crop was better than in average in the whole country. The evaluators had variable opinions whether the crop was good enough for cone collection or not. They assessed the pine cone collection more often as profitable than the spruce cone collection. Usual reasons to regard spruce cone collection as unprofitable were seed damages and the sites being too far away. To make the results more uniform and accurate, a suggestion to change the evaluation method is presented. The evaluation should be focused on the cone crop of mature stands.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rummukainen, E-mail: ur@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7411, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1954). Hakkauksilla käsiteltyjen männiköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 60 no. 4 article id 7411. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7411
English title: Structure and development of Scots pine stands treated with different cuttings.
Original keywords: hakkuut; mänty; kasvatushakkuu; harvennushakkuu; rakenne; tuotto; harsinta; harsintahakkuu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris<