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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'shrinkage'

Category: Article

article id 5493, category Article
Juha Heiskanen. (1993). Water potential and hydraulic conductivity of peat growth media in containers during drying. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5493.
Keywords: shrinkage; matric potential; perlite; substrates; water availability; containers
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The matric potential and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of peat-based growth media in containers was measured continuously as a function of drying. The particle size distribution and the water retention characteristics of the media were determined from parallel samples. The growth media used were a light, coarse graded Sphagnum peat, a medium graded Sphagnum peat and a mixture of a perlite and the medium graded Sphagnum peat. Containers of two types were packed with the media and allowed to evaporate from saturation. Matric potential was measured automatically using tensiometers during drying.

In both container types, the matric potential of the media was similar down to 10 kPa at each of the three levels measured during drying. Further drying resulted in a large matric potential gradient between the upper and the middle levels. During drying, there was also clear shrinkage of the media. When the matric potential at the upper level reached ca. -80 kPa, the decrease in height of the media was 5–23 %. The estimated hydraulic conductivity of the media during drying was rather similar. The hydraulic conductivity of the peat-perlite mixture was, however, slightly lower than that of the pure peat media. The hydraulic conductivity decreased linearly on a log-log-scale from ca. 10-5 to less than 10-10 m/s as the matric potential decreased from -3 to -60 kPa. The hydraulic conductivity of the media was comparable to coarse sand at matric potentials below -10 kPa. The decrease in hydraulic conductivity during drying and the possible weakening of soil-root contact due to shrinkage may considerably affect the availability of water to plants.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5277, category Article
Kirsi Maasalo. (1986). Pihlajan puuaineen ominaisuuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5277.
English title: Properties of the wood of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia).
Original keywords: puuaines; puuaineen tiheys; taivutuslujuus; puristuslujuus; kutistuminen; kotipihlaja; kuoren tiheys
English keywords: wood properties; bark; basic density; shrinkage; bending strength; compression strength; rowan; Sorbus aucuparia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The basic density of the wood of the rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia L.) is almost the same along the stem but that of the bark is increasing along the stem. The moisture content of the wood and of the bark is increasing along the stem. Its strength in the bending and in the compression is high. The volume shrinkage is high.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Maasalo, E-mail: km@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5238, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1985). Suomalaisen kuusen puuaineen vertailua Keski-Euroopassa kasvaneiden kuusi- ja jalokuusilajien puuaineeseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5238.
English title: Norway spruce wood grown in Finland compared with spruce and fir wood grown in Central Europe.
Original keywords: puutavara; Suomi; kuuset; puuaines; Keski-Eurooppa; lujuus; puuaineen tiheys; vuosiluston paksuus; kutistuminen
English keywords: Norway spruce; wood properties; density; Picea; sawn goods; Abies; shrinkage; width of growth rings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this literature review was to compare Finnish Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) sawn goods to Central European spruce sawn goods which contain fir in some amount. However, it was found that no statistically valid comparisons have been made. Therefore, conclusions have been based mainly on the relationship between various properties and growth rate. According to this analysis, most properties of Finnish spruce are better, although small in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5231, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Michel Marcus. (1985). Shrinkage properties of Norway spruce wood. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5231.
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; wood properties; basic density; volumetric shrinkage; longitudinal shrinkage; dry density
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) boards sawn from outer layers of logs were sampled from a sawmill in Northern Finland and another in Southern Finland. Test pieces 20 mm x 20 mm x 20 mm were selected according to maximum variation in growth ring width. Volumetric and longitudinal shrinkage from a soaked to a dry condition were measured. It was found that wood density correlated positively with the volumetric shrinkage but negatively with the longitudinal shrinkage. Dry density was a better predictor than basic density. With constant density and an increase in growth ring width, there was increased shrinkage, especially in samples from Northern Finland. Besides this, when density was kept constant, the shrinkage was higher in the spruce wood from Southern Finland than from Northern Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Marcus, E-mail: mm@mm.unknown
article id 5161, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1982). Physical properties of peat samples in relation to shrinkage upon drying. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5161.
Keywords: peat; density; bulk density; shrinkage; chemicophysical properties; drying; peat type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study discusses the amount of shrinkage of volumetric undisturbed peat samples when drying to an oven-dry (105°C) condition. The amount of shrinkage is related to various physical properties of peat. In addition, some observations were performed on the shrinkage phenomenon during the drying process. The study results may be used when predicting the shrinkage of peat samples with various peat properties. Knowledge of this kind is particularly important in connection with peat harvesting.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5091, category Article
K. M. Bhat. (1980). Variation in structure and selected properties of Finnish birch wood. I. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5091.
Keywords: birch; Betula pendula; Betula pubescens; density; wood characteristics; wood anatomy; shrinkage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Variation of wood characteristics was studied in two mature trees of Betula pendula Roth and two of B. pubescens Ehrh. by stressing the interrelationships of some of the structural features, basic density and shrinkage. Correlation analysis revealed that basic density was related to some of the variables studied, viz: number of rings (age) and distance from pith, height from the ground, ring width, fibre length and double wall thickness. Multiple regression equation showed that age from pith and height from the ground explained 80% of variation of basic density in B. pendula. Two structural variables, viz: fibre wall thickness and ring width accounted for only 28% of variation of basic density in B. pubescens. No significant relations could be found between shrinkage and any of the wood parameters measured in B. pendula while some of the relationships were significant in B. pubescens. However, only 55% of variation of volumetric shrinkage was explained by two related factors, viz: basic density and moisture content while only 35% of variation of tangential shrinkage was explained by ring width and fibre width. Increase in fibre length was highly associated with the increase in fibre width, double wall thickness and vessel length in either species.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, E-mail: kb@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118.
English title: Study on reaction wood.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; havupuut; kataja; haapa; reaktiopuu; vetopuu; lujuus; leppä; kutistuminen; lehtipuut; lylypuu; ligniini
English keywords: Populus tremula; Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; compression wood; lignin; mechanical strength; Alnus incana; tension wood; shrinkage; Juniperus communis; raction wood; common juniper
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, E-mail: po@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7091, category Article
August Renvall. (1923). The degree of radial shrinkage of pine stem wood from Lapland according to behavior of increment cores. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 7091.
Keywords: pine; stem wood; shrinkage; increment core
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Shrinking of timber when drying is a phenomenon that causes variation in measuring of timber in timber trade and on using the timber for construction or other purposes.   

The data for the article consists of 332 increment core samples from pine trees different ages, sizes and growth rate. There were collected in years 1910-1912 in Finnish Lapland, regions Utsjoki and Inari. The increment cores were collected on the height of 1.3 meters in south-north direction straight crosswise through the whole tree. The samples are 6mm thick. The diameter of the samples was measured immediately after making the sample and after several years’ storage in room temperatures. Also the age of the trees was determined.

The results are presented in tables. The degree of shrinkage varies heavily between the samples but stays anyhow between 1.5 and 3.9%. The mean degree of shrinkage for 314 samples was 2.9%. The results seem to indicate that the bigger the shrinkage the denser the annual growth ring system of the tree, meaning the slower the growth has been.  The older and of diameter bigger trees shrink less than younger and smaller trees. 

  • Renvall, E-mail: ar@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 257, category Research article
Nadir Ayrilmis. (2008). Effect of compression wood on dimensional stability of medium density fiberboard. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 2 article id 257.
Keywords: compression wood; linear expansion; linear contraction; thickness swelling; thickness shrinkage; medium density fiberboard; dimensional stability
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
This study evaluated the effect of compression wood on dimensional stability of medium density fiberboards (MDF) manufactured from fiber furnishes of pine (Pinus nigra Arnold var. pallasiana) containing compression wood. Two panel types were manufactured from two different compression wood (CW) portion / normal wood (NW) portions in the furnish, 75/25 and 10/90, respectively. Linear and thickness variations of the panels exposed to various relative humidites at 20 °C, linear expansion/contraction and thickness swelling/shrinkage, were measured according to the procedures defined by DIN EN 318 (2005) standard test method. Panels made from fiber furnish containing 75% the CW had higher linear expansion and linear contraction values with an average value of 0.286% and 0.247% than those of panels made from fiber furnish containing 10% the CW with an average value of 0.184% and 0.152%, respectively. As for thickness swelling and thickness shrinkage properties, panels made from fiber furnish containing 75% the CW had the thickness swelling and thickness shrinkage values with an average of 5.042% and 4.402% while panels made from fiber furnish containing 10% the CW had the values with 3.621% and 2.861%, respectively. Consequently, based on the findings obtained from this study, expansion and swelling properties of the MDF panels were negatively affected by compression wood increase.
  • Ayrilmis, University of Istanbul, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Wood Mechanics and Technology, Bahcekoy, TR-34473 Istanbul, Turkey E-mail: (email)

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